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Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination The Development of Prejudice in Children Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination The Development of Prejudice in Children Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination The Development of Prejudice in Children Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

2 The Development of Prejudice in Children Theories and Research on the development of prejudice in children Children’s awareness of social categories –Foundations for preferences, attitudes, and behaviors towards members of other social group –Race, gender, other characteristic Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

3 The Development of Prejudice in Children Theories and Research on the development of prejudice in children Development of prejudice organized in two social dimensions –Race –Gender Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

4 The Development of Prejudice in Children Theories and Research on the development of prejudice in children Three types of Theories of prejudice: –Social Learning –Inner state theories –Cognitive development theories Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

5 Research: Development of Prejudice in Children Jane Elliott’s Jane Elliott’s Lesson on Discrimination Blue-eyed/Brown-eyed Dr. Kenneth Dr. Kenneth and Mamie Clark’s The doll techniqueMamie Clark’s Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

6 Awareness of Social Categories Social Awareness Categories Implicit awareness—nonverbal, subconscious categorization: habituation paradigm Explicit awareness—is conscious awareness of particular social groups Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

7 Awareness of Social Categories Social Awareness Categories Infants are implicitly aware of –Gender –Age –Physical attractiveness By age 6 months Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

8 Awareness of Social Categories Category preference—children select or prefer one group over another –Prejudice—refers to an evaluative response toward the members of some group –Discrimination—refers to behaviors directed toward social groups who are the object of prejudice Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

9 Awareness of Social Categories Categorization helps children develop accurate pictures of their social world Forming accurate perception of the world –Prejudiced children respond negatively to distinctions they note –Unprejudiced children respond not Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

10 Awareness of Social Categories Awareness: Two Types Explicit awareness—conscious awareness of particular social groups Implicit awareness—children aware before begin using language to place labels on groups, preverbal Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

11 Awareness of Social Categories Awareness Implicit awareness –Emerges earlier in development, infancy –Before children acquire language –Awareness of gender, attractiveness and age –Without verbalization –Habituation paradigm Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

12 Awareness of Social Categories Awareness Explicit awareness ( conscious awareness) –Children have accurate knowledge of social categories –Apply labels correctly or identify –Preschool years are critical in the development a social groups based on race (4 & 5 yrs. Old) and gender (3 yrs. Old) Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

13 Awareness of Social Categories Awareness Children make many social-group-based categorical distinctions in preschool years. But does making these sorts of distinctions lead to prejudice? Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

14 Development of Prejudice The Development of Racial Prejudice Methodological issues –Forced choice method- Color Meaning Test (CMT) Preschool Racial Attitude Measure (PRAM II) –Continuous measure of prejudice –Sociometric ratings White children’s attitudes Black children’s attitudes Attitudes of children from other groups Intergroup behavior Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

15 Development of Prejudice The Development of Racial Prejudice Development of Gender-Based prejudice –Origins –Gender constancy –Homosocially –Other children’s attitudes –Intergroup behavior Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

16 Theories of Prejudice Development Social Learning Theory Inner State Theory Cognitive Development Theory Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

17 Theories of Prejudice Development Social Learning Theory –Bandura, 1977 – Direct teaching –Indirect teaching Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

18 Theories of Prejudice Development Inner State Theory –Personality –Genetic Influences –Social Leaning Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006

19 Theories of Prejudice Development Cognitive Development Theories –Piaget’s Theory Egocentrism—focus on oneself Centration—focus on a single piece of information –Aboud’s Theory Process sequence—emotional state to perception and cognition Attention sequence--processes of sequence Prepared by Prof. Saterfield for Whitley and kite, 2006


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