Commission Chair –Mr. Milton Gilliam, Oklahoma Executive Director –Mr. Harry Hageman General Counsel –Mr. Richard L. Masters, Esq. Key Personnel
Courts, Parole Boards, Community Corrections & other Executive Agencies –subject to ICAOS rules –MUST enforce & effectuate the Compact Do you know your state’s statute? Interstate Compact Legislation
Authority of the Interstate Compact The Crime Control Act of 1934 permitted two or more states to enter into agreements for mutual assistance in the prevention of crime. –Cuyler vs. Adams, 449 U.S. 433 (1981). Compact rules supersede any state laws in conflict with them.
National Governing Body All 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are members of the Interstate Compact –Rule Making Authority –Compliance Enforcement
Purpose of ICAOS Promote Public Safety Protect the Rights of Victims Effective Supervision/Rehabilitation Control Movement of Offenders Provide for Effective Tracking
Mission The Interstate Commission for Adult Offender Supervision will guide the transfer of offenders in a manner that promotes effective supervision strategies consistent with public safety, offender accountability, and victim’s rights.
State Structure State Council Governor Representative Legislative Representative Judicial Representative Victim’s Advocate Other Appointed Members Provide mechanism for empowerment of Compact process; Assist in developing Compact policy; Determine qualifications for membership on Council; Appoint Acting Commissioner when Commissioner is unable to attend.
Interstate Compacts Interstate compacts are contractual agreements between the states enacted through legislative means and adopted to resolve a dispute, study a problem or create an on-going administrative mechanism for managing an interstate affair.
Interstate Compacts Agreements between states authorized under Article I, Section 10, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution – the “Compact Clause” The U.S. Supreme Court has consistently held that Congressional consent is only required for compacts that tend to increase the political power of the states in a manner that encroaches upon or interferes with the just supremacy of the United States.
Crime Control Act 4 U.S.C. Section 112 (1965) Authorizes and encourages states to form interstate compacts for cooperative efforts and mutual assistance in the prevention of crime.
Implications of Congressional Consent Congressional consent: Transforms an interstate compact into federal law under the “law of the union doctrine.” See, Delaware River Comm’n v. Colburn, 310 U.S. 419, 439 (1940); Cuyler v. Adams, 449 U.S. 433 (1981). This transformation is not only for jurisdictional or interpretative purposes. Consent makes a compact substantive federal law. Makes a compact enforceable under the Supremacy Clause and the Contract Clause.
Rulemaking Power Commission rules must be adopted in a manner that is substantially similar to the process of the Administrative Procedures Act. Once adopted, the rules have the force and effect of statutory law and supercede any inconsistent state laws. Majority of state legislatures can reject a proposed rule.
Enforcement Power Commission has authority to enforce the compact and its rules upon the states by: Require remedial training Require mediation/arbitration of dispute Impose monetary fines on a state Seek relief in federal court, most likely by obtaining an injunction to curtail state action or compel compliance
Authority to Regulate There is no “right” of convicted persons to travel across state lines. See, Bagley v. Harvey, 718 F.2d 921 (9 th Cir. 1988). Convicted person has no right to control where they live; the right is extinguished for the balance of their sentence. Williams v. Wisconsin, 336 F.3d 576 (7 th Cir. 2003),
Who Is Covered? Certain misdemeanants Offenders subject to deferred sentences –Suspended Imposition of Sentence –Suspended Execution of Sentence All Felons Juveniles tried as adults
Who Is NOT Covered? Persons in a pre-trial, pre-adjudicated status; Persons subject to work release; Persons with less than three months supervision remaining on their sentences; Persons with minor misdemeanor convictions
Empowerment Each state is required by statute to establish a state council for overseeing its intrastate affairs dealing with the Compact. An active State Council can have a positive influence on a state’s compact operation. –State councils can serve as an advocate when seeking resources, improving operations, resolving disputes and conducting training.
Membership States determines the structure, composition and budget of their State Council. –must include at least one representative from the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, victim groups, other community interest groups and the Compact Administrator.
Appointments The appointment process is often cumbersome and lengthy. Take the initiative to recommend suitable candidates for appointment who are willing to serve, this may speed up the appointment process.
Appointments, cont’d. Factors to consider when recommending appointments include: –Is the candidate willing to serve on the council? –Does the candidate have a demonstrated interest in the compact process? –Is the individual well known in the criminal justice community? –Is the candidate influential?
Become familiar with the compact and its purpose. Become educated on your state’s Compact process. Become familiar with how your state appoints the Compact Administrator. Become familiar with the authority vested in the Interstate Commission. Become familiar with the process if the Compact Administrator cannot attend a Commission meeting. Council Members Should:
Council Members cont’d. Assist in determining if Compact office has adequate staff for the operation of the Compact. Become familiar with rules of the Commission and discuss any desired additions. Assist Compact Administrator in developing a network within your state to assist with the Compact process. Discuss the addition of other members that may lend assistance to the Compact process.
Preliminary Activities for the Council Develop the Council’s –Mission Statement –Short and long term plans –Goals and objectives Establish meeting procedures –Scheduling –Notices –Meeting Minutes –Voting procedures
Staying Energized Projects that are helpful to the compact office and suitable for engaging the Council include: –Developing a dispute resolution policy and procedure –Assess compact office workload and needs –Recommending changes in Compact Office business process and procedures –Present on the Compact at conferences –Recommend legislative changes and lobby legislative groups –Recommend changes to the Compact rules
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