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The plans of Lincoln and Johnson

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1 The plans of Lincoln and Johnson
Presidential reconstruction by: Avery Eddy, Jarett Dorman, John McGill, and Katie James

2 Lincoln's background Lincoln was involved with the Whig party, but also was considered a republican. During the war these were called the union party but they are what is now known as the republicans.

3 Lincoln's four step plan
Lincoln offered a pardon, or an official forgiveness of a crime, to any confederate who would take an oath of allegiance to the union and accept federal policy on slavery.

4 #2 of Lincoln's plan It denied pardons to all confederate military and government officials and to all southerners who had killed African American war prisoners.

5 #3 of Lincoln's plan It permitted each state a convention to remake the constitution only after 10% of voters in the state had sworn allegiance union

6 #4 of Lincoln's plan States could then hold elections and resume full participation in the union.

7 Ten percent plan Lincoln created a ten percent plan, in which Lincoln stated that a southern state could rejoin the union if 10% of the voters swore to an oath of allegiance.

8 The oath of allegiance An oath of allegiance was a pledge that was an agreement to the United States that stated that the new adjoining states had not supported the confederate troops and also, that they will not support the confederate states after joining

9 After the oath of allegiance was signed, states/ voters could then elect delegates to produce new state constitutions, also allowing new state governments to be formed.

10 Exceptions to the 10 percent plan
All southerners besides confederate army officers and government officials will be granted a full pardon. Lincoln told the southern states, and residents he would protect their land, and their private property, but slaves were not included as property and he would NOT protect their slaves.

11 Support of Lincoln's plan
Most of the moderate republicans supported this proposal, because they wanted to resolve the war quickly.

12 Lincoln's plan was more of a political maneuver than a reconstruction plan
Lincoln's main reason for the 10 percent plan was a desire for an end to the war quickly. He thought that without a resolution quickly the North and South wouldn't rejoin at all

13 In 1863, many democrats were desiring a truce and wanted a peaceful resolution, Lincoln's ten percent plan became an attempt to appeal the south to surrender.

14 Lincoln's vision for reconstruction
President Lincoln seemed to prefer reconstruction through the states themselves without assistance from Washington.

15 Lincoln offered the less fortunate whites to pardon all confederates.
A pardon is a grant of amnesty. To appeal to former plantation owners, Lincoln promised to protect their property. He did not want to punish the southerners for leaving the union, he wanted the reconstruction to move quickly, be a short process and to restore to the existence of the United States as it was before. But this theory is only a speculation by historians.

16 “If I could save the union without freeing any slave I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that..... I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free." –Abraham Lincoln

17 Ten percent plan takes hold
In 1864 Louisiana white southerners met before the end of the war to draft a constitution with the 10 percent plan in mind These delegates promised free public schooling, improvements to the labor system, and new public work projects. For the Louisiana states

18 They abolished slavery in the state, but they refused to give the would be free states the voting right. Lincoln approved this constitution, but the delagates who wrote it would not be acknowledged. Louisiana

19 Wade Davis bill Radical republicans passed the Wade Davis bill to contrast the ten percent plan by Lincoln. The Wade Davis bill said any southern state that seceded could rejoin the union if the iron clad oath of allegiance was sworn to by 50% of the voters, promising the United States that they had never supported the confederacy.

20 The oath also created a problem.
The oath exclusively limited the activity of previous confederate soldiers and supporters. The bill also created civil liberties for African Americans, and created safeguards but, did not give the African Americans the right to vote.

21 Meaning the states confederate officers and soldiers couldn't swear to the oath, because they have supported the confederates by fighting in the war. So therefore they were the 50% who didn't support the war.

22 Lincoln held a conference from the White House balcony

23 Lincoln held this conference to address the separation, but he figured that a majority of the white southerners would want a reunified union and be a single country again. Lincoln also wanted to reintroduce the thought of African American citizenship.

24 During Lincoln's final address
“That means n----- citizenship. Now, by God, I’ll put him through. That is the last speech he will ever make.” –John Wilkes Booth

25 Lincoln's final address
On April 11th 1865 Lincoln suggested compassion and open minded arguments throughout the upcoming reconstruction process. Lincoln stated in this address that the confederate states that claim to have seceded from the union never actually left the union, this view was the complete opposite of what the radical republicans believed the confederate states that left the union should be treated like "conquered provinces"

26 Quotes from Lincoln's final address
"hope of a righteous and speedy peace whose joyous expression can not be restrained." Proof that Lincoln wanted a fast transition between separation and a joint union.

27 Quotes from Lincoln's final public address
"I abstain from reading the reports of attacks upon myself, wishing not to be provoked by that to which I can not properly offer an answer." Lincoln is a man to lead the people he doesn't want to cause issues, so he ignores the comments about himself, so he doesn't become in favor of either side.

28 April 14th 1865 In 1865 Lincoln and congress were near a rivalry in the competition of reconstruction plans. This meeting was called to discuss post war rebuilding, Lincoln wanted to get the southern states in order, and also the southern states governments.

29 Transition of presidents
On April 14th, John Wilkes Booth, a Maryland stage actor, who sympathized for the southern secession, came into Ford's theatre in Washington D. C. and shot Lincoln.

30 Lincoln's death Lincoln died.

31 The next day Lincoln's Vice President Andrew Jackson became president
That means n----- citizenship. Now, by God, I’ll put him through. That is the last speech he will ever make

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