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Meiosis AP Biology Unit 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Meiosis AP Biology Unit 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meiosis AP Biology Unit 3

2 Meiosis Process that occurs to form haploid cells from diploid cells
Forms gametes– sperm and egg

3 Homologous Chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes containing the same sets of genes One chromosome from each parent Don’t necessarily contain identical genetic material Ex. You get one chromosome #4 from mom and one chromosome #4 from dad

4 Homologous Chromosomes vs. Sister Chromatids
Homologous chromosomes contain the same information, but aren’t identical to one another Sister chromatids are identical copies of the same chromosome.

5 Meiosis Overview Chromosomes are replicated to form sister chromatids before meiosis 2 stages Meiosis I  homologous pairs are separated Meiosis II  sister chromatids are separated Results in 4 haploid daughter cells In humans, this means there are 23 chromosomes in each haploid cell

6 No DNA is copied between Meiosis I and II

7 Metaphase I: homologous pairs line up in the middle of the cell
Anaphase I: homologous pairs pulled apart

8 Metaphase II: Chromosomes line up single file


10 Unique to Meiosis Synapsis and Crossing Over in Prophase I
Synapsis = when homologous chromosomes line up next to one another  form a tetrad Crossing over = the non-sister chromatids in the pair exchange genetic material

11 Crossing Over and Genetic Diversity
Crossing Over leads to more genetic diversity in a species Why? By exchanging some genetic material, the haploid cells formed through meiosis are no longer identical– more variety

12 Unique to Meiosis Homologous Chromosomes line up next to each other (form tetrads) Homologous chromosomes, NOT sister chromatids, separate from each other during Anaphase I

13 Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction
Who does it? Bacteria, Yeast Hydra, Fungi Animals, Plants Methods (a few examples) Budding, Binary Fission Pollination, Fertilization Advantages Very quick, produces clones More genetic diversity Disadvantages Less genetic diversity– only through mutations Uses more energy, offspring may not be as fit

14 Example of Asexual Reproduction-- Budding

15 Recombination Another name for Crossing Over
Occurs in Prophase I when homologous chromosomes pair up Results in genetic variation In humans, 1-3 crossover events per chromosome

16 Recombination Frequency
Likelihood of crossing over between 2 genes is directly related to the distance between them If 2 genes are close to one another on a chromosome there is less of a chance they’ll be separated by crossing over If 2 genes are far from one another on a chromosome there is a greater chance they’ll be separated by crossing over

17 Recombination Frequency
When 2 genes are separated by crossing over we say they have recombined. High recombination frequency = likely to be separated by crossing over Low recombination frequency = not likely to be separated by crossing over

18 Recombination Frequency
If 2 genes have a high recombination frequency, are they close together or far apart? Far apart– greater % chance of being separated

19 Linkage Maps A map (diagram of relative positions of genes) can be made by considering recombination frequencies

20 Sample Problem What is the order of genes given the following recombination frequencies? Genes Recombination Frequency A & B 40% A & C 10% A & D 15% B & D 25% B & C 30% C & D 5%

21 A ----- (10)------ C --- (5) --- D
Answer Step 1: Start by determining which genes are closest together C & D are closest  5% recombination freq. C--- (5) --- D Now, determine the position of one more gene relative to these, let’s say gene A A is closer to C (10%) compared to D (15%) A (10) C --- (5) --- D

22 Answer (continued) Now, put in the final gene
B is farthest from A, then C, then D according to the numbers A (10) C --- (5) --- D ---- (25) ---- B

23 Nondisjunction Meiotic spindle works incorrectly.
Chromosomes fail to separate properly. May occur during meiosis I or II Meiosis I: homologous chromosomes don’t separate Meiosis II: sister chromatids don’t separate

24 Polyploidy vs. Aneuploidy
Polyploidy = having too many chromosomes ( more than 2 copies/sets of a chromosome) Aneuploidy = having an abnormal number of chromosomes (either too few or too many)

25 Trisomic vs. Monosomic Trisomic = having 3 copies of a chromosome
Monosomic = only having 1 copy of a chromosome

26 Meiosis Problems Extra or missing parts of chromosomes can also occur due to errors in crossing over

27 Why is this a problem? Why might an increase of DNA result in physical problems? Proteins overproduced, not enough regulators to regulate all genes, etc. Why might a decrease of DNA result in physical problems? Missing genes or portions of genes, regulatory proteins not made, etc

28 Karyotypes Karyotypes are used to determine if there are chromosomal abnormalities Only tells you if there are the right number of chromosomes Does NOT tell you if specific genes are mutated

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