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The Sweeping Tide of State-Level Performance-Based Funding: What Does it Mean to Rural Community Colleges? Presentation at Rural Community College Alliance.

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Presentation on theme: "The Sweeping Tide of State-Level Performance-Based Funding: What Does it Mean to Rural Community Colleges? Presentation at Rural Community College Alliance."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sweeping Tide of State-Level Performance-Based Funding: What Does it Mean to Rural Community Colleges? Presentation at Rural Community College Alliance Annual Conference September 25, 2014

2 Presenters Janice Nahra Friedel, PhD Zoë Mercedes Thornton, M.S.
Associate Professor School of Education College of Human Sciences Iowa State University Zoë Mercedes Thornton, M.S. Doctoral Candidate - Higher Education Graduate Assistant, School of Education Stephen G. Katsinas, PhD Professor of Higher Education Director, Education Policy Center The University of Alabama

3 The recession and decline in state revenues has caused a shift in the proportion of public college revenues generated from state aid to tuition and fees.

4 Many policymakers are no longer satisfied with providing incremental funding increases or using enrollment-driven formulae for public colleges and universities.

5 Increasing accountability coupled with declining revenues has led many states to implement strategies to hold colleges accountable in meeting state needs and to ensure quality. These strategies range from uniform performance indicators to performance-based funding (PBF).

6 PBF is a key policy response to the call for greater transparency and accountability in public higher education.

7 What is Performance-Based Funding?
“A system based on allocating a portion of a state’s higher education budget according to specific performance measures.” (Miao, 2012, p. 1) (PBF) “rewards institutions that meet state goals,…is based on outputs instead of inputs,…(and) the more goals that institutions meet, the more funding they receive.” (Blankenberger, 2011, slide 12)

8 Brief History of Performance-Based Funding
The first state to attempt PBF was Tennessee in 1979, and as many as 30 states have a history of some consideration of performance in budgeting processes (Burke & Modarresi, 1999) Typical percentage of funding allocated based on performance ranged from 1-5% (Sanford & Hunter, 2011) South Carolina was the most extreme early example – 37 performance indicators and 100% of public funding (Alexander, 1998)

9 Three Models of Performance-Based Funding
Output-based Funding Formula Rewards improvement of specific metrics, using a portion of the annual base. Often weighted for institutional mission. Performance Set-aside Awards high-performing institutions with some percentage of reserved funding. Incentivizes competition between institutions. Performance Contract Bonus funding is awarded upon goal attainment. May be initiated by the state or institution. (Miao, 2012)

10 Types of Performance Indicators
General outcome indicators: graduation rate, number of degrees/certificates awarded, number of degrees/certificates awarded per FTE, research or grant funding awarded, job placement rates, student success on licensing exams Progress outcome indicators: number of students completing 12, 24, 48 and 72 semester credits, developmental course completion, retention rates, gateway course completion, course completion after transfer, dual enrollment credit completion Subgroup outcome indicators: low-income status, at-risk status, Pell Grant recipients, nontraditional students, first-generation students, minority group identification High-need subject outcome indicators: STEM fields, nursing, job placement rates in high-need fields (Dougherty & Reddy, 2011; Harnisch, 2011; Miao, 2012; NCSL, 2013; WHECB, 2011)

11 Comparing Design Types
PBF 1.0 PBF 2.0 Some designed without input from higher education leaders Institutional goals and mission may be disregarded Emphasis on outcomes measures, less on progress measures Small percentage of bonus funding - often new money Joint planning process Alignment with the state’s agenda and institutional priorities Soft landing: learning year and/or stop loss Progress and completion measures Weighted formula to ensure access and equity Percentage of base appropriations

12 Performance-Based Funding is a Moving Target

13 A Note of Caution It is important to note that PBF is not the answer to the larger issue of declining support and funding for higher education, and thus should not be used to meet the greater funding issues of higher education.

14 A Performance-Based Funding Bandwagon?
Despite recent attention, there is not compelling evidence of the link between PBF and improved student outcomes at this time.

15 Performance-Based Funding: The National Landscape Policy Brief

16 Updates to State Activity Details Table
Status Amount of PBF Metrics Alabama UPDATED: Formal discussions The Alabama Department of Postsecondary Education (overseeing community and technical colleges) commissioned a study in 2013 to propose a new funding formula to allocate state appropriations. Hawai’i In place 2008 HB2978 Up to 2% of annual appropriations Using 5 year averages as baseline data, public universities and community colleges metrics include the following: Number of transfer students Number of graduates Number of job placements in major workforce shortage areas Iowa In transition Beginning FY16 - 40% of annual appropriations based on performance indicators. The Board of Regents has approved a PBF model for the three public universities with the following formula: 5% - Progress measures 10% - Degree completion 10% - Access measures 5% - Sponsored research 5% - Graduate/Professional enrollment 5% - Customized metrics to be distributed by the Board of Regents Kansas Statute d Performance agreements New funds, in excess of total appropriations received the previous fiscal year, are available for performance funding Institutions submit performance agreements every three years, which are evaluated annually for funding. Performance indicators for all sectors include: First year to second year retention rates Number of certificates and degrees awarded Graduation rates Student performance on institutional assessments or quality measures. Additional sector-specific measures are also in place.

17 State Activity PBF Activity Number of States PBF in Place 25
Transitioning to PBF 6 Formal Discussions of PBF 9 No Formal Activity Found 10 Updated from Friedel, Thornton, D'Amico & Katsinas (2013).

18 Current PBF Status Across the States
PBF In Place Transitioning to PBF Formal Discussions of PBF No Formal Activity Found Updated from Friedel, Thornton, D'Amico & Katsinas, 2013.

19 Future Updates National Conference of State Legislatures

20 A Review of the Literature
Proposed Advantages Possible Disadvantages Increased awareness and alignment of the institutional mission and goals with the state’s agenda Increased college self-awareness of actual outcomes Increased healthy competition between colleges Increased use of data during institutional planning and decision making Indicators measure only a portion of the entire institutional picture Potential negative effects on institutional quality, access, equity, mission, or stability Potential for additional loss of funds Disregard for institution-specific factors

21 How do members of the leadership team describe the impacts of a mandated performance-based funding policy on their rural community college? How do members of the leadership team at a rural community college describe the organizational impacts of a mandated PBF policy? How does the level of organizational impact felt within the rural community college vary depending on the amount of funding at risk due to performance? What is the extent of the adverse effects of the PBF policy, as described by members of the leadership team? PBF not yet in Iowa, however approved by the Board of Regents for three public universities. CC’s locally governed in Iowa, without a unified system. Iowa’s CC’s are classified as rural by the Carnegie classification system for public Associate granting institutions. Primary question guiding the research - However, can be approached in multiple ways…leading to three secondary questions.

22 Discussion What does it mean to rural community colleges?
What has been the real impact of PBF policies on rural community colleges?

23 The Importance of Telling the Rural Community College Story
It is extremely important that the full effects of PBF on institutions are understood and that appropriate planning takes place for implementation and adjustment. In particular, rural community colleges, already facing multiple challenges in their distinct role of economic, workforce and community development, require greater understanding and preparation for the potential effects of this funding option.

24 Note This presentation contains slides which have been utilized in presentations given at conferences and provided upon invitation to groups exploring performance-based funding models. Iowa Board of Regents, Performance-Based Revenue Task Force American College Personnel Association, 2014 Higher Education Webinar Series Council for the Study of Community Colleges, 2014 conference National Education Finance Conference, 2014

25 References Alexander, F. K. (1998, November). The endless pursuit of efficiency: The international movement to increase accountability and performance in higher education. Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Miami, FL. Blankenberger, B. (2011). Performance-based funding and higher education institutions in the state of Illinois. Presented at the Illinois Association of Institutional Research Conference, November 2011. Burke, J. C., & Modarresi, S. (1999). Performance funding and budgeting: Popularity and volatility--the third annual survey. Albany, NY: Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, Public Higher Education Program. Dougherty, K. J., & Reddy, V. (2011). The impacts of state performance funding systems on higher education institutions: Research literature review and policy recommendations (Community College Research Center Working Paper No. 37). Retrieved from Friedel, J. N., Thornton, Z. M, D'Amico, M. M. & Katsinas, S. G. (2013). Performance-based funding: A national landscape. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Education Policy Center. Retrieved from Harnisch, T. L. (2011). Performance-based funding: A re-emerging strategy in public higher education financing. Washington, D.C.: American Association of State Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from

26 References cont. Miao, K. (2012). Performance-based funding of higher education: A detailed look at best practices in 6 states. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) (2013). Performance funding for higher education. Retrieved from Sanford, T., & Hunter, J. M. (2011). Impact of performance-funding on retention and graduation rates. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 19(33), 1-30. Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board (WHECB) Performance-based funding (Policy brief). Olympia, WA: Author.

27 For additional information, please contact:
Janice Nahra Friedel, PhD Zoë Mercedes Thornton, M.S.

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