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Sport and Cultural Participation – Community Consultation Mark Cuthbert and Amanda Jubb 15 April 2014 Glasgow Life and Glasgow Centre for Population Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Sport and Cultural Participation – Community Consultation Mark Cuthbert and Amanda Jubb 15 April 2014 Glasgow Life and Glasgow Centre for Population Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport and Cultural Participation – Community Consultation Mark Cuthbert and Amanda Jubb 15 April 2014 Glasgow Life and Glasgow Centre for Population Health

2 Serving Locals in the World Class City: Sport Glasgow Club Members living near Emirates Population Glasgow Club members % Emirates61,2948,72114.2% Glasgow503,89665,60513%

3 Serving Locals in the World Class City:Sport


5 Presentation Overview Background and objectives Methodology Running and running events (findings and recommendations) Culture (finding and recommendations)

6 Background SMG were commissioned to gather insight that can be used to widen participation in organised running events and cultural activity, with a focus on neighbourhoods characterised by low participation in these pursuits (i.e. neighbourhoods characterised by multiple deprivation). Benefits of physical activity – positive health implications –Organised running events can have population wide benefits through the associated training Benefits of cultural engagement – mental health and wellbeing Glasgow context - poor health and excess mortality at a level beyond which can be explained by high levels of socio-economic depravation

7 Objectives 1.To better understand what factors motivate and enable people from low participation neighbourhoods of Glasgow to taking up running as a hobby, and, to train for and take part in organised running events. 2.To better understand what factors motivate and enable people from low participation neighbourhoods of Glasgow to visit cultural venues within the city. 3.To seek to identify the behaviours, practices, understandings, motivations and enabling environments that lead to involvement (in running, organised running events and with cultural venues within the city). 4.To use the findings to develop more effective marketing strategies and interventions to widen participation in Glasgow Centre for Population Health and Glasgow Life’s services and programmes, with regard to both components of the study. This is from the perspective of both current participants and those who are lapsed or potential participants.

8 Methodology 1.Focus groups - with a mix of current participants in running and cultural activities (as relevant to each of the groups) and non- current participants 2.In-depth one to one or one to pair discussions - with active participants (and non-active buddies) in running events and cultural activities. 3.Community day - involving 26 face-to-face interviews within the Govan community with respondents who were recruited on the street, in workplaces or in homes.

9 RUNNINGCULTURE Focus groups (7-8 participants in each)  1 x Pollok Community Centre  1 x Molendinar Community Centre  2 x Castlemilk Community Centre  1 x Pollok Community Centre  1 x Molendinar Community Centre Depths (active participants in running/cultural engagement were recruited as core respondents and non participants were brought along as buddies)  7 depths (4 runners, 3 non runners)  8 depths (5 active, 3 non active participants) Community day (Govan) 26 respondents were interviewed in total across the day - with most being interviewed about both running and cultural participation

10 RUNNING AND EVENTS DemographicsMainly from SEG C2DE 50/50 gender split Mixture of young (aged 18 – 34years), mid (aged 35-54 years) and older (aged 55+ years) Mixed ethnicity Behaviour (Active) Active joggers and/or runners including those who regularly run/participate in large sporting events like GSR or BUPA/10K or charity run Mixture of different levels of commitment to running Mixture of running club members/non members Behaviour (Non Active) Those never been involved in a running event/ running, but did not reject the idea of running/entering a running event Lapsed runners who had been involved in running or running events (but not for the last 5 years) Those who had never been involved in a running event or jogged as a hobby, and believed that it was very unlikely that they would participate in running or enter a running event

11 CULTURE DemographicsMainly from SEG C2DE 50/50 gender split Mixture of young (aged 18 – 34years), mid (aged 35-54 years) and older (aged 55+) Mixed ethnicity Behaviour (Active) Individuals who regularly attend Glasgow Museums/Arts Venues (at least twice within last year) Glasgow Museums Riverside Museum People’s Palace St. Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery Scotland Street School Museum The Burrell Collection Provand’s Lordship Glasgow Museums Resource Centre (GMRC) Glasgow Arts Gallery of Modern Art (GOMA) Tramway Trongate 103 Behaviour (Non Active) Those who had not been to one of the key cultural venues within the last 5 years, but who did not reject the idea of attending Those who had not been to one of the venues within the last 5 years, and believed it was very unlikely that they would attend


13 Impacting contextual factors in relation to running behaviour and attitudes Thoughts on local community Generally positive But, scope for public safety in their neighbourhoods to be improved, particularly during the evening (which is prime time for running) Attitudes towards starting new hobbies Enjoyed starting new physical pursuits e.g. joining the gym, football or walking Social benefit and associated health benefits Life can get in the way Lack time and motivation

14 Spontaneous Attitudes to Running All respondents clearly aware of the associated health benefits: physical and mental health & wellbeing, weight loss, generally looking good and keeping them feeling young. The degree to which this actually acted as a motivator differed depending on attitudes towards running and whether or not it was felt to be within their perceived ability to run Sense of being not worthy enough or capable to run Social norms vary amongst communities as result of green space and running routes e.g. Govan v Pollok

15 Outdoor runs versus the treadmill Liked the idea of running outside as they get to set their own pace and experience new and exciting or attractive routes. Concentrate on where they are going which can help take their minds off life’s problems, thus bringing mental health benefits. But…. Some respondents (especially women and or those with weight problems) believed they would feel self-conscious if running outside, particularly if running is not felt to be the norm in their area, which is why some respondents opted to run on the treadmill. Others felt self-conscious and intimidated in the gym – this was particularly evident amongst males. Impacting contextual factors in relation to running behaviour and attitudes

16 Five key segments 1. Committed Runners/Joggers Run on a regular basis; enthusiastic; nothing prevents them from running 2. Irregular/Lapsed Runners Run a little/lapsed, for some power walking is the fastest they could go 3. Contemplators Clearly see the benefits but lack the self belief 4. Running Rejecters See the benefits but keep fit through other means 5. Fitness Rejecters Exercise is beneficial but not for them

17 MACRO MOTIVES (i.e. the triggers/the bigger picture motives)

18 All respondents were aware of the health benefits, but only the Committed and Irregular/Lapsed Runners were able to use this as a motive to actually run or get into running. 1.Mental health and wellbeing i.e. to ‘feel good in your head and de-stress’. 2.Weight loss. 3.Additional energy - providing extra stamina across daily lives through being fit. 4.Ensuring that physical health can be maintained to allow the offset of illness and potential premature death. Health benefits

19 Social aspects The social benefits of running were two-fold: 1) to meet new, like-minded people as part of a running group or club, and 2) to support friends or family to get active. Nearly all of the Committed and Irregular/Lapsed Runners acknowledged that they got into running either by joining a group or by supporting a loved one. Running groups or clubs or supporting someone was regarded as a good trigger to get into running. Contemplators were wary of being the “unfit or fat one” at the back of the running group, and as such it was clear that they felt reluctant to join.

20 Running events In some cases events, and as part of this, raising money for charity through events, were used as the trigger to get into running Committed Runners – motive to keep going Contemplators - would not sign up alone as they need moral support. For some, they would need to have a sense that it was socially acceptable to run and walk or to powerwalk around the whole of a course Irregular/Lapsed Runners who prefer powerwalking stated they would also be inclined to enter a running event

21 Free and convenient Only the Committed Runners were able to appreciate the financial and convenience benefits. Even ran instead of using public transportation e.g. running to work or to the shops as it is convenient and saves money. Non-runner segments saw little compelling motivation in the idea that running is a ‘free pursuit’ with other benefits (health, social and events) being regarded as more compelling.

22 Micro Motives (day-to-day motives) Supporting mental wellbeing Preparing for an event, including raising money for charity Setting achievable goals and beating personal bests on a weekly basis Gaining a sense of accomplishment Finding new routes Selecting personal music playlists Maintaining and improving general fitness to benefit other sports Socialising

23 Running Motives


25 Lack of self belief “I would feel de-motived to join a group. It’s just insecurity. And you know I won’t be as good as them, I won’t be able to keep up with them.” “I’ve asked my partner to go running with me before. And the first thing she says is “I’m not fit enough to go running with you.” And I think that [idea] puts a lot of people off going running in a group.” Contemplator, Castlemilk Focus Group Committed Runner, Castlemilk Focus Group

26 Embarrassment and self consciousness Overlaps with self-belief barrier Contemplators (and some Irregular/Lapsed Runners) stated that they would feel too embarrassed to run in public, as they were worried they would look unfit or overweight. They were self-conscious of how they are perceived by others, and worried about “looking stupid as everyone else [who runs] is perceived as ultra-fit” (Contemplator, Castlemilk Focus Group).

27 “The treadmill is an easier place to start [running again]. I know it sounds crazy, but I want to try and get the weight off before I go running in the streets... It’s all down to being embarrassed, y’know? You don’t want to have motors go by and think “oh God look at the state of her running – look at the size of her!” “I wouldn’t want to be the fat one at the back!” Contemplator, Castlemilk Focus Group Irregular/Lapsed Runner, Castlemilk Focus Group

28 Safety “You don’t know who’s out there…” More prominent amongst females People, lighting, potholes, broken glass and dog faeces

29 Lack of social norm or perceived acceptability of running “People don’t run ‘round here” Lack of belief that running is a ‘popular’ or even socially acceptable pursuit within these communities Running was simply not perceived as the norm

30 “I would never run along the main road in broad daylight. I want somewhere where you can go” “My daughter said “you did not just run across that main road did you!?” ‘Cos she was embarrassed that I ran along the main road in case any of her pals had seen me!” Irregular/Lapsed Runners, Molendinar Focus Group

31 This can even be an issue for Committed Runners: “When I run from Ruchburn to Springburn it is a struggle because you do get the kids looking, and I’m already [self] conscious about running…I always worry when I’m running past people and think do they go ‘is she breathing right?’” Committed Runner, Molendinar Focus Group

32 Injury Reason why many lapsed runners stopped Uneducated on how to train properly Fear of injury depends on life/work stage

33 Competing fitness regimes Most evident amongst Running Rejecters Not committed to the idea that running is for them Committed to other sports instead

34 De-motivating factors Time… To complete a run Long term commitment Family commitments Holiday Other commitments Energy… Active working lifestyles Laziness Conditions… The Scottish weather Dark nights

35 Running Barriers


37 What constitutes a good event? 1.Interesting route 2.Organised to a high standard 3.Positive atmosphere 4.Accessible

38 Does GSR deliver? Yes - very positive experience. Many enjoyed the route – Kingston Bridge is a highlight…

39 “There’s no better feeling when you’re running round the streets [of Glasgow] and everyone is clapping you on and you actually feel like an athlete” Committed Runner, Castlemilk Focus Group

40 However Rising entry costs – Committed Runners Not front of mind e.g. clear lack of awareness of: –How or where to register –What is on offer

41 Event motives 1.Goal setting 2.To be rewarded 3.To raise funds for charity 4.To support a friend “If I did have a go and did it with someone I would stick with it. That’s because if I tell someone I’m going to do it, I will do it and not let them down. So yeah, I would do it with someone if they ask me to” Contemplator, Springburn

42 Event Motives

43 Event barriers “People have a fear of being last. If people know that they could run at their own pace, then that would be fine. If event organisers are more open with time figures, then people would be less intimidated” 1. Mind-set - lack of belief in personal capabilities “I don’t do events now because they are very expensive. That is the only reason” Committed Runner, Springburn 2. Financial costs Committed Runner, Govan

44 Event Barriers

45 Positive deviance between those who are active runners and those who are not Key difference - benefits were an actual motive More engaged for 2 reasons 1.Surrounded by people who have a positive influence 2.More positive environment – work in city centre, lived in regenerated area

46 Increasing participation in running and running events Contemplators (primary target audience as they are the easiest to persuade of the segments who are not currently participating): Increase their confidence and self-belief so that they can begin the process of running. Motivate them through developing a set of motivational techniques to ensure that they ‘keep going’. Make running as accessible as possible – increase the perception of running being a social norm (i.e. that it is socially acceptable to run and that there is no perceived stigma surrounding it as an activity or enjoyable pursuit) Make major events more accessible and relatable to Contemplators’ abilities

47 Committed Runners and Irregular/Lapsed Runners (secondary target audience as they already behave in the desired way, but there is scope to increase participation): Avoid them seriously relapsing (i.e. stopping running for long periods of time), through maintaining their motivation to run by providing an easily accessible set of motivational techniques. As part of this provide direct and local promotions to encourage entry into events such as the GSR. Make events more accessible e.g. through reduction in costs, publicising the option of powerwalking (specifically to encourage Irregular/Lapsed Runners) and by making the registration process as obvious and as simple as possible. Promote running clubs and groups within the area as well as holding local events. Increasing participation in running and running events

48 What about the Rejecters? Lack motivation to change Could benefit in the long term

49 1. Make running the norm/socially acceptable: raise the profile of running in communities Running paths Improve nighttime safety Increase profile of running clubs and groups Increase presence of school running clubs Recruit local champions Local running events and fun runs

50 2. Tools to increase confidence and self-belief: making running more accessible Contemplators expressed an appetite for useful motivational and confidence-building tools to help them get past the contemplation and preparation stage and into running, with the aim of committing to the sport. App, leaflet and other Techniques for getting from couch to half an hour run in 6 weeks Sell the benefits of behaviour change Learnings taken from Committed Runner’s micro- motives

51 3. Promote a key end goal: raise the profile of the GSR through motivational techniques Valuable micro and macro motive to get into and keep running Market GSR to more deprived communities: –Showcase GSR’s benefits: signpost route, provide more charity links, offer tailored training programme –What do we want to say? “No matter what your ability is, GSR is a rewarding event which can keep you motivated all year round” - CTA – register early to aid with goal setting

52 -Where do we want to say this? Gyms, community centers, community settings. Promotional items saying: “You have what it takes to enter GSR” -When do we need to communicate? Pre event e.g. spring time Post event – to avoid relapse -Provide a confidence boost prior to the event Local roadshows 3-6 months before to educate runners and contemplators about training, injury etc. and provide motivational techniques

53 -Increase registration Easier/more accessible – registration points in gyms AND 2-4-1s – helps reduce financial barrier and promote the social aspect

54 Running Motives - Recommendations

55 Running Barriers- Recommendations


57 Impacting contextual factors in relation to visiting cultural venues Thoughts on local community Positive but poor transport links Attitudes towards starting new hobbies Like to be mentally and physically active vs. not interested and wanting some ‘me time’ Attitudes towards culture i.e. museums, art galleries and performing arts Far from polarised i.e. not just likers and non likers In order of preference: museums, performing arts, galleries Museums – more likely to engage and be interested in these venues The Arts – not interested in what they perceived to be on offer and perceived to target upper class/art students i.e. not for people like them

58 Five key segments 1.Committed Visitors Visit several times a year; exhibit civic pride; don’t mind visiting alone 2.Occasional Visitors Do not regard themselves as regular but visit 2/3 times per year; interested in cultural activities and enjoy visiting (often specific venues of interest), but don’t consider themselves to be committed 3.Contemplators Think that they should be visiting cultural venues, and feel guilty that they are not; lack of real desire; lack of front of mind consciousness;. preparation serves as a big barrier 4.Pseudo Rejecters Broadly dismissive of visiting the relevant venues; don’t think they will enjoy what the venues have to offer; rather do other things with their free time; would also not know how to get started 5.Full Rejecter ‘Not for me’; disinterested and disengaged with the idea completely


60 Personal interest Fun and engaging temporary exhibitions General curiosity and desire for self education Personal relevance or connectivity to a theme

61 “I prefer the Transport Museum, I think it’s really good and interesting… I’m thinking of years ago – think it might be an age thing, as you weren’t interested in what your dad done or anything [back then], he worked in Fairfield (the shipyards) - But you know, when I was younger I couldn’t have cared less... As you get older you are seeing different perspectives and things. And then you know, I’m saying “oh I remember this – things like the old subway – and I quite like it.”” Occasional Visitor, Pollok Focus Group

62 For the kids “The reason why I go to museums is because my son is interested in ancient history... And if it wasn’t for him, I probably wouldn’t have gone. I think that’s what got me interested” Occasional Visitor, Pollok Focus Group

63 Other motives Nostalgia Committed and occasional visitors Escapism Free However, associated costs can outweigh benefits Health and wellbeing Getting out and about and de-stressing But these benefits are not front of mind Social aspect Contemplators and Pseudo Rejecters not comfortable going alone

64 Culture Motives


66 1. Lack of interest and being unaware of or not interested in the benefits of visiting “What’s in it for me?” Only when prompted, Contemplator and Pseudo Rejecter segments could identify with some of the motivators for attending, in particular how it can improve general health/wellbeing. “It’s not for someone like me” Strong perception amongst Rejecters Believed museums for tourists and the educated and art galleries for superior and art students

67 “They’ve targeted it so much at tourists they’ve forgotten about us” “Why would somebody from this background go there [Burrell Collection] if they don’t have weans to take with them? And unfortunately I don’t think there can be much to do to improve it. I think it has to do with society.” Occasional Visitor/Contemplator, Molendinar Focus Group Occasional Visitor, Pollok Focus Group

68 “I wouldn’t know what I’m looking at. But I wouldn’t ask them because the staff act like they know it all, and would think, “Why do people from Govan come here?!” “Museums are for ‘yuppies’” Full Rejecter, Govan


70 2. General lack of awareness Not front of mind – not a viable option for something to do All segments who are not actively engaged and do not reject idea of going in particular Contemplators Lack of awareness of venues/what is on offer e.g. unaware of Provand’s Lordship (but some knew it as “the oldest house in Glasgow”); Never heard of GMRC, Trongate 103 and Tramway in particular; One respondent thought that the Trongate was a shop; Others were under the impression that bookings need to be made to visit Trongate 103 and the Tramway - hence they had not been yet.

71 3. Perception that the venues are not accessible Associated financial costs Transportation, shops, cafes More of a barrier for Contemplators Many admitted to spending more money when engaging in other social activities e.g. cinema Transportation Cost, poor parking and time Many would not know how to get started Some Contemplators would be more inclined to go to venues if they lived closer to them

72 “I was watching my wee cousin and he wanted to go to a museum. So I took him to People’s Palace as this was easiest to get to, ‘cos that’s down at Glasgow Green. But he probably would have rather gone to the Riverside Museum, but that is just too much hassle for me to get to.” Committed Visitor, Molendinar Focus Group

73 4. It is not considered an appropriate/normal/attractive day out with friends/family Competing factors e.g. cinema, watching/playing football, shopping etc. are more ‘normal’ things to do Complacency When probed, many Contemplators and Pseudo Rejecters stated that there was no real sense of urgency to visit and there were other more important social priorities that take precedence “Been there, done it” Common amongst Pseudo Rejecters and Rejecters

74 Culture Barriers

75 Positive deviance between those who actively visit cultural venues and those who do not 1.Committed and Occasional Visitors had a strong desire to visit, reluctant to let barriers get in the way 2.Surrounded by positive people – e.g. when growing up or present day 3.More positive environment – work and regenerated area


77 1. Improve the offer in a way that is specifically relevant to disengaged individuals in Glasgow’s more deprived communities Improve relevance of temporary exhibitions Bring exhibitions to life Make venues more adult friendly Health and wellbeing benefits (5 Ways to Wellbeing)

78 2. Promote visiting cultural venues as an attractive and acceptable part of an enjoyable day out Encourage visitors to make a day of it Link other attractions Promote and create picnic areas Promote 2-4-1 on coffees/discount loyalty schemes for GM cafes After school clubs/Saturday morning clubs for children Make more experiential for children e.g. themed tour guides Target schools – primary and secondary Increase product offering in museum shops Piggyback on organised walking groups

79 As a sub part of this recommendation, there is a need to raise the profile of museums in more deprived areas: Awareness Interest Desire Action Engaging Style- potentially humourous tone Promote through both on and offline channels 2. Promote visiting cultural venues as an attractive and acceptable part of an enjoyable day out (cont.)

80 3. Make the venues more accessible for more deprived neighbourhoods in Glasgow Remove financial and transportation barriers for deprived communities in Glasgow: Signpost main transport links Extend opening hours Make more accessible within local community Ease burden of transport cost Discounted family travel to these venues

81 Culture Motives – Recommendations


83 Segments to target Contemplators (primary audience) Likely to be the largest in size and they are the easiest to persuade The priorities are to raise the profile and make cultural venues more accessible, whilst also improving the offer and maximising the benefits of visiting through positioning venues as part of a general day out. Pseudo Rejecters (secondary audience) As this is a sub group of the Contemplators, as they are interested but they are a much tougher audience to persuade. The priorities are to raise the profile and make the idea of visiting cultural venues more appealing and accessible.

84 Occasional Visitors (tertiary audience) Because they already engage but there is scope to increase their participation and bring along friends/family) The main priority is to make venues more front of mind by raising the profile. Demographics? Could be any demographic group within the relevant communities. Suggested that the ‘hottest’ potential target markets within the segments given are parents, new empty nesters, newly retired and young couples.

85 Discussion Practical Implementation: How do we ensure that ‘products’ and ‘communications’ are developed in a way that is clearly relevant to the core target: 1.while being motivating? 2.without being patronizing?…

86 Contact details: Amanda Jubb Junior Project Manager The Social Marketing Gateway Foxter Chambers 28 Bath Street Glasgow G2 1HG T: 0141 387 9985 E: Mark Cuthbert Research Director The Social Marketing Gateway Foxter Chambers 28 Bath Street Glasgow G2 1HG T: 0141 387 9985 E:

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