## Presentation on theme: "Electromagnetic Radiation and Telescopes"— Presentation transcript:

(How we get information about the cosmos and how we gather the information)

Clicker Question Diffraction is the tendency of light to
a) bend around corners and edges. b) separate into its component colors. c) bend through a lens. d) disperse within a prism. e) reflect off a mirror. Diffraction is the tendency of light to Answer: a

Clicker Question Diffraction is the tendency of light to
a) bend around corners and edges. b) separate into its component colors. c) bend through a lens. d) disperse within a prism. e) reflect off a mirror. Diffraction is the tendency of light to Diffraction affects all telescopes and limits the sharpness of all images.

Telescopes

Light Hitting a Telescope Mirror
huge mirror near a star * * small mirror far from a star In the second case (reality), light rays from any single point of light are essentially parallel.

Light rays from a distant source, parallel to the "mirror axis“, all meet at one point, the focus.
CCD * *

Optical Telescopes Reflecting and refracting telescopes

Optical Telescopes - Refracting vs. Reflecting
Refracting telescope Focuses light with a lens (like a camera). object (point of light) image at focus Problems: - Lens can only be supported around edge. - "Chromatic aberration". - Some light absorbed in glass (especially UV, infrared). - Air bubbles and imperfections affect image quality.

Focuses light with a curved mirror.
Reflecting telescope Focuses light with a curved mirror. <-- object image - Can make bigger mirrors since they are supported from behind. - No chromatic aberration. - Reflects all radiation with little loss by absorption.

Refracting Telescope Reflecting Telescope
Yerkes 40-inch (about 1 m). Largest refractor. Cerro-Tololo 4 -m reflector.

Lens - different colors focus at different places.
Chromatic Aberration Lens - different colors focus at different places. white light Mirror - reflection angle doesn't depend on color.

Types of reflecting telescopes

Clicker Question a) light passing through lenses can be absorbed or scattered. b) large lenses can be very heavy. c) large lenses are more difficult to make. d) mirrors can be computer controlled to improve resolution. e) reflecting telescopes aren’t affected by the atmosphere as much. Modern telescopes use mirrors rather than lenses for all of these reasons EXCEPT Answer: e

Clicker Question a) light passing through lenses can be absorbed or scattered. b) large lenses can be very heavy. c) large lenses are more difficult to make. d) mirrors can be computer controlled to improve resolution. e) reflecting telescopes aren’t affected by the atmosphere as much. Modern telescopes use mirrors rather than lenses for all of these reasons EXCEPT Reflecting instruments like the KECK telescopes can be made larger, and more capable, than refractors.

Keck 10-m optical telescope
Mirror size Mirror with larger area captures more light from a star. Can look at fainter objects with it. Keck 10-m optical telescope m optical telescopes now being considered!

Image of Andromeda galaxy with optical telescope.
Image with telescope of twice the diameter, same exposure time.

The Two Main Types of Observation
Imaging (recording pictures) Spectroscopy (making a spectrum) usually using a diffraction grating In both cases, image or spectrum usually recorded on a CCD ("charge-coupled device")

Resolving Power of a Mirror
(how much detail can you see?) fuzziness you would see with your eye. detail you can see with a telescope. (a) 10′; (b) 1′; (c) 5″; (d) 1″

"Angular resolution" is the smallest angle by which two objects can be separated and still be distinguished. For the eye, this is 1' (1/60th of a degree). Or 100 km at distance of the Moon. wavelength mirror diameter angular resolution  For a 2.5-m telescope observing light at 5000 Angstroms (greenish), resolution = 0.05". But, blurring by atmosphere limits resolution of optical telescopes to about 1". This is called seeing.

* Seeing * Air density varies => bends light. No longer parallel
Parallel rays enter atmosphere dome No blurring case. Rays brought to same focus. Sharp image on CCD. * CCD Blurring. Rays not parallel. Can't be brought into focus. Blurred image.

Example: the Moon observed with a 2.5 m telescope 1" => 2 km
Hubble Space Telescope image, 0.05” resolution Ground-based telescope image, 1” resolution

North America at night So where would you put a telescope?

Kitt Peak National Observatory, near Tucson
Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii

Clicker Question Resolution is improved by using
a) larger telescopes & longer wavelengths. b) infrared light. c) larger telescopes & shorter wavelengths. d) lower frequency light. e) visible light. Resolution is improved by using Answer: c

Clicker Question Resolution is improved by using
a) larger telescopes & longer wavelengths. b) infrared light. c) larger telescopes & shorter wavelengths. d) lower frequency light. e) visible light. Resolution is improved by using Diffraction limits resolution; larger telescopes and shorter-wave light produces sharper images.

Clicker Question An advantage of CCDs over photographic film is
a) they don’t require chemical development. b) digital data is easily stored & transmitted. c) CCDs are more light sensitive than film. d) CCD images can be developed faster. e) All of the above are true. An advantage of CCDs over photographic film is Answer: e

Clicker Question An advantage of CCDs over photographic film is
a) they don’t require chemical development. b) digital data is easily stored & transmitted. c) CCDs are more light sensitive than film. d) CCD images can be developed faster. e) All of the above are true. An advantage of CCDs over photographic film is

Clicker Question Seeing in astronomy is a measurement of
a) the quality of the telescope’s optics. b) the transparency of a telescope’s lens. c) the sharpness of vision of your eyes. d) the image quality due to air stability. e) the sky’s clarity & absence of clouds. Seeing in astronomy is a measurement of Answer: d

Turbulent air produces “poor seeing,” and fuzzier images.
Clicker Question a) the quality of the telescope’s optics. b) the transparency of a telescope’s lens. c) the sharpness of vision of your eyes. d) the image quality due to air stability. e) the sky’s clarity & absence of clouds. Seeing in astronomy is a measurement of Point images of a star Smeared overall image of star “Good Seeing” occurs when the atmosphere is clear and the air is still. Turbulent air produces “poor seeing,” and fuzzier images.

Effelsberg 100-m (Germany)
Radio Telescopes Large metal dish acts as a mirror for radio waves. Radio receiver at prime focus. Surface accuracy not so important, so easy to make large one. But angular resolution is poor. Remember: Effelsberg 100-m (Germany) Andromeda galaxy – optical wavelength mirror diameter angular resolution  D larger than optical case, but wavelength much larger (cm's to m's), e.g. for wavelength = 1 cm, diameter = 100 m, resolution = 20". Andromeda radio map with Effelsberg telescope

Radio Astronomy Longer wavelength means poorer angular resolution.
Advantages of radio astronomy: Can observe 24 hours a day. Clouds, rain, and snow don’t interfere. Observations at an entirely different frequency; get totally different information.

Green Bank 100-m telescope (WV) Arecibo 300-m telescope (Puerto Rico)
Parkes 64-m (Australia) Jodrell Bank 76-m (England) Green Bank 100-m telescope (WV) Arecibo 300-m telescope (Puerto Rico)

Interferometry A technique to get improved angular resolution using an array of telescopes. Most common in radio, but also limited optical interferometry. D Consider two dishes with separation D vs. one dish of diameter D. By combining the radio waves from the two dishes, the achieved angular resolution is the same as the large dish.

VLA and optical image of Centaurus A
Example: wavelength = 1 cm, separation = 2 km, resolution = 1" Very Large Array (NM). Maximum separation 30 km Very Long Baseline Array. Maximum separation 1000's of km VLA and optical image of Centaurus A

Clicker Question Radio dishes are large in order to
a) improve angular resolution. b) give greater magnification. c) increase the range of waves they can collect. d) detect shorter waves than optical telescopes for superior resolution. Radio dishes are large in order to Answer: a

Clicker Question Radio dishes are large in order to
a) improve angular resolution. b) give greater magnification. c) increase the range of waves they can collect. d) detect shorter waves than optical telescopes for superior resolution. Radio dishes are large in order to Resolution is worse with long-wave light, so radio telescopes must be large to compensate.

Clicker Question Radio telescopes are useful because
a) observations can be made day & night. b) we can see objects that don’t emit visible light. c) radio waves are not blocked by interstellar dust. d) they can be linked to form interferometers. e) All of the above are true. Radio telescopes are useful because Answer: e

Clicker Question Radio telescopes are useful because
a) observations can be made day & night. b) we can see objects that don’t emit visible light. c) radio waves are not blocked by interstellar dust. d) they can be linked to form interferometers. e) All of the above are true. Radio telescopes are useful because The Very Large Array links separate radio telescopes to create much better resolution.

Clicker Question: When multiple radio telescopes are used for interferometry, resolving power is most improved by increasing: A: the distance between telescopes; B: the number of telescopes in a given area; C: the diameter of each telescope; D: the power supplied to each telescope

Astronomy at Other Wavelengths
Telescopes also observe infrared, UV, X-rays and gamma rays. Mostly done from space because of Earth's atmosphere. Infrared allows you to see radiation from warm dust in interstellar gas. Spitzer Space Telescope - infrared

Infrared also allows you to see through dust. Dust is good at
blocking visible light but infrared gets through better. Trifid nebula in visible light Trifid nebula with Spitzer

GLAST – Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope
Gamma rays are the most energetic photons, tracing high-energy events in Universe such as “Gamma-ray Bursters”. Latest mission is GLAST – successfully launched this year.

X-ray Optics X rays and gamma rays will not reflect off mirrors as other wavelengths do; need new techniques. X rays will reflect at a very shallow angle, and can therefore be focused. Gamma Rays cannot be focused at all; images are coarse

Hubble Space Telescope and its successor-to-be: the James Webb
Advantage of space for optical astronomy: get above blurring atmosphere – much sharper images. Center of M51: HST (left; 0.05” resolution) vs. ground-based (right; 1” resolution)

The James Web Space Telescope
Mock-up of JWST Will have diameter 6.5 meters (vs. HST 2.5 meters) – much higher resolution and sensitivity. Will also observe infrared, whereas Hubble is best at visible light. Expected launch 2013.

Clicker Question: The biggest telescopes on Earth are:
A: Gamma-ray telescopes. B: X-ray telescopes. C: Optical telescopes D: Radio telescopes E: Infra-red telescopes

Much can be learned from observing the same astronomical object at many wavelengths. Here, the Milky Way.

Summary of Chapter 3 Refracting telescopes make images with a lens.
Reflecting telescopes make images with a mirror. Modern research telescopes are all reflectors. CCDs are used for data collection. Data can be formed into image, analyzed spectroscopically, or used to measure intensity. Large telescopes gather much more light, allowing study of very faint sources. Large telescopes also have better resolution.

Summary of Chapter 3, cont.
Resolution of ground-based optical telescopes is limited by atmospheric effects. Resolution of radio or space-based telescopes is limited by diffraction. Active and adaptive optics can minimize atmospheric effects. Radio telescopes need large collection area; diffraction is limited. Interferometry can greatly improve resolution.

Summary of Chapter 3, cont.
Infrared and ultraviolet telescopes are similar to optical. Ultraviolet telescopes must be above atmosphere. X rays can be focused, but very differently than visible light. Gamma rays can be detected but not imaged.