Presentation on theme: "Dr Sherria Hoskins, University of Portsmouth"— Presentation transcript:
1Dr Sherria Hoskins, University of Portsmouth MindsetsDr Sherria Hoskins, University of Portsmouth
2What is Growing Learners Evidence based educational consultancy based at the University of Portsmouth:Dr Sherria HoskinsDr Victoria DevonshireDr Emily Mason-AppsDr Frances WarrenWhat we have done so far...
3Worked with PCC to explore why we have lower than average attainment in the city. Worked with over 150 schoolsEEF – Randomised control trial.Part of the ‘Closing the Gap’ scheme (funded by National College for Teaching & Leadership)Direct work with schools that request our support.
4“I don’t divide the world into the weak and the strong, or the successes and the failures... (or the high and low ability) I divide the world into the learners and non learners.” Benjamin Barber
5Overview Theories of intelligence (Mindsets) Tips for everyday practiceExploring the evidence
7What are Mindsets? Growth Mindset Fixed Mindset Belief that intelligence is malleable and can develop.Success takes effort and persistence, learning from mistakes and challenges.Fixed MindsetBelief that intelligence is something you are born with.Can’t change it much.
8You have a certain amount of intelligence, and you really can’t do much to change it. Your intelligence is something about you that you can’t change very much.You can learn new things, but you can’t really change your basic intelligence.Strongly disagreeSomewhat disagreeSomewhat agreeStrongly agreeDisagreeAgree123456
9Helplessness orientation Approaches to Learning:Fixed MindsetGrowth MindsetIntelligence is a fixed trait & can’t change muchIntelligence can be increased through practiceFocus on performanceFocus on learningFailure and/or effort perceived as being sign of low abilityNot threatened by hard work or failureChoose activities to maximise performance (easy ones to feel clever)Seek new challenges for a sense of achievementDon’t recover well from setbacksMistakes are perceived as a good thing as they help the learning processesDecrease efforts, withdraw or consider cheating (self-protection)View effort and persistence as a necessary part of successHelplessness orientationMastery orientation
11How to promote a Growth Mindset Tips on Everyday practice High expectations Focus: resilience, self-sufficiency & good learning Specific plans for growth and development Celebrating mistakes Use of role models Language/praise Modelling
12Research shows lowering expectations does not raise self-esteem. Set high expectationsResearch shows lowering expectations does not raise self-esteem.Important to have high expectations (Pygmalion study: Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968).Expectations should focus on effort, habits, improvement and resilience rather than on outcomes that solely reflect ability.All goals should emphasise growth; the development of skill or the expanding of knowledge.e.g. Don’t always give easy spellings to ‘poor spellers’, include a challenging word too.
13Celebrating mistakesThe fear of making mistakes and associated shame and embarrassment can stop pupils from trying.Don’t let pupils blame others for failure and mistakes.Make the most of their mistakes, celebrate mistakes!Promote challenge, effort and mistakes as part of everyone’s learning process.When examples of attainment explore the process, effort and mistakes.Give time each week to discuss learning via mistakes (Mistakes Board).
14Person/ability focused feedback causes... …Temporary high self-esteem if performed well but longer term implications:When challenged or fail, pupils don’t know how to put it right, and instead re-evaluate abilityCreates low self-esteem/feel bad about themselvesAvoidance of task in futureDrop in attainment over timewatch?v=mGTk6yeh9qE
15Growth feedback Give ‘process praise’ Use also ‘task praise’ Effort StrategyInterpret setbacks as lack of effort, persistence or result of inappropriate strategiesUse also ‘task praise’What is better/worse than the last attemptWhat is/is not good, realistic, neat, correct etc. about the product
17Evidence from Neuroscience PlasticityNeurones in the brain transmit information through connections (synapses). The more we keep our brains active through learning new information, the more connections the brain makes.UCL - London taxi drivers.Brain scans = larger hippocampus than othersGrew as they spent more time in the job.Suggests brain adapts to help them learn ‘The Knowledge’ and store mental maps.
18Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer (2007) Outstanding performance in violinists from the Music Academy of West Berlin in Germany.Students were divided into three groups:The outstanding group (expected to become international solists). These were the children normally described as “super talented” and “naturally” gifted.The extremely good group (expected to end up playing in the world’s top orchestras, but not as star soloists)The least able group (studying to become music teachers- a course with far less stringent entry requirements)
19One dramatic difference between the groups: Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer (2007)All three groups were remarkably similar regarding a lot of factors, such as the age they started playing the violin, the age they decided to become musicians, the number of teachers who had taught them.One dramatic difference between the groups:The number of hours spent practisingBy the age of 20, the outstanding group had spent and average of hours practising more hours than the extremely good group, and 6000 more than the least able group.There were no exceptions to this pattern.
20Blackwell, Trzesniewski & Dweck (2007) Study 1: Children’s theory of intelligence predicted maths grades when making transition to high school.Pupils with growth mindsets progressed faster and outperformed pupils with fixed mindsets.Study 2: Intervention training (Brainology)8 week intervention with school children.One group received study skills and mindset workshop, other group received only study skills.Over period of 2 months, mindset training promoted positive change in motivation and grades, in comparison to study skills only group.
21Good, Aronson & Inzlicht (2003) Pupils were randomly assigned student mentors who provided them growth mindset training.These pupils increased in maths and reading test scores compared to a control group (who received antidrug advice).Further, girls who received mindset training particularly benefitted in maths scores and narrowed the gender gap.Performance suppressed by stereotype?Boys already positive and performing well in maths.
22Mueller & Dweck (1998)Number of Problems solvedCarol Dweck talking about praise
23No teacher intervention US ResearchMay not be relevantSmall numbersOne or two schoolsNo teacher interventionNo long term follow upSometimes no controlWhat about in the UK?
24Evidence from schools Westcott School, Wokingham, Berks Have been using a growth mindset approach in their classroomsExamples:Mindset display in eachclassroomDiscuss learning andmistakes each weekUse terms such asincremental learners,even in reception
25Deputy Head – Celia Thatcher: "The growth mindset culture trulyencapsulates our "Anything's Possible"motto...The children understand that inorder to learn they must be brave and make mistakes and this allows them to tackle challenges they wouldn't have attempted before... A mindset can be changed whatever the age of a person, but the younger the child is when a growth mindset is fostered the better the child's chance of success now and in later life.The success of this culture is seen through the buzz in every classroom at our school, where both children and adults challenge themselves daily to progress and learn. Glass ceilings have been well and truly smashed...and anything really is possible!"
27Pupil Intervention Teacher Intervention The EEF Project...Pupil Intervention Teacher InterventionMindsetStudy SkillsThe bits we are going to talk about and ask for your feedback on...INSET
28What we have learned from our experiences: Better to identify learning orientations than mindsets.
29Your Learning Questionnaire 30 questions, designed to assess pupils’ learning orientation and represents four areas of behaviour:Helplessness orientationE.g. “I feel stupid when I find something difficult at school.”Approach to mistakesE.g. “I feel OK about making mistakes because I learn from them.”Approach to challengesE.g., “I prefer easy tasks to challenging tasks.”Mastery orientationE.g., “If get something wrong, I try again.”