Presentation on theme: "Conditional Sentence A conditional sentence (conditional for short ) is composed of two parts: conditional clause + main clause. Despite the many possible."— Presentation transcript:
Conditional Sentence A conditional sentence (conditional for short ) is composed of two parts: conditional clause + main clause. Despite the many possible sequences of verb forms in conditionals, the following four types represent the commonest and the most useful ones: If you heat ice, it melts. It we catch the 10 o’clock train, we will get there by lunch-time. If we caught the 10 o’clock train, we would get there by lunch time. If we had caught the 10 o’clock train, we would have got there by lunch-time.
TYPE I :If you heat ice, it melts. This is a kind of real conditional. It is also called “whenever-type” in that “if” here is used in the sense of “whenever”. This type of conditional can be used to denote : universal truth or general validity ; If you pour oil on water, it floats. present habitual action; If it rains, I go to work by car. past habitual action; If I made a promise, I kept it.
TYPE II : It we catch the 10 o’clock train, we will get there by lunch-time. This is the commonest of real conditionals. This type falls into three forms: basic form; variant form; and alternative form basic form; If it is fine tomorrow, we can have a picnic somewhere. variant form; If he should come tomorrow, I would tell him everything. (should is used with all subjects irrespective of persons or number ) If he will accept the nomination, a lot of electors will vote for him. (will is used in the sense of “be willing to”) If you would read more carefully, you would understand what the author means. ( would is used to make a polite request, which should be distinguished from an unreal conditional in the same form)
Alternative forms Imperative + and- clause Set your alarm clock, and you won’t oversleep. Set your alarm clock, or else you will oversleep.
TYPE III : Subjunctive Mood A:If we caught the 10 o’clock train, we would get there by lunch time. B: If I came into a fortune, I would give up working. C: If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do. These three sentences, though identical in form, represent three points on a scale of decreasing probability, from (A )suppositional or tentative but impossible, through (B)hypothetical or practical impossible to ( C ) contrary to present fact, and hence unreal.
TYPE III : Subjunctive Mood Variant forms If we were to miss the 10 o’clock train, we would not get there till after lunch. Here, were to is a subjunctive form, and therefore different from is/ are to and was /were to denoting obligation If you would cook the dinner, I would do the washing up afterwards. Here, would denotes the volition that is not likely to be fulfilled. It is different from the volitional would used in If you would read more carefully, you would understand what the author means.
TYPE III : Subjunctive Mood I would go to Heaven I had your potency.by Shakespeare If I were a bird, I would fly to you. If you had come ten minutes later, I should have been out. He looked as if he had seen a ghost. If this be true, I am sorry for it. If I should fail, I would try again.(doubt or uncertainty) If I were to ask him, he would consent.(supposition) Even if the sun were to rise in the west, my resolution would be unchanged
recommend vt. 1) suggest, advise 2) praise sth. or sb. as suitable for a purpose or for a post 医生建议她换换气候环境以便恢复健康。 The doctor recommended a change of climate for her health. Now you try: e.g. I recommend that he (should) try the new medicine. 我建议他试试这种新药。 If it is followed by a “that-clause”, the verb in the “that- clause” should be used in its base form or used together with the modal auxiliary “should”.
1.advise,ask,command,decide,demand,desire,dire ct,insist,order,move,prefer,propose,recommend,re quest,require,suggest,urge Eg : At yesterday’s hearing the judge insisted that Mr Grant give evidence despite his relationship to the accused. The detective insisted that he should have a look. Members of the committee suggested England be excluded from future international tournaments. Regulations require that officers not enter the crime scene without protective clothing. The lawyer asked that the case should be postponed for one month.
2. It is vital /essential/imperative/advisable/necessary/important/ preferable, natural, suggested that … Eg:It is necessary that you should be present at the discussion. It was suggested that the electronic device be tested at once. In future cases it will be vital that each party give full disclosure prior to trial.
3:In appositive clauses The doctor ’ s advice is that the patient should be kept quiet. He rejected my advice that he should meet my son. 4 In expressions such as :had rather,would rather,would as soon,would sooner,would prefer Eg :I had rather you had been there. I ’ d prefer he didn ’ t stay there long.
If he does not want to see us, then so be it. (= then let it happen.) Bless you! Long live the Republic. “ There is little chance of winning this case. ” “ Be that as it may, I am not going to give up fighting.(= Whether that is true or not, I am not …” I ’ ll take it all the way to the Supreme Court if need be.( if this is necessary) In set expressions:
他表现得好像没有发生什么事似的。 He ______ as if nothing _____________. 他工作热情这么高，好像从不知道疲倦似的。 acted He works with such enthusiasm as if he never knew fatigue. had happened Translation
If 引导的虚拟语气。和现在事实相反，从句用 if + 过去时，主句用 would be/do ； 和过去事实相反， 从句用 if + 过去完成时，主句用 would have done ； 和将来事实相反，从句用 if ＋ were to/ 过去时， 主句用 would + be/do 。 If it were to rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. If I were you, I would work harder. If you were not here, I would be in trouble. If you had not been to the party, you would not have seen the movie star.
Be-Subjunctive The be-subjunctive is commonly used in that-clause to express a command, decision, suggestions. After such verbs as decide, decree, demand, insist or some adjectives as advisable, appropriate, desirable, imperative etc. or some nouns as instructions requirement, resolution, etc. In certain adverbial clauses introduced by if, though, whatever, so long as, whether, lest E.g. If the rumor be true, everything is possible. Quietly we sat on the river bank lest the fish swim away. Whatever be his defense., we cannot tolerate his disloyalty. In certain formulaic expressions So be it.
Were –subjunctive It applies to subjects of all persons, but formally contrasts with the indicative form was only when it is used first and third person singular subjects. In certain adverbial clauses such as If I were you, as though he were better than us In certain nominal clauses after some verbs such as wish, would rather, suppose, imagine, etc. to denote a hypothetical situation I’d rather I were not at the site of the accident. Suppose the earth were flat. He is my best friend, my second self, as it were.
Ways of expressing hypothetical meanings Use of the past tense forms of verbs 1)It is the time that… 2) …as if/as though 3) Suppose/supposing… 5) I wish… 6) I would rather that …would sooner It is the time they were forced to clear up the mess. These kids act as if they owned the place. Suppose the gun had been fired at me? I wished I had never started this course. I’ d rather you gave me a cash refund. A credit note is no use to me. I’d rather you did not smoke in here. Cf. We would sooner you spent your bonus on something useful. I had rather spend it on something useful.
As if / as though He talks to the children as though they were imbeciles. ( 说话人知道他们不是低能儿） They are acting as if nothing had happened. （说话 人知道某些事情已经发生） Cf: He sounds as if he knows what he is talking about. （他可能确实知道 ) You look as though you have not eaten for days. （你可能没吃）
I wish I wish you would stop shouting. I am not deaf you know. I wish you would stop looking at me like that. It is terribly distracting. 此结构表示渴望的变化是可能的，即便可能性很小，因此 would 不能用来表示根本不可能的变化，比如主语无法控制 的变化或对过去的改变就不可能用 would. I wish sports cars would not be so expensive.(×) I wish sports cars were not so expensive.(√) If only nuclear bombs would not have been invented. (×) If only nuclear bombs had not been invented. (√) I wish I would be more energetic. (×) 渴望的主语与 would 的主语相同 If only I were more energetic. (√)
Use of past modals In conditionals If I were you I would not miss the opportunity. If they had caught the early train, they would have been here early. If he should refuse to appear in court, he might be held guilty.
In implicit conditions But for, In different circumstances 1.Eg: But for your cooperation,we could not succeeded in our experiment. 2.Eg: I would be most glad to help you,but I’m busy now. 3. Otherwise Eg: We didn’t know his telephone number;otherwise we would have telephoned him. 4. Comparative sentences Eg: (1)A more careful person wouldn’t have made so many mistakes. (2)Given more time,I would have been able to finish the experiment. 5.In idiomatic expressions Eg: You wouldn’t know. I would like to come. I would not have dreamed of it. In other contexts To think that he would marry such a nasty woman.
Inverted Sentences With If Omitted had,should or were are used to initiate sentences Had such disaster occurred, the damage would have been incalculable. Were he to tell us everything,we would try to solve this problem. In negative sentences Eg :Had it not been for their assistance,we couldn’t have finished the task ahead of time. supposing,suppose,even if to initiate subjunctive sentences : Supposing it were fine tomorrow,would you go swimming with us? Eg :Suppose we started tomorrow.
Exercise If only I (come) a few minutes earlier. He asked that it (do) right away. He has just arrived, but he talks as if he (know) about it. They told the story as if it (happen) to them. I’d just as soon we (not, go) tonight. The driver looked over the engine carefully lest it (go) wrong on the way. He is working hard for fear that he (fall) behind. The night watchman is in the store in case there (ever, be) a fire. It is astonishing that a person of your intelligence (take) in so easily. It is better that he (do) it as soon as possible.
Exercises :multiple choices 1.“How should the city be run?”“If I( ) a mayor,I would make the streets cleaner and hire more policemen.” A.would B.were C.would be D.should 2.Things might have been much worse if the mother ( ) on her right to keep the baby. A.has been insisting B.had insisted C.would insist D.insisted 3.A safety analysis ( ) the target as a potential danger.Unfortunately, it was never done. A.would identify B.will identify C.would have identified D.will have identified 4.Jack wishes that he ( ) business instead of history when he was in university. A.studied B.study C.had been studying D.had studied 5.Wouldn’t you rather your child ( ) to bed early? A.go B.went C.would go D.goes 6.That train looked as if it ( ) for a long time. A.hadn’t been watered B.hasn’t watered C.didn’t water D.wasn’t water -ed BBCDBA
7.We are for your proposal that the discussion ( ). A.be put off B.was put off C.should put off D. is to put off 8.The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he ( ) himself. A.injure B.had injured C.injured D.would injure 9.It’s time ( ) about the traffic problem downtown. A.anything will be done B.everything is done C.something was done D.nothing to be done 10.Look at the terrible situation I’m in!If only I ( ) your advice. A.follow B.had followed C.would followed D.have followed 11.The business of each day,( ) selling goods or shipping them,went quite smoothly. A.it being B.be it C.was it D.it was 12.Rebecca ( ) me earlier if she did not like her house she bought last month. A.told B.would tell C.had told D.would have told AACBBD
For Fun Elizabeth was a very pretty girl, and her parents were rich. Quite a lot of the young men in the town wanted to marry her, but she was not satisfied with any of them. One evening, one of the handsomest of the young men who wanted to marry Elizabeth came to visit her in her parents' house and asked her to become his wife. She answered, "No, William, I won't marry you. I want to marry a man who is famous, who can play music, sing and dance very well, who can tell really interesting stories, who does not smoke or drink, who stays at home in the evenings and who stops talking when I'm tired of listening." The young man got up, took his coat and went to the door, but before he left the house, he turned and said to Elizabeth: Can you guess what the young man said? Enjoy a humor
He said: "It isn't a man you're looking for. It's a television set."