2 Coding/indexing/categorizing N.B. confusion because used in quantitative data where it means putting numbers to answers.“indexing” “categories” “codes” “themes”= linking chunks of data (text) as representative of the same phenomenon.Not necessarily to count them (cf. Content analysis)
3 Analysis. Bryman suggests these stages Read the text as a whole, Make notes at the endLook for what it is aboutMajor themesUnusual issues, events etcGroup cases into types or categories (may reflect research question – e.g. male and female)
4 Stage 2. Read again Mark the text (underline, circle, highlight) Marginal notes/ annotationsLabels for codesHighlight Key wordsNote any analytic ideas suggested.
5 Stage 3. Code the text Systematically mark the text Indicate what chunks of text are about – themes – Index them.Review the codes.Eliminate repetition and similar codes (combine)Think of groupingsMay have lots of different codes (Don’t worry at early stage – can be reduced later)
6 Stage 4. Relate general theoretical ideas to the text. Coding is only part of analysisYou must add your interpretation.Identify significance for respondentsInterconnections between codesRelation of codes to research question and research literature.
7 Thematic CodingGrounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss + Corbin + Charmaz)Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Jonathon Smith)Template analysis (Nigel King)Framework analysis (Ritchie and Lewis)All are types of thematic analysis.
8 How is coding done?TextIn a village like this ... the young fellows in the village don't seem to have much difficulty when they're out of work – a fortnight and they're back again – word of mouth, I'd say. It’s a different, tricky situation that I'm in – I just can't say, “Oh, I heard there's a job going on building site, I’ll go and have a go for it.” I wouldn't be able to do that.CodeAge contrastResidence focusYoung find work easilyWord of mouthContrast situationConstrained
9 Applying the codes to the data Need to take code and its definition and apply in standard way to the text.Identify chunks of text to which code appliesCan be phrases, sentences, several sentences or even paragraphsCoded passages may overlap
10 Questions to ask "What is going on? What are people doing? What is the person saying?What do these actions and statements take for granted?How do structure and context serve to support, maintain, impede or change these actions and statements?"(Charmaz 2003: 94-95)
11 What can codes be about? Lofland suggests: Acts – usually brief events Activities – of longer duration in a setting, people involvedMeanings – what directs participants’ actions?What concepts they use to understand their worldWhat meaning or significance it has for them.Participation – People’ involvement or adaptation to a settingRelationships – between people, considered simultaneouslySettings – the entire context of the events under study
12 What can codes be about? 2 Strauss suggests Conditions Interactions Strategies and tacticsConsequences What happens if…Sabatier in Policy context suggests:Causal adequacyFinancial resourcesLegal/bureaucratic powers or constraintsPolitical/interest group supportOfficial/bureaucratic commitmentSocial/economic environment
13 What can codes be about? 3 Mason suggests Literal - words, dialogue used, actions, settings systems etc.Interpretation - implicit norms, values, rules, mores, how people make sense of phenomenaReflexive - researcher’s role in the process - how intervention generated the data.
14 Ways to identify themes Ryan and Bernard (2003)RepetitionsIndigenous typologies (in vivo)Metaphors and analogiesTransitions (pauses, sections)Similarities and DifferencesConstant comparisonLinguistic connectorsBecause, before, after, next, closeness, examplesMissing data (what is omitted)
15 Coding supports 2 forms of analysis RetrievalUsing the coding frame
16 1. RetrievalRetrieve all the text coded with the same label = all passages about the same phenomenon, idea, explanation or activity - Literally cut and pasteUsed envelopes/files - Now done using softwareEnables cross case comparison on same theme.
17 2. Using the coding frameUse the list of codes to examine further kinds of analytic questions, e.g.relationships between the codes (and the text they code)grouping cases
18 Data driven or concept driven? Inductive or deductiveMost qualitative analysis does bothi.e. start with some theoretical ideasthese derived from literature, research brief/questions, interview scheduleanddiscover new ideas, theories, explanations in the data.Strauss - sociologically constructed codes vs. in vivo codes
19 Example‘Dancing’, ‘Indoor bowling’, ‘Dances at works club’, ‘Drive together’Descriptive codes‘Joint activities ceased’, ‘Joint activities continuing’Categories‘Loss of physical co-ordination’, ‘Togetherness’, ‘Doing for’, ‘Resignation’, ‘Core activity’Analytic codes
21 Code list = Code scheme = Coding frame = Template List of codes with definitionsSeparate from the documentsMay be hierarchicalUsed:To apply the code in a consistent way.To share codes with others, especially in a team
22 Code Definitions Typically records: The label or name of the code. The name of the researcher. (Not needed if you are working alone.)Date when coding was done or changed.Definition of the code. Analytic idea it refers to.Other notes about the code, e.g.ideas about how it relates to other codesa hunch that the text could be split between two different codes.
23 Coding hierarchy Codes can be arranged in a hierarchy e.g. with these codes from a study of friendshipClose, generalised friendshipsSporting friendshipsSports club membersWork friendsMaking new friends - same sexMaking new friends - different sexLosing touch with friendsBecoming sexual relationships
24 Example code hierarchy Friendship typesClose, generalizedSportingClubNon-clubWorkChanges in FriendshipMaking new friendsNew same sex friendsNew different sex friendsLosing touchBecoming sexual relationships
25 Code Big or Small Chunks ProConWide/ high levelMaximize usefulness of code - applied to enough chunks to justify recontextualization.Avoids prejudicing later analysisFew episodes can be identified to match code.Includes lots of less relevant materialCoding vagueNarrow/detailedGreater differentiation. Clear definition. Easier to identify chunks in textImportant contextual data may be lost.Loss of meaning.Too many codes to remember
26 Example showing analysis One of a set of interviews by Wendy Hollway and Tony Jefferson.On fear of crimeWill use some of this for a group work exercise.Part of interview with:Barbara 65, F, White,Retired nursing auxiliary, Interview covered, Husband's death, ill health, sister - prison, stealing & drug taking, tenants association. From low crime area.
27 INT So you say - well 2 of those things happened after - when you've been talking to this accountant friend of yours. How did it come up? I mean that's er, you'd been alone for quite a while ....BARBARA They'd been burgled.INT Right.BARBARA And they got through a little window like this. Actually 'e'd got a young lad with 'im. And er, Margaret's engagement ring and she says "that was the one thing - that was the one thing, it grieved me more than anything" she said. "They could 'ave the television, the lot" she said. But the fact that they took 'er engagement ring…INT Yeah.BARBARA That upset 'er. And er, we were just talking in general and - and it came up and I says er, "I've got a chain on my door." And 'e says er, "it's not strong enough that, Barbara." He says "you really want something else on" and 'e went - his daughter lived up Stokebridge and 'e went to a little shop up there, or something. And got me that chain…
28 BARBARA. …And 'e put it on and you can lock it BARBARA …And 'e put it on and you can lock it. If you put it on as you're going out, er, its 'ook, and then you 'ave to unlock it to let it drop.INT Ah ha.BARBARA When you come in.INT Oh right.BARBARA You know, you can push the door and it - oh and it is strong as well.INT Ah ha. And the 4 locks on the back? Do they date back further?BARBARA Oh God, yeah.INT So you had lots of security even when your husband was alive?BARBARA Oh yeah, mmm. Mmm. Em, I've got one of those dead locks at the top.INT Yeah.BARBARA You know, they're just a hole in the door and they're not from outside, they're only from inside. And even that locks wrong way. You 'ave to turn it that way to unlock it. (laugh).
29 Notice Interviewer and respondent names are in capitals Wide margins and space and a half between linesUse of contractionsPlace names and people’s names anonymised
30 Read through About neighbour being burgled Lost TV etc. and engagement ringOld and new security on front door.Replaced by friend.
34 Coding FrameCrime experienced (the type of crime participants discuss having experienced themselves or by their friends and neighbours).BurglaryVandalismViolenceBut these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g.Low level (not reported etc.)Significant (with emotional impact)
35 Coding Frame, cont.Security measures (What measures people have taken to protect themselves, their property etc. both in the past and more recently).ChainDead lockBurglar alarmSafeCar alarmsPersonal AlarmStay inWalk with others
36 Coding Frame, cont. But these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g. Physical, technologyBehaviouralPsychological (lights on timer etc.)
37 Coding Frame, cont. Feelings about experience of crime Frightened Hurt by loss (especially personal items)
38 Descriptive vs Analytic/theoretical Just what the people saidWhat happenedTheir termsAnalyticUse social science theoryGroups codes togetherUse terms the respondents don’t or wouldn’t