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© Mulier Instituut, Utrecht Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands Agnes Elling United against homophobia in.

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Presentation on theme: "© Mulier Instituut, Utrecht Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands Agnes Elling United against homophobia in."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Mulier Instituut, Utrecht Academic and policy research on homonegativity and acceptance in the Netherlands Agnes Elling United against homophobia in sports: The role of academic and policy based research in Europe

2 Types of research 1. Academic research mainly socio-critical and post structuralist (eg. Caudwell): - social exclusion of LGBT’s - (de)construction of gender and sexuality - partly action research (cf Anderson) 2. Policy based/oriented research: - LG(B) sport participation and experiences - acceptance LG(B)-inclusion in sport (straight perspective) - (international comparative) policy interventions - descriptive - effect studies

3 Dutch policy based academic research funded by Ministries of Sports (VWS) and/or Emancipation (OCW) - LG (B) sports participation and experiences of discrimination: - University of Amsterdam - Hekma (1998) - Mulier Institute - Janssens et al (2003), Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010) - Social and Cultural Planning Office (Bos, 2006; Kooiman, 2012) - acceptance LG(B) inclusion in sport (straight perspective) - Mulier Institute - Elling & Van den Dool (2008), Elling et al, 2010)

4 - General acceptance homosexuality in Dutch society ánd sport - Some structural differences in sports participation: especially gay men less active in club and team sports - General experiences of conditional acceptance: avoidance of perceived intolerant places (sportophobia) - General climate of gender normativity: ‘butches’ and ‘sissies’ least accepted Findings Dutch research quantitative and qualitative

5 Sports participation, by gender /sexuality 2010 (n=474), %

6 Openness and experienced safety, homo/bisexual sport participants (n=474), by gender and sexuality (% agree)

7 Opinions Dutch sports participants (> 11 times a year) (n=1.110), %

8 ‘ In my sport group it is not uncommon that jokes or remarks are made about homosexuals ’ Dutch population active within a sports group year (n=847), in % (totally) agree

9 ‘In competitive club sport, male homosexuality is still a big taboo’ by gender and sexuality, in % (totally) agree

10 2/8 heterosexual and 5/11 homosexual participatory observers hardly/no homosexual related comments Some other teams ‘gay’ as general filler: “After a winning match: ‘This was a good one, gays’” (Diederik, straight, baseball) But mainly similar to ‘weak’/’effeminate’: “To a opponent who lay down after an offence: ‘Hey fag, get up” (Cees, gay, football) “Sung about the goal keeper of the opponent who blow dried his hair after the game: ‘He is queer’.” (Maarten, straight, handball). Findings ethnographic study mens’ sport team (n=164 observations)

11 “About a common aquaintance of two team members: ‘he really has become such a faggot, really disgusting, ehhhhhhh’.” (Niek, gay, korfball) “Don’t look at me like that, you pervert” “You have to go to changing room three” “Other bench Hessel!” (Hessel, gay, rugby; remarks after coming out) “At the victory party of the club I nearly was beaten because some guys had told their team member that I fancied him. He grabbed me and I was lucky that his team members held him, otherwise I would have gotten a few blows.” (Victor, gay, quitt with baseball) Tough ‘jokes’, violence

12 Discussion Ideologies, Facts and Interpretations Who is on turn? - gay men coming out - making sports culture more inclusive What kind of studies/data are lacking - in your country? - in Europe? Is European policy on combating homophobia in sports based on sound research?

13 mulier instituut Herculesplein AA Utrecht t (030) i Hartelijk dank voor uw aandacht! Agnes Elling-Machartzki


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