Presentation on theme: "Leading across boundaries: how early years leaders support interprofessional working Parlo Singh – knowledge work at the boundary – puts together thinking."— Presentation transcript:
1Leading across boundaries: how early years leaders support interprofessional working Parlo Singh – knowledge work at the boundary – puts together thinking on this topic in a really helpful wayJan Georgeson and Jane PaylerPlymouth University and University of Winchester
2Theoretical underpinnings Holland and LaveSocial Practice Theory/ figured worlds;Integration of individual emotion, motivation and agency into CHATImprovisation and innovation within constraints/affordances by particular persons in particular contextsDreierLearning as trajectories of participation in social practiceResources and constraints of contextsPersonal action potency of individuals in contextInstitutions enable personal action potency (Payler and Georgeson, 2013)Settings as constellations of affordances and constraints (incl. ethos)
3BoundariesSocio-cultural differences that give rise to discontinuities in interaction and action …… carry learning potential.(Akkerman and Bakker, 2011:139/132)Boundary crossing competence:ability to function competently in multiple contexts..…cultural brokers and complex tools serve as boundary objects ..[..].. serve as recontextualising agents - a sort of bridge – between social practices.(Walker and Nocon, 2007:178/182)Relational agency: professionals have to recognise others’ motives and the resources they bring to the boundaries and work to expand object of activity(Edwards, 2010:14)Parlo Singh – knowledge work at the boundary – puts togerht thinking on this topic in a really helpful way
4Figured worldssocially organized and reproduced, which means that in them people are sorted and learn to relate to each other in different ways.distribute people by relating them to landscapes of action; thus activities related to the worlds are populated by familiar social types and host to individual senses of self.(Urrieta, 2007:108)cultural phenomenon to which people are recruited, or into which people enter, and that develop through the work of their participants.function as contexts of meaning within which social encounters have significance and people’s positions matter. Activities relevant to these worlds take meaning from them and are situated in particular times and places.
6Investigating Interprofessional Practice: data collection Survey of Early Years practitioners (52)Ratings, multiple choice questions and open ended commentsrange of career trajectories/experience/settings5 case studiesInterviews with 5 practitioners, 6 graduate leaders and 5 parents (435 mins)Video data from child-practitioner interactions over 8 days (510 mins)Children’s IEPsWhole cohort of Long and Full Pathway EYPS Candidates (on paper)Self-selected Short Pathway candidates (online)16 audio recorded interviews (435 minutes) with six early years graduate leaders (all with Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) or on training to achieve EYPS and two with a teaching qualification), five practitioners and five parents, video and ethnographic observations of staff and children in routine practice during nine days (510 minutes of video recording)and review of documents such as Individual Education Plans, excerpts from inclusion support grant application, pre-Common Assessment Framework (CAF) assessment, special educational needs co-ordinator (SENCo) reports, and information sheets shared between settings, parents and other children’s service professionals.
7Research QuestionHow confident do early years professionals feel about leading interprofessional practice?SURVEY + CASE STUDY INTERVIEW
810 16 6 17 3 Survey – 52 respondents Children’s Centre working in Community Pre-schoolIndepPre-schoolPrivate Day NurseryOtherDayN’s10166173“Other”Hampshire county council but fee paying day nursery.NHS Workplace NurseryCouncil day nursery
9Findings: SurveyMixed responses from practitioners with similar years of experience, in same type of settingStaff in Children’s Centres were generally more positive and more confidentStaff in private day nurseries and community preschools generally less positive & least confidentBut picture is complex; wide range of comments within each setting type
10Confidence in leadingHow confident do you feel about taking a lead role in multi-agency working?Overall, less confident than with taking on a leadership role in general.Lack of opportunity/experienceLack of knowledgeLack of statusI have never had to do this so anything that you have to do for the first time is daunting. (Children’s Centre practitioner)Sometimes confused about legislation, processes involved (Independent Preschool practitioner)Each agency (for example, social workers, police) have their own agenda and sometimes in meetings it can be hard to say what your professional opinion is (Day Nursery practitioner)Rating lower than general leadership confidence by 1or more points in over 70% cases
11Confidence in leading How confident do you feel about taking a lead role in multi-agency working?15 practitioners rated their confidence same or higher than leadership in general:(12 confident/very confident)ExperienceKnowledgeStatus – or at least contactsI am a confident person. I've also now been working for long enough in the sector to have experience which helps in being a leader. I've made mistakes and had to learn from them which in the end builds understanding (Community Preschool practitioner)Training and own studying and knowledge. (Private Day Nursery practitioner)Due to my years of experience in childcare and the amount of professionals I have worked with. (Independent Preschool Practitioner)7 same/higher – across setting types. Hint – relational agency. Now at bit more closley at what they do
12Case study 1: Bounded practice Pre-school playgroup; pack away setting in a community centre“Although we’re on a children’s centre site, we have no links to them – they’re completely separate, we purely share a building.”Manager is experienced and has been at the setting for 6 yearsPack-up pre-school : Case study 4 visit 2 interview with Manager/EYP (in training)[Manager is on long pathway to EYPS and has been at the setting for 6 years. Took it from ‘unsatisfactory’ to ‘outstanding’]Child O (undergoing speech and language therapy)Background to setting? (a pre-school playgroup that takes children from 2 yrs 9 months. Pack away setting in a community centre)
13Leading within the boundary As manager I have to oversee all key people to see that they are keeping up with their cases. I would see it as my role to be up to date with all children here so that I can be feeding back to other practitioners.As manager I have greater knowledge and they need that knowledge to back things up.Just supporting the whole staff network reminding them that this is the situation, giving them best tips of how to deal with [O] because her speech has affected her behaviour because she couldn’t express herself.Modelling good practice; I work very much on the floor. I’m not a manager with an office, so I’m role modelling all the time.Case study 4 visit 2 interview with Manager/EYP (in training)[Manager is on long pathway to EYPS and has been at the setting for 6 years. Took it from ‘unsatisfactory’ to ‘outstanding’]Child O (undergoing speech and language therapy)Background to setting? (a pre-school playgroup that takes children from 2 yrs 9 months. Pack away setting in a community centre)
14Managing geographical constraints I have double problems because I’m in [county] and some of my children will access [city] services. That makes my life hugely complicated because depending on where your postal address is, depends on where I can refer you. I’m really good and I know off the top of my head all the [county] agencies, but [city], it’s a different thing.They [children’s centre] can only help some of my families. If I have someone who does need help from a family support worker, even though they would know [family support workers] really well, I can’t refer them here. (Manager).Case study 4 visit 2 interview with Manager/EYP (in training)[Manager is on long pathway to EYPS and has been at the setting for 6 years. Took it from ‘unsatisfactory’ to ‘outstanding’]Child O (undergoing speech and language therapy)Background to setting? (a pre-school playgroup that takes children from 2 yrs 9 months. Pack away setting in a community centre)
15Acting in figured world lack of direct access to other children’s service professionals.where possible, the preschool manager fostered relationships with other agencies to enhance access to knowledge and services.I’m not on any mail shots [for City services so] we’ve had to form [contacts with City schools] ourselves independently to help our children. It’s never been provided to me.
16Acting in figured world lack of direct access to other children’s service professionals.where possible, the preschool manager fostered relationships with other agencies to enhance access to knowledge and services.little understanding by some other agencies of contemporary preschool practice and professionalism.Cultural brokerage through relational agencyPersonally I know I have high standing. The setting, and the work that I’ve done, schools take me seriously. Speech and Language? They wouldn’t know me. There is no direct communication with us at all.[manager is a Leading Foundation Stage Practitioner for [county], guiding other settings]. So from that – we don’t even get forms sent direct to us, it goes to the parents. Sometimes I’m chasing for quite a few weeks for the form.
17Case study 2: Brokerage from outside With the Early Years Advisory Teacher, if something needs doing, she tends to go off and do it herself and come back and might tell us. She doesn’t support us in doing it ourselves. (Manager)Garden Private Day Nursery dependent on filtering and advisory role of Early Years Advisory Teacher to access support of other agencies for children. “boundaries policed by external agencies who owed their own position to the structural apparatus of special education” (Thomas and Loxley, 2007) Figured world of external agencies = > reinforced boundariesGarden private day nursery is an established full day care nursery which had no specially allocated funded places provided by the local authority for children with special educational needs (SEN).Consequently, the nursery fell back on its own resources and focused on developing their sense of professionalism as a separate organisation. In the limited instances where direct contact with other services was possible, it worked well. Staff were confident in their abilities to work effectively with children. Personal action potency in interprofessional arenas was limited by lack of access in spite of competent, confident staff with high levels of personal agency in the context of the setting.
18Case study 3. Learning potential of boundaries The manager suggested that the Keyperson should ask to attend Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) sessions at the health centre with the family so that she could see how best to support Daniel.Well received (with some surprise) by the SLT; unusual situation - early years staff not routinely invited to SLT sessions.Her time to attend had to be funded by the pre-school.Building bridges: Guided by the Manager, early years practitioner pushed against the boundaries around services to create a new opportunity for interprofessional working.Flexing boundaries => increasing personal action potencyI actually started doing photos of all his areas he liked to play with and choice of milk and water to give him choice and help in gesturing. Going to SLT helped me because she was actually quite firm with him. She wouldn’t give him the drink until he chose a picture and gave it to mum. We needed to be a bit more structured (Keyperson).Chatter community pre-school is a community run pre-school based on a school site within the City. To deal with their feelings of dissatisfaction with their opportunities for interprofessional practice, the setting relied on the team’s own knowledge and skills and made the best use of any links they could forge for themselves.
19SummaryLeading IP practice needs confidence= knowledge + experience + statusLeaders support staff byrecontextualising knowledgeoffering opportunities to cross boundariesusing relational agency to act beyond boundariesCultural brokers - or gatekeepers?Dreier explains how learning (in this case, how to work interprofessionally for benefit of children) occurs as people participate in different social practice situations, adopting different ways of acting and employing different ‘personal action potencies’ or agency in each context. This varies according to the context, the resources and constraints of the structures or arrangements within which they find themselves, providing different possibilities. Dreier conceptualises how individuals learn according to their trajectories between contexts and the differing positions and roles they play in each. In this research, the findings show how the structures at the institutional/cultural level of analysis influence the opportunities that are available to a setting with regard to IP. Staff within the setting at the individual and interpersonal levels of analysis employ different aspects of personal action potency according to opportunities, but also according to personal action potency of others within the team, adding to the team fund. At Garden, staff felt constrained in some ways by their place in the structural arrangements and by virtue of being part of poorly regarded daycare provision (although not in relation to the individual setting or to individual staff within it, both of which they felt were highly regarded).In the case of Chatter, personal action potency was constrained by the ‘cost’ of working around structural barriers, but did contribute to ease those barriers and add to the team’s fund of personal action potency for IP; i.e. it appeared to be contributing to seeing themselves as able to influence the day to day instantiation of IP to meet the child’s or family’s needs. In this way, they were slowly changing at least some aspects of context. In the case of Excel CC, the structural arrangements, culture and history of the setting’s ‘place’ in terms of SEN provision in the local authority afforded opportunities to participate in face to face IP, to create networks and relationships. The personal action potency of members of the team, e.g. CCT, appeared to make it easier for others within the team, e.g. Jenny’s key person, to see themselves and be seen by others as agentive.All in all, the stronger the influence of the early years staff in collaborating with other professionals on a more equal footing with direct access to interaction with them seemed to contribute to creating greater space for the practice to be tailored to the children’s needs and interests, thus creating more space for their participation. The notion of personal action potency in Dreier’s writing is used to theorise individual learning and is an individual concept. In this research, the findings suggest that personal action potency has a team quality, too; as individuals in the team take action (to greater or lesser degrees, so that no action also has an impact), they contribute to shape the team fund of personal action potency. This in turn influences future possibilities. There was evidence of it subtly changing or circumventing aspects of structural arrangements, too. Personal action potency is a distributed attribute.
20ConclusionsHistoric arrangements, resourcing and perceptions constrain actionExternal structures and constraints reinforce boundaries => reduce affordances in personal action potencyFlexing boundaries => increasing personal action potency => developing boundary crossing competence.
21ReferencesAkkerman, S.F. and Baker, A. (2011) Boundary Crossing and Boundary Objects. Review of educational Research 81: )Dreier, O. (1999) ‘Personal Trajectories of Participation across Contexts of Social Practice’. Outlines, Vol. 1, pp5-32.Dreier, O. (2002) ‘Learning in Personal Trajectories of Participation’. Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology Conference, Canada.Edwards, A. (2010) Being an expert Professional Practitioner; the relational turn in expertise. Professional and practice –based learning. Vol. 3 Dordrecht: Springer.Holland, D. and Lave, J. (2009) Social Practice Theory and the Historical Production of Persons. Actio: An International Journal of Human Activity Theory. 2, 1-15.Payler, J. and Georgeson, J (2013) Personal action potency: Early years practitioners participating in interprofessional practice in early years settings International Journal of Early Years EducationPayler, J. and Georgeson, J (2013) Multiagency working in the early years: confidence, competence and context. Early Years: an international Research Journal 33 (4)Thomas, G. and Loxley, A. (2007). Deconstructing Special Education and Constructing Inclusion. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Urrieta, L. Jr. (2007). “Figured Worlds and Education: An Introduction to the Special Issue.” The Urban Review 39(2),Walker, D. and Nocon, H. (2007). “Boundary-Crossing Competence: Theoretical Considerations and Educational Design.” Mind, Culture, and Activity, 14(3)
22Forms and procedures travelling between contexts Variety of transferable artefacts mentioned in survey and casesReferral formsCAF (Common Assessment Framework)Reports and recommendations from other agenciesButrequire knowledge of system (including relational agency)Poor substitute for face to face contact