Social Richness Social presence theory (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976) and media richness theory (Rice, 1992) Medium characteristics allow for different levels of intimacy and immediacy Developed to match communication media and organizational tasks
What Is Presence? Perceptual illusion of nonmediation Real time during media use Not a disorder or abnormal Property of media user Result of media form and content, media user characteristics and media context/environment
Why Is Presence Important? It’s ‘central’ – relates to many fields and endeavors It will be increasingly common It has many potential effects
Causes of Presence Form variables Number of sensory outputs Consistency of sensory outputs Visual display characteristics Image quality ** Image size ** ** Viewing distance ** ** Proportion of visual field ** Motion Color Dimensionality Subjective camera techniques
Causes of Presence Aural presentation characteristics Quality (frequency range, dynamic range, signal to noise ratio) Spatialization (dimensionality) Volume Interactivity Number of inputs from user the medium accepts and responds to Number and type of characteristics of mediated presentation/experience user can modify
Causes of Presence Interactivity (cont’d) Range or amount of change possible in each characteristic user can modify Degree of correspondence between type of user input and type of medium response Speed of medium response (lag time) Obtrusiveness of medium Live versus recorded or constructed experience Number of people
Causes of Presence Content variables Social realism Use of media conventions (formula plot/dialogue, etc.) Nature of task or activity Ambiguity Difficulty Emotionality
Causes of Presence Media user variables Willingness to suspend disbelief Knowledge of and prior experience with the medium Personality type Interests Preferred representational system (visual, auditory, or kinesthetic) Cognitive style Propensity to "screen" stimuli Mood before/during/after media use Age, Gender
Effects of Presence Physiological Arousal Vection and simulation sickness (dizziness, eyestrain, disorientation, dysphoria, standing and walking unsteadiness, nausea) Automatic responses (e.g., flinching, ducking, grasping chair) Reduced eye-hand coordination Flashbacks Illusory sensations (e.g., of climbing and turning) Reduced motor control
Effects of Presence Psychological and Behavioral Enjoyment Involvement Task performance Skills training Desensitization Persuasion Parasocial interaction and relationships Memory and social judgment
Presence Research Goals –Identify and manipulate causes –Understand and develop cohesive theory of cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes of telepresenc –Identify, measure and manipulate consequences of telepresence
Big Picture Questions How to maximize usefulness of telepresence? What forms do people want and fear? Where will technology evolution take us? (utopia vs. dystopia) How to deal with ethical challenges?
International Society for Presence Research (ISPR): http://ispr.info Matthew Lombard email@example.com Resources for Learning More
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