2 1. What did the CIA source named Dragonfire report on October 11, 2001? They reported that al Qaeda had stolen a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon from Russia and brought it to New York. P.1
3 2. Define “proliferation” The spread of nuclear weapons p.2
4 3. Text fill inRussia and the United States have approximately 26,300 of the some 27,600 nuclear weapons in the world. P. 2
5 4. When and why were nuclear weapons used? August 6, 1945Hiroshima, JapanAugust 9, 1945Nagasaki, JapanThe bomb was authorized by President Harry Truman in hopes of a speedy end to the war in the Pacific. It was used to save lives. It was estimated that using the bomb would result in fewer casualties than continuing the conventional war. P. 3
6 5. What was the Cold War? How long did it last? The conflict between communism and capitalism following World War II, ending with the fall of communism in most Eastern European nations in It lasted more than 40 yearsapproximately 1947 – 1989.
7 6. Text fill inDeterrence was based on the idea that the build-up of nuclear weapons could actually prevent one side from starting a nuclear war. P. 5
8 7. Charts page 10Examine the charts of U.S. and Soviet nuclear weapons in your reading. In what year did the number of soviet weapons surpass U.S. weapons? P. 101978
9 8. What was the Cuban Missile Crisis? P. 8 In October 1962 the United States discovered that the Soviets were installing nuclear missile sites on the island of Cuba. President Kennedy demanded the removal of the missiles. After a 13 day standoff between the U.S. and Soviet Union the Soviet Union agreed to remove their missiles from Cuba if the U.S. promised not to invade Cuba and removed nuclear missiles from Turkey.T his is the closest the U.S. has been to nuclear war. Forces in United States and Soviet Union were on high alert.
10 9. What was the purpose of arms control 9. What was the purpose of arms control? Give two examples of arms control treaties. P. 10Give two examples of arms control treaties. P. 10To limit the danger of nuclear weapons and war.Limited Test Ban TreatySigned by United States, Soviet Union, and the United KingdomIt prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, under water, and underground.Marked the beginning of U.S. efforts to control the danger of nuclear weapons through arms control agreements and treaties.
11 9. continued Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) signed in 1968 U.N. resolution sponsored by Ireland calling for negotiations on an international agreement. (1961)Prevent state other than those already having nuclear weapons from acquiring nuclear weaponsStates would be allowed to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.The NPT became the cornerstone of U.S. efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.Ant-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972)Agreement between U.S. and Soviet Union to preserve deterrence.Limited the number of ground based missile interceptors each side could have.Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)Prevented increases in the number of ballistic missiles.
12 10. Why did President Reagan shift his attitude about the Soviet Union 10. Why did President Reagan shift his attitude about the Soviet Union? PNATO military exercise in November 1983 called Able Archer led the Soviets to believe they were about to be attacked by nuclear weaponsReagan was stunned the Soviets thought the U.S. would launch an unprovoked attack.Military intelligence said the Soviets continued to fear they were about to be attacked.This led to a level of mistrust between the Soviets and U.S. that had been unseen since the Cuban Missile CrisisThis and a change in Soviet leadership led Reagan to begin negotiations with the Soviets to prevent a nuclear war.