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When Media Aren’t Media: The Concept of (Tele)presence Matthew Lombard Temple University BTMM 3446/8446 March 2, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "When Media Aren’t Media: The Concept of (Tele)presence Matthew Lombard Temple University BTMM 3446/8446 March 2, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 When Media Aren’t Media: The Concept of (Tele)presence Matthew Lombard Temple University BTMM 3446/8446 March 2, 2010

2 Overview What is presence? Why is it important? What are causes and effects? What are research goals? Resources for learning more

3 What Is Presence? The evolution of media technologies - drawings, print, radio, film, television, computers, videogames, IMAX, simulator rides, virtual reality, virtual worlds, artificial intelligence agents…

4 What Is Presence? … has produced mediated experiences that seem increasingly natural, intuitive, comfortable, easy, automatic, because the technology seems increasingly less like technology.

5 What Is Presence? Transportation Realism Immersion Social richness Social actor within medium Medium as social actor

6 What Is Presence? Presence as transportation “Being there” or “you are there” “It is here” “We are together” (shared space)

7 “You are there”

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11 “It is here”

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15 “We are there” (shared space)

16 What Is Presence? Presence as realism Perceptual realism Social realism

17 Realism

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20 What Is Presence? Presence as immersion

21 Immersion

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23 What Is Presence? Presence as social richness

24 Social Richness Social presence theory (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976) and media richness theory (Rice, 1992) Medium characteristics allow for different levels of intimacy and immediacy Developed to match communication media and organizational tasks

25 Social Richness

26 What Is Presence? Presence as social actor within medium

27 Social Actor within Medium

28 Social Actor Within Medium Lara Diki T-babe Webbie- Tookay

29 What Is Presence? Presence as medium as social actor

30 Medium As Social Actor

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34 Medium as Social Actor

35 Medium As Social Actor

36 What Is Presence? Perceptual illusion of nonmediation Real time during media use Not a disorder or abnormal Property of media user Result of media form and content, media user characteristics and media context/environment

37 Why Is Presence Important? It’s ‘central’ – relates to many fields and endeavors It will be increasingly common It has many potential effects

38 Causes of Presence Form variables Number of sensory outputs Consistency of sensory outputs Visual display characteristics Image quality ** Image size ** ** Viewing distance ** ** Proportion of visual field ** Motion Color Dimensionality Subjective camera techniques

39 Causes of Presence Aural presentation characteristics Quality (frequency range, dynamic range, signal to noise ratio) Spatialization (dimensionality) Volume Interactivity Number of inputs from user the medium accepts and responds to Number and type of characteristics of mediated presentation/experience user can modify

40 Causes of Presence Interactivity (cont’d) Range or amount of change possible in each characteristic user can modify Degree of correspondence between type of user input and type of medium response Speed of medium response (lag time) Obtrusiveness of medium Live versus recorded or constructed experience Number of people

41 Causes of Presence Content variables Social realism Use of media conventions (formula plot/dialogue, etc.) Nature of task or activity Ambiguity Difficulty Emotionality

42 Causes of Presence Media user variables Willingness to suspend disbelief Knowledge of and prior experience with the medium Personality type Interests Preferred representational system (visual, auditory, or kinesthetic) Cognitive style Propensity to "screen" stimuli Mood before/during/after media use Age, Gender

43 Effects of Presence Physiological Arousal Vection and simulation sickness (dizziness, eyestrain, disorientation, dysphoria, standing and walking unsteadiness, nausea) Automatic responses (e.g., flinching, ducking, grasping chair) Reduced eye-hand coordination Flashbacks Illusory sensations (e.g., of climbing and turning) Reduced motor control

44 Effects of Presence Psychological and Behavioral Enjoyment Involvement Task performance Skills training Desensitization Persuasion Parasocial interaction and relationships Memory and social judgment

45 Presence and Social Judgments

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50 Presence Research Goals –Identify and manipulate causes –Understand and develop cohesive theory of cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes of telepresenc –Identify, measure and manipulate consequences of telepresence

51 Big Picture Questions How to maximize usefulness of telepresence? What forms do people want and fear? Where will technology evolution take us? (utopia vs. dystopia) How to deal with ethical challenges?

52 International Society for Presence Research (ISPR): Matthew Lombard Resources for Learning More

53 END


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