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Chapter 5: Evolution and Community Ecology Mr. Manskopf Notes Can Also Be Found at

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1 Chapter 5: Evolution and Community Ecology Mr. Manskopf Notes Can Also Be Found at

2 Section 3: Ecological Communities ► Explain the difference between producer and consumer. ► Explain the effect of inefficient energy transfer on community structure. ► TERMS: primary producer, photosynthesis, consumer, cellular respiration, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detritivore, decomposer, trophic level, food chain, biomass, food web, keystone species.

3 What makes an ecosystem like this “work?”

4 Life Depends ENERGY, LOTS OF ENERGY…from the Sun Average Star 93 million miles away Nuclear Fusion No Sun, No Life

5 Life Depends on the Sun ALL organisms need a constant supply of energy or they die Why do plants grow upwards?

6 Life Depends on the Sun ► The ultimate source of almost all energy for organisms is the SUN. ► What did you eat? (Nuclear Powered?) ► Only some deep sea creatures do not get energy from sun Mmmm, solar energy tastes good!

7 Life Depends on the Sun ► Photosynthesis: plants use the suns energy, water and CO2, to make energy. ► Base of ALL food chains

8 Almost all organisms depend either directly or indirectly on photosynthesis

9 From Producer to Consumer ► Producer: an organism that makes it own food ► Plants ► Autotrophs, self- feeders ► Use sunlight ► Base of all food chains

10 From Producer to Consumer ► Consumer: gets it energy by eating producers or other consumers ► Heterotrophs ► Indirectly solar powered

11 Types of Consumers ► Herbivore: eats only producers (vegetarian) ► Cows, sheep, deer, grasshopper, mice, rabbits

12 Types of Consumers ► Carnivore: eats other consumers ► Lion, hawks, snakes, alligator, whales

13 Types of Consumers ► Omnivore: eats both producers and consumers ► Bears, pigs, raccoons and most humans

14 Types of Consumers ► Decomposer: breaks down dead decaying organisms ► Critical to ecosystem health ► Returns nutrients ► Fungus, bacteria

15 Detritivores and decomposers: recycle nutrients within the ecosystem by breaking down nonliving organic matter

16 How do Organisms Use Energy Most organisms spend large amounts of time/energy in search of food and a mate.

17 How do Organisms Use Energy ► Cellular Respiration: processes of breaking down food to yield energy ► Gives energy to walk, read, grow, think, run, fight diseases ► Excess stored as fat

18 Glucose (sugar) + Oxygen yields carbon dioxide, water and energy REACTANTSPRODUCTS

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20 Energy Transfer Each time one organism eats another, energy is transferred Ecosystems are all about energy flowing from one organism to another

21 Energy Transfer ► Who are the producers? ► Consumers? ► Herbivores? ► Carnivores? ► Omnivores? ► Decomposers? ► Where does the energy start?

22 Energy Transfer ► Food Chain: sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to another ► Starts with producers

23 Energy Flow ► Food Web: shows many feeding relationships that are possible in a ecosystem ► More complex and realistic

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26 Energy Flow ► Trophic Level: each step which energy is transferred

27 Energy Pyramid

28 Energy Flow ► Why are there fewer organisms at the top? (Why fewer bears than the fruit they feed on) ► Why aren’t there more than 4-5 trophic levels in a energy pyramid?

29 Energy Flow ► At each trophic level about 90% of energy is lost ► Cellular respiration ► Lost to heat body and carry out living

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31 Energy Flow ► Why are there fewer organisms at the top? (Why fewer bears than the fruit they feed on) ► Why aren’t there more than 4-5 trophic levels in a energy pyramid?

32 What does this diagram show?

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34 Keystone Species ► Species that have strong and/or wide- reaching effects on a community ► Removal of a keystone species can significantly alter the structure of a community.

35 Keystone Species /watch?v=Xg62WKwA47 0http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=Xg62WKwA47 0 (Otter Keystone Species) /watch?v=Xg62WKwA47 0 Prairie Dogs: Keystone species /watch?v=kEh4r4iQiBU NATURE's "Silence of the Bees“ /watch?v=dIUo3STj6tw

36 Section 3 Review ► Explain the difference between producer and consumer. ► Explain the effect of inefficient energy transfer on community structure. ► TERMS: primary producer, photosynthesis, consumer, cellular respiration, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detritivore, decomposer, trophic level, food chain, biomass, food web, keystone species.

37 Section 3 Quiz 1) The ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem in which deer eat grass and coyotes eat deer is A.the grass. B.the sun. C.the deer. D.chemosynthesis. B. The SUN

38 2) When energy is transferred between trophic levels, the amount of available energy lost is about A.90 percent. B.50 percent. C.25 percent. D.10 percent. A. 90%

39 3) Humans are generally A.carnivores. B.herbivores. C.omnivores. D.detrivores. C. Omnivores

40 4) Any being that uses the sun’s energy to create sugars is a A.primary producer. B.secondary producer. C.primary consumer. D.secondary consumer. A.primary producer.

41 5) In a food web that consists of grass, mice, deer, coyotes, and hawks, which species is likely to have the greatest biomass? A.grass B.mice C.coyotes D.hawks A.grass

42 6) The first level of all food pyramids A.consists of primary producers. B.consist of primary consumers. C.is chemosynthesis. D.is photosynthesis. A.consists of primary producers.

43 7) Short Answer: 7) Short Answer: In a meadow community, you observe a high biomass of plants, a fairly high number of rodents, but only a single fox. Explain. This is due to inefficient energy transfer through the food web. Only about 10 percent of energy is available from one level to the next, so a high biomass of plants will support only a few predators.

44 8) Short Answer: 8) Short Answer: Grasslands are generally considered highly productive ecosystems, and we see some of the largest and most diverse assemblages of mammal species on grasslands such as the Serengeti. Why do you think this is, as opposed to an ecosystem like a northern pine forest, for example? Grasslands produce a huge amount of available plant energy, which in turn supports a large number of herbivores, and a higher concentration of carnivores. A forest contains a lot of biomass as unavailable woody material that animals cannot easily consume, so energy remains locked at the producer level.

45 9) Short Answer: 9) Short Answer: Explain why a food web is a better representation of energy flow in a community than a food chain. A chain represents a single avenue of energy transfer. In reality, there are numerous relationships between a single species and the other species in its community, so energy might travel along any of several paths.

46 10) Identify a producer, a primary consumer, and a secondary consumer from the illustration. Plants are producers. Deer, crayfish, moorhens, raccoons, shrimp, and flagfish are primary consumers. Pin frogs, bobcats, alligators, crayfish, killfish, largemouth bass, anhingas, and alligators are secondary consumers.

47 11) If an anhinga consumes a crayfish, what percentage of the energy of the crayfish’s original plant-based meal will reach the anhinga? One percent of the original energy of the plants will be available to the anhinga.

48 12) Which populations in this ecosystem would you expect to have the fewest members, and why? The anhingas, bobcats, and alligators would probably be fewer in number than other species, since they are secondary or tertiary consumers and much of the ecosystem’s energy has been lost by the time it reaches them.

49 13) What would happen if alligators were removed from the ecosystem? Explain the effects on each level of the food web. The alligator’s prey species might increase, which might put pressure on plant resources and on other species that the alligator’s prey species eat. On the other hand, competitors of the alligator would most likely flourish, so anhingas might also experience an increase in population.

50 14) Identify two species in this web that might compete with each other, and explain which resources they compete for. Alligators and bobcats are competing for food in the form of moorhens. Raccoons, moorhens, white-tailed deer, crayfish, glass shrimp, and flagfish compete for plant foods. Anhingas and alligators compete for pin frogs. Pin frogs and anhingas compete for crayfish. Bass and anhingas compete for killfish. Bass and killfish compete for grass shrimp and worms.

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52 Section 4 How Ecosystems Change ► Describe the types of ecological succession ► Explain what pioneer species are ► Explain the conditions necessary for a species to become invasive. ► Terms: ecological succession, primary succession, secondary succession, pioneer species

53 Ecological Succession ► Ecosystems constantly are changing (some fast some slowly) ► Young Forests vs. Old Forest ► Quick change like fire, or volcanic eruption

54 Ecological Disturbances A community in equilibrium is generally stable and balanced, with most populations at or around carrying capacity. Disturbances or changes in the environment can throw a community into disequilibrium. Severe disturbances can cause permanent changes to a community and initiate a predictable series of changes called succession

55 Ecological Succession ► Ecological Succession: the gradual change and replacement of some or all species in a community ► Neighborhood changes over time

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58 Ecological Succession ► Primary Succession: occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before (FIRST) ► Rocks, sand dunes ► Uncommon!

59 Primary Succession ► Occurs when there are no traces of the original community remaining, including vegetation and soil

60 Ecological Succession ► Secondary Succession: occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed ► More common ► Land Disturbed by humans, other animals ► Flood, fire, volcano

61 Secondary Succession ► Occurs when a disturbance dramatically alters a community but does not completely destroy it ► Common after disturbances such as fire, logging, or farming ► Occurs significantly faster than primary succession

62 Secondary ecological succession after a fire on the left Fires are a natural part of many forest ecosystems

63 Ecological Succession ► Pioneer Species: first organisms to colonize a newly available land ► Lichens, bacteria, small plants often pioneers

64 Pioneer species in a parking lot crack

65 Ecological Succession Climax Community: final stable community. Continues to change in small ways, but fairly stable if undisturbed

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67 Invasive Species Nonnative organisms that spread widely in a community A lack of limiting factors such as predators, parasites, or competitors enables their population to grow unchecked. Not all invasive species are harmful Did You Know? Although the European honeybee is invasive to North America, it is beneficial because it pollinates our agricultural crops.

68 Invasive kudzu ► A 2010 report on invasive species suggests that they cost the U.S. $120 billion a year in environmental losses and damages.

69 ► The zebra mussel has completely displaced 20 native mussel species in Lake St. Clair.

70 Invasive Species ► In the Great Lakes /watch?v=-V5513w1XSk /watch?v=-V5513w1XSk ► San Francisco Bay /watch?v=iu1z5Mo1wkA /watch?v=iu1z5Mo1wkA ► In Your Backyard /watch?v=3MtYtx4geV8 /watch?v=3MtYtx4geV8 ► Invasive Phragmites 20

71 Section 4 Ecosystem Changes Review ► Describe the types of ecological succession ► Explain what pioneer species are ► Explain the conditions necessary for s species to become invasive. ► Terms: ecological succession, primary succession, secondary succession, pioneer species

72 Section 4 Quiz 1) In the years immediately after a fire, a forest will experience A.primary succession. B.secondary succession. C.tertiary succession. D.a climax community. B. Secondary Succession

73 2) A landslide causes part of a mountainside to fall away, leaving bare rock. In the years immediately following the landslide, the area will experience A.primary succession. B.secondary succession. C.tertiary succession. D.a climax community. A. Primary Succession

74 3) If these are present in a new environment, a species is unlikely to become invasive. A.predators, parasites, and competitors B.cane toads, kudzu, and zebra mussels C.exotic species D.symbiotic and commensalist species A.predators, parasites, and competitors

75 Fill in blank 4) A species introduced to a new environment without limiting factors could become ____________________. Invasive

76 True or False 5) An invasive species is a species that has been introduced to a new area and lacks limiting factors. TRUE

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