Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Evolution and Community Ecology"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5: Evolution and Community Ecology Mr. ManskopfNotes Can Also Be Found at
2Section 3: Ecological Communities Explain the difference between producer and consumer.Explain the effect of inefficient energy transfer on community structure.TERMS: primary producer, photosynthesis, consumer, cellular respiration, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detritivore, decomposer, trophic level, food chain, biomass, food web, keystone species.
4Life Depends ENERGY, LOTS OF ENERGY…from the Sun Average Star93 million miles awayNuclear FusionNo Sun, No Life
5Life Depends on the SunALL organisms need a constant supply of energy or they dieWhy do plants grow upwards?
6Life Depends on the SunThe ultimate source of almost all energy for organisms is the SUN.What did you eat? (Nuclear Powered?)Only some deep sea creatures do not get energy from sunMmmm, solar energy tastes good!
7Life Depends on the SunPhotosynthesis: plants use the suns energy, water and CO2, to make energy.Base of ALL food chains
8Almost all organisms depend either directly or indirectly on photosynthesis
9From Producer to Consumer Producer: an organism that makes it own foodPlantsAutotrophs, self-feedersUse sunlightBase of all food chains
10From Producer to Consumer Consumer: gets it energy by eating producers or other consumersHeterotrophsIndirectly solar powered
11Types of Consumers Herbivore: eats only producers (vegetarian) Cows, sheep, deer, grasshopper, mice, rabbits
12Types of Consumers Carnivore: eats other consumers Lion, hawks, snakes, alligator, whales
13Types of Consumers Omnivore: eats both producers and consumers Bears, pigs, raccoons and most humans
14Types of Consumers Decomposer: breaks down dead decaying organisms Critical to ecosystem healthReturns nutrientsFungus, bacteria
15Detritivores and decomposers: recycle nutrients within the ecosystem by breaking down nonliving organic matter
16How do Organisms Use Energy Most organisms spend large amounts of time/energy in search of food and a mate.
17How do Organisms Use Energy Cellular Respiration: processes of breaking down food to yield energyGives energy to walk, read, grow, think, run, fight diseasesExcess stored as fat
18Glucose (sugar) + Oxygen yields carbon dioxide, water and energy REACTANTS PRODUCTS
34Keystone SpeciesSpecies that have strong and/or wide-reaching effects on a communityRemoval of a keystone species can significantly alter the structure of a community.
35Keystone Species(Otter Keystone Species)Prairie Dogs: Keystone species NATURE's "Silence of the Bees“
36Section 3 Review Explain the difference between producer and consumer. Explain the effect of inefficient energy transfer on community structure.TERMS: primary producer, photosynthesis, consumer, cellular respiration, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detritivore, decomposer, trophic level, food chain, biomass, food web, keystone species.
37Section 3 Quiz1) The ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem in which deer eat grass and coyotes eat deer is A. the grass. B. the sun. C. the deer. D. chemosynthesis.B. The SUN
382) When energy is transferred between trophic levels, the amount of available energy lost is about A. 90 percent. B. 50 percent. C. 25 percent. D. 10 percent.A. 90%
393) Humans are generally A. carnivores. B. herbivores. C. omnivores. D 3) Humans are generally A. carnivores. B. herbivores. C. omnivores. D. detrivores.C. Omnivores
404) Any being that uses the sun’s energy to create sugars is a A 4) Any being that uses the sun’s energy to create sugars is a A. primary producer. B. secondary producer. C. primary consumer. D. secondary consumer.A. primary producer.
415) In a food web that consists of grass, mice, deer, coyotes, and hawks, which species is likely to have the greatest biomass? A. grass B. mice C. coyotes D. hawksA. grass
426) The first level of all food pyramids A 6) The first level of all food pyramids A. consists of primary producers. B. consist of primary consumers. C. is chemosynthesis. D. is photosynthesis.A. consists of primary producers.
437) Short Answer: In a meadow community, you observe a high biomass of plants, a fairly high number of rodents, but only a single fox. Explain.This is due to inefficient energy transfer through the food web. Only about 10 percent of energy is available from one level to the next, so a high biomass of plants will support only a few predators.
448) Short Answer: Grasslands are generally considered highly productive ecosystems, and we see some of the largest and most diverse assemblages of mammal species on grasslands such as the Serengeti. Why do you think this is, as opposed to an ecosystem like a northern pine forest, for example?Grasslands produce a huge amount of available plant energy, which in turn supports a large number of herbivores, and a higher concentration of carnivores. A forest contains a lot of biomass as unavailable woody material that animals cannot easily consume, so energy remains locked at the producer level.
459) Short Answer: Explain why a food web is a better representation of energy flow in a community than a food chain.A chain represents a single avenue of energy transfer. In reality, there are numerous relationships between a single species and the other species in its community, so energy might travel along any of several paths.
4610) Identify a producer, a primary consumer, and a secondary consumer from the illustration. Plants are producers. Deer, crayfish, moorhens, raccoons, shrimp, and flagfish are primary consumers. Pin frogs, bobcats, alligators, crayfish, killfish, largemouth bass, anhingas, and alligators are secondary consumers.
4711) If an anhinga consumes a crayfish, what percentage of the energy of the crayfish’s original plant-based meal will reach the anhinga?One percent of the original energy of the plants will be available to the anhinga.
4812) Which populations in this ecosystem would you expect to have the fewest members, and why? The anhingas, bobcats, and alligators would probably be fewer in number than other species, since they are secondary or tertiary consumers and much of the ecosystem’s energy has been lost by the time it reaches them.
4913) What would happen if alligators were removed from the ecosystem 13) What would happen if alligators were removed from the ecosystem? Explain the effects on each level of the food web.The alligator’s prey species might increase, which might put pressure on plant resources and on other species that the alligator’s prey species eat. On the other hand, competitors of the alligator would most likely flourish, so anhingas might also experience an increase in population.
5014) Identify two species in this web that might compete with each other, and explain which resources they compete for.Alligators and bobcats are competing for food in the form of moorhens. Raccoons, moorhens, white-tailed deer, crayfish, glass shrimp, and flagfish compete for plant foods. Anhingas and alligators compete for pin frogs. Pin frogs and anhingas compete for crayfish. Bass and anhingas compete for killfish. Bass and killfish compete for grass shrimp and worms.
52Section 4 How Ecosystems Change Describe the types of ecological successionExplain what pioneer species areExplain the conditions necessary for a species to become invasive.Terms: ecological succession, primary succession, secondary succession, pioneer species
53Ecological Succession Ecosystems constantly are changing (some fast some slowly)Young Forests vs. Old ForestQuick change like fire, or volcanic eruption
54Ecological Disturbances A community in equilibrium is generally stable and balanced, with most populations at or around carrying capacity.Disturbances or changes in the environment can throw a community into disequilibrium.Severe disturbances can cause permanent changes to a community and initiate a predictable series of changes called succession
55Ecological Succession Ecological Succession: the gradual change and replacement of some or all species in a communityNeighborhood changes over time
58Ecological Succession Primary Succession: occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before (FIRST)Rocks, sand dunesUncommon!
59Primary SuccessionOccurs when there are no traces of the original community remaining, including vegetation and soil
60Ecological Succession Secondary Succession: occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existedMore commonLand Disturbed by humans, other animalsFlood, fire, volcano
61Secondary SuccessionOccurs when a disturbance dramatically alters a community but does not completely destroy itCommon after disturbances such as fire, logging, or farmingOccurs significantly faster than primary succession
62Secondary ecological succession after a fire on the left Fires are a natural part of many forest ecosystems
63Ecological Succession Pioneer Species: first organisms to colonize a newly available landLichens, bacteria, small plants often pioneers
67Invasive Species Nonnative organisms that spread widely in a community A lack of limiting factors such as predators, parasites, or competitors enables their population to grow unchecked.Not all invasive species are harmfulDid You Know? Although the European honeybee is invasive to North America, it is beneficial because it pollinates our agricultural crops.
68A 2010 report on invasive species suggests that they cost the U. S A 2010 report on invasive species suggests that they cost the U.S. $120 billion a year in environmental losses and damages.Invasive kudzu
69The zebra mussel has completely displaced 20 native mussel species in Lake St. Clair.
70Invasive Species In the Great Lakes San Francisco BayIn Your BackyardInvasive Phragmites
71Section 4 Ecosystem Changes Review Describe the types of ecological successionExplain what pioneer species areExplain the conditions necessary for s species to become invasive.Terms: ecological succession, primary succession, secondary succession, pioneer species
72Section 4 Quiz1) In the years immediately after a fire, a forest will experience A. primary succession. B. secondary succession. C. tertiary succession. D. a climax community.B. Secondary Succession
732) A landslide causes part of a mountainside to fall away, leaving bare rock. In the years immediately following the landslide, the area will experience A. primary succession. B. secondary succession. C. tertiary succession. D. a climax community.A. Primary Succession
74A. predators, parasites, and competitors 3) If these are present in a new environment, a species is unlikely to become invasive. A. predators, parasites, and competitors B. cane toads, kudzu, and zebra mussels C. exotic species D. symbiotic and commensalist speciesA. predators, parasites, and competitors
75Fill in blank4) A species introduced to a new environment without limiting factors could become ____________________.Invasive
76True or False5) An invasive species is a species that has been introduced to a new area and lacks limiting factors.TRUE