Presentation on theme: "Speaking Hypothetically"— Presentation transcript:
1Speaking Hypothetically A presentation for the Inha TESOL program.By Chris Gunn
2When do we use it? We use hypothetical speech when we are: (1) imagining/ supposing/ pretending(2) talking about unreal/untrue situations(3) talking about improbable/unlikely situations.
3Example 1: ImaginingImagine you could have any super power. What would it be?If I could have any super power, I would choose the ability to fly.
4Example 2: Unreal Situations If I were president, I would help the poor and take care of the environment But I am not president so I won’t.
5Example 3: Improbable Situations If I won the lottery, I would quit my job and travel the world. . . But I probably won’t win so I’d better finish my work.
6Past Unreal Conditional Students’ most common experience ofhypothetical speech comes from the pastunreal conditional. (2nd conditional)If + (past tense), (would)Ex) If I saw a ghost, I would scream.However, speaking hypothetically is much morethan just the second conditional.
7Other Ways to Mark Hypothetical Speech. There are many ways to mark hypothetical situations. The past unreal conditional is just one way.Here are some others:ImagineSupposeSayWhat if
8ImagineImagine you were stranded on a deserted island. How would you survive?
9SupposeSuppose the price of oil increased to $ a barrel. What would be the effect on the economy.Well, first of all, there would be a great deal of inflation. Second, people would drive a lot less. Third, industry and government would invest more money in alternative energy sources.
10SayDid you hear that Jack found a diamond worth $20,000 on the road? He returned it to the owner.Say you found a $20,000 diamond on the road. Would you keep it or return it?
11Setting the SituationYou set the situation using one of the markers plus the past tense.If + past tenseSay + past tenseSuppose + past tenseImagine + past tense.
12Giving the Hypothetical Consequences Once the situation is set, you use “would” and “could” to give the state the consequences. Situation: If my boss asked me on a date Consequence: I would refuse and complain. Situation: Let’s say I was in charge of this company Consequence: I would provide incentives for employees to work hard.
13Once you have set the situation, you should keep using would or could as long as you are speaking hypothetically.EX) If I won the lottery, I would travel the world and I would see many things. First, I would visit Europe because I have always wanted to visit the castles and cathedrals. Then I would fly to South America so that I could trek through the rain forest. Finally, I would take a long vacation on an island in the Pacific.
14However, be careful! Sometimes, you slide in and out of hypothetical speech. What is wrong with following?:If I could be an animal, I would be an eagle. If I were an eagle, I could fly over mountains and I could rest in tall trees. Eagles could see very far so I would be able to see my friends down on the ground below.
15Eagles could can see very far so I would be able to see my friends down on the ground below. Eagles really can see very far. So that is not a hypothetical situation.
16Applications: There are many applications. Here are a few: (1) Giving advice.(2) Giving solutions to problems.
17Giving AdviceIf I were you, I would. . . If it were me, I would If I were in your shoes, I would I would . . .
18Solutions to ProblemsIf more people took public transportation, there wouldn’t be so much pollution. Also there wouldn’t be such traffics jams at rush hour.