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In your teaching do you have a method for holding students accountable for preparing for class? A)I don’t, but I ask/threaten really well. B)I use a paper method (quiz, journal, etc.) C)I use a digital method (clickers, etc.) D)I use Just in Time Teaching. E)I have some other method. 1 24% 49% 11% 4% 13% (others) J UST IN T IME T EACHING J EFF L OATS, MSU D ENVER

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J UST IN T IME T EACHING 2 Online pre-class assignments (“WarmUps”) First half - Students Conceptual questions, answered in sentences Graded on thoughtful effort Second half - Instructor Responses are read “just in time” Instructor modifies that day’s plan accordingly. Aggregate and individual (anonymous) responses are displayed in class.

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Consider a typical day in your class. What fraction of students did their preparatory work before coming to class? A)0% - 20% B)20% - 40% C)40% - 60% D)60% - 80% E)80% - 100% 3 27% 33% 20% 14% 6% ~200 others

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E XAMPLE : M OLECULAR P HYSICS 4 What would change about molecular states if the rules of quantum mechanics dictated that we square the individual wave functions before we add them together? (paraphrased short version)

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E XAMPLE : M OLECULAR P HYSICS 5 “If you squared the individual wave functions first, the wave functions wouldn't cancel since the complex components in the equations would not match to attain zero probability.” “There would only be one molecular state instead of three.” “We wouldn't get the cross term of the probability. In other words we wouldn't get the interaction term that describes how the wave functions interact/interfere.”

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M ETACOGNITION 6 Two questions end every WarmUp: “What aspect of the material did you find the most difficult or interesting.” “How much time did you spend on the pre-class work for tomorrow?”

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J UST IN T IME T EACHING A different student role: Actively prepare for class (not just reading/watching) Actively engage in class Compare your progress & plan accordingly A different instructor role: Actively prepare for class with you (not just going over last year’s notes ) Modify class accordingly Create interactive engagement opportunities LearnerTeacher 7

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S TUDENT F EEDBACK ON J I TT 315 students in 7 classes over 4 terms (roughly ±6%) The WarmUps have… Agreed or Strongly Agreed …helped me to be more prepared for class than I would otherwise be. 70% …helped me to be more engaged in class than I would otherwise be. 80% …helped me to learn the material better than I otherwise would 64% …been worth the time they required to complete 57%

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S UMMARY 9 JiTT may be among the easiest research-based instructional strategies that you can consistently integrate into your teaching. From an evidence-based perspective, JiTT addresses often-neglected areas. As often happens, be prepared to find that students know less than we might hope.

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J I TT R EFERENCES & R ESOURCES 10 Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just in Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing. Gregor M. Novak, Andrew Gavrini, Wolfgang Christian, Evelyn Patterson (1999) Just-in-Time Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River NJ. K. A. Marrs, and G. Novak. (2004). Just-in-Time Teaching in Biology: Creating an Active Learner Classroom Using the Internet. Cell Biology Education, v. 3, p. 49-61. Jay R. Howard (2004). Just-in-Time Teaching in Sociology or How I Convinced My Students to Actually Read the Assignment. Teaching Sociology, Vol. 32 (No. 4 ). pp. 385-390. Published by: American Sociological Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3649666http://www.jstor.org/stable/3649666 S. Linneman, T. Plake (2006). Searching for the Difference: A Controlled Test of Just-in-Time Teaching for Large-Enrollment Introductory Geology Courses. Journal of Geoscience Education, Vol. 54 (No. 1) Stable URL:http://www.nagt.org/nagt/jge/abstracts/jan06.html#v54p18http://www.nagt.org/nagt/jge/abstracts/jan06.html#v54p18

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