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Mindsets Dr Sherria Hoskins, University of Portsmouth.

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1 Mindsets Dr Sherria Hoskins, University of Portsmouth

2 Evidence based educational consultancy based at the University of Portsmouth: – Dr Sherria Hoskins – Dr Victoria Devonshire – Dr Emily Mason-Apps – Dr Frances Warren What we have done so far... What is Growing Learners

3 – Worked with PCC to explore why we have lower than average attainment in the city. – Worked with over 150 schools EEF – Randomised control trial. Part of the ‘Closing the Gap’ scheme (funded by National College for Teaching & Leadership) Direct work with schools that request our support.

4 “I don’t divide the world into the weak and the strong, or the successes and the failures... (or the high and low ability) I divide the world into the learners and non learners.” Benjamin Barber

5 Theories of intelligence (Mindsets) Tips for everyday practice Exploring the evidence Overview

6 Theories of Intelligence

7 Growth Mindset Belief that intelligence is malleable and can develop. Success takes effort and persistence, learning from mistakes and challenges. Fixed Mindset Belief that intelligence is something you are born with. Can’t change it much. What are Mindsets?

8 1.You have a certain amount of intelligence, and you really can’t do much to change it. 2.Your intelligence is something about you that you can’t change very much. 3.You can learn new things, but you can’t really change your basic intelligence. 123456 Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree

9 Fixed MindsetGrowth Mindset Intelligence is a fixed trait & can’t change much Intelligence can be increased through practice Focus on performanceFocus on learning Failure and/or effort perceived as being sign of low ability Not threatened by hard work or failure Choose activities to maximise performance (easy ones to feel clever) Seek new challenges for a sense of achievement Don’t recover well from setbacksMistakes are perceived as a good thing as they help the learning processes Decrease efforts, withdraw or consider cheating (self-protection) View effort and persistence as a necessary part of success Helplessness orientationMastery orientation Approaches to Learning:

10 High Ability Low Ability Growth Mindset Fixed Mindset

11 Tips on Everyday practice High expectations Focus: resilience, self-sufficiency & good learning Specific plans for growth and development Celebrating mistakes Use of role models Language/praise Modelling How to promote a Growth Mindset

12 Research shows lowering expectations does not raise self-esteem. Important to have high expectations (Pygmalion study: Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968). Expectations should focus on effort, habits, improvement and resilience rather than on outcomes that solely reflect ability. All goals should emphasise growth; the development of skill or the expanding of knowledge. e.g. Don’t always give easy spellings to ‘poor spellers’, include a challenging word too. Set high expectations

13 The fear of making mistakes and associated shame and embarrassment can stop pupils from trying. Don’t let pupils blame others for failure and mistakes. Make the most of their mistakes, celebrate mistakes! Promote challenge, effort and mistakes as part of everyone’s learning process. When examples of attainment explore the process, effort and mistakes. Give time each week to discuss learning via mistakes (Mistakes Board). Celebrating mistakes

14 … Temporary high self-esteem if performed well but longer term implications: When challenged or fail, pupils don’t know how to put it right, and instead re-evaluate ability Creates low self-esteem/feel bad about themselves Avoidance of task in future Drop in attainment over time http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=mGTk6yeh9qE Person/ability focused feedback causes...

15 Give ‘process praise’ Effort Strategy Interpret setbacks as lack of effort, persistence or result of inappropriate strategies Use also ‘task praise’ What is better/worse than the last attempt What is/is not good, realistic, neat, correct etc. about the product Growth feedback

16 Exploring the Evidence

17 Plasticity Neurones in the brain transmit information through connections (synapses). The more we keep our brains active through learning new information, the more connections the brain makes. Evidence from Neuroscience UCL - London taxi drivers. Brain scans = larger hippocampus than others Grew as they spent more time in the job. Suggests brain adapts to help them learn ‘The Knowledge’ and store mental maps.

18 Outstanding performance in violinists from the Music Academy of West Berlin in Germany. Students were divided into three groups: 1.The outstanding group (expected to become international solists). These were the children normally described as “super talented” and “naturally” gifted. 2.The extremely good group (expected to end up playing in the world’s top orchestras, but not as star soloists) 3.The least able group (studying to become music teachers- a course with far less stringent entry requirements) Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer (2007)

19 All three groups were remarkably similar regarding a lot of factors, such as the age they started playing the violin, the age they decided to become musicians, the number of teachers who had taught them. One dramatic difference between the groups: The number of hours spent practising By the age of 20, the outstanding group had spent and average of 10000 hours practising- 2000 more hours than the extremely good group, and 6000 more than the least able group. There were no exceptions to this pattern.

20 Blackwell, Trzesniewski & Dweck (2007) Study 1: Children’s theory of intelligence predicted maths grades when making transition to high school. Pupils with growth mindsets progressed faster and outperformed pupils with fixed mindsets. Study 2: Intervention training (Brainology) 8 week intervention with school children. One group received study skills and mindset workshop, other group received only study skills. Over period of 2 months, mindset training promoted positive change in motivation and grades, in comparison to study skills only group.

21 Good, Aronson & Inzlicht (2003) Pupils were randomly assigned student mentors who provided them growth mindset training. These pupils increased in maths and reading test scores compared to a control group (who received antidrug advice). Further, girls who received mindset training particularly benefitted in maths scores and narrowed the gender gap. Performance suppressed by stereotype? Boys already positive and performing well in maths.

22 Mueller & Dweck (1998) Number of Problems solved Carol Dweck talking about praise Carol Dweck talking about praise http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTXrV0_3UjY

23 US Research May not be relevant Small numbers One or two schools No teacher intervention No long term follow up Sometimes no control What about in the UK?

24 Westcott School, Wokingham, Berks Have been using a growth mindset approach in their classrooms Examples: Mindset display in each classroom Discuss learning and mistakes each week Use terms such as incremental learners, even in reception Evidence from schools

25 Deputy Head – Celia Thatcher: "The growth mindset culture truly encapsulates our "Anything's Possible" motto...The children understand that in order to learn they must be brave and make mistakes and this allows them to tackle challenges they wouldn't have attempted before... A mindset can be changed whatever the age of a person, but the younger the child is when a growth mindset is fostered the better the child's chance of success now and in later life. The success of this culture is seen through the buzz in every classroom at our school, where both children and adults challenge themselves daily to progress and learn. Glass ceilings have been well and truly smashed...and anything really is possible!"

26 Scottish study

27 The EEF Project... Pupil Intervention Teacher Intervention MindsetStudy Skills INSET

28 What we have learned from our experiences: Better to identify learning orientations than mindsets.

29 30 questions, designed to assess pupils’ learning orientation and represents four areas of behaviour: – Helplessness orientation E.g. “I feel stupid when I find something difficult at school.” – Approach to mistakes E.g. “I feel OK about making mistakes because I learn from them.” – Approach to challenges E.g., “I prefer easy tasks to challenging tasks.” – Mastery orientation E.g., “If get something wrong, I try again.” Your Learning Questionnaire

30 What we have found...??

31 Any questions? Phone us on 023 9284 6315 growinglearners@port.ac.uk Visit http://www.port.ac.uk/department-of-psychology/community- collaboration/growing-learners/


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