Presentation on theme: "Speaking Hypothetically"— Presentation transcript:
1 Speaking Hypothetically A presentation for the Inha TESOL program.By Chris Gunn
2 When do we use it? We use hypothetical speech when we are: (1) imagining/ supposing/ pretending(2) talking about unreal/untrue situations(3) talking about improbable/unlikely situations.
3 Example 1: ImaginingImagine you could have any super power. What would it be?If I could have any super power, I would choose the ability to fly.
4 Example 2: Unreal Situations If I were president, I would help the poor and take care of the environment But I am not president so I won’t.
5 Example 3: Improbable Situations If I won the lottery, I would quit my job and travel the world. . . But I probably won’t win so I’d better finish my work.
6 Past Unreal Conditional Students’ most common experience ofhypothetical speech comes from the pastunreal conditional. (2nd conditional)If + (past tense), (would)Ex) If I saw a ghost, I would scream.However, speaking hypothetically is much morethan just the second conditional.
7 Other Ways to Mark Hypothetical Speech. There are many ways to mark hypothetical situations. The past unreal conditional is just one way.Here are some others:ImagineSupposeSayWhat if
8 ImagineImagine you were stranded on a deserted island. How would you survive?
9 SupposeSuppose the price of oil increased to $ a barrel. What would be the effect on the economy.Well, first of all, there would be a great deal of inflation. Second, people would drive a lot less. Third, industry and government would invest more money in alternative energy sources.
10 SayDid you hear that Jack found a diamond worth $20,000 on the road? He returned it to the owner.Say you found a $20,000 diamond on the road. Would you keep it or return it?
11 Setting the SituationYou set the situation using one of the markers plus the past tense.If + past tenseSay + past tenseSuppose + past tenseImagine + past tense.
12 Giving the Hypothetical Consequences Once the situation is set, you use “would” and “could” to give the state the consequences. Situation: If my boss asked me on a date Consequence: I would refuse and complain. Situation: Let’s say I was in charge of this company Consequence: I would provide incentives for employees to work hard.
13 Once you have set the situation, you should keep using would or could as long as you are speaking hypothetically.EX) If I won the lottery, I would travel the world and I would see many things. First, I would visit Europe because I have always wanted to visit the castles and cathedrals. Then I would fly to South America so that I could trek through the rain forest. Finally, I would take a long vacation on an island in the Pacific.
14 However, be careful! Sometimes, you slide in and out of hypothetical speech. What is wrong with following?:If I could be an animal, I would be an eagle. If I were an eagle, I could fly over mountains and I could rest in tall trees. Eagles could see very far so I would be able to see my friends down on the ground below.
15 Eagles could can see very far so I would be able to see my friends down on the ground below. Eagles really can see very far. So that is not a hypothetical situation.
16 Applications: There are many applications. Here are a few: (1) Giving advice.(2) Giving solutions to problems.
17 Giving AdviceIf I were you, I would. . . If it were me, I would If I were in your shoes, I would I would . . .
18 Solutions to ProblemsIf more people took public transportation, there wouldn’t be so much pollution. Also there wouldn’t be such traffics jams at rush hour.