Presentation on theme: "EPA’s draft guidelines to states for the development of state 111(d) PLANS NORTH DAKOTA ALLIANCE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY OCTOBER 22, 2014 Franz Litz PROGRAM."— Presentation transcript:
1 EPA’s draft guidelines to states for the development of state 111(d) PLANS NORTH DAKOTA ALLIANCE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY OCTOBER 22, Franz Litz PROGRAM CONSULTANT
2 Overview of Presentation 111(d)’s Federal-State FrameworkBuilding Blocks “build” state stringencyBeyond EPA’s “Building Blocks”Planning under §111(d): the Approaches“No Regrets” Exploration of Options
3 The Federal-State Framework EPA issues standards for new sources--under §111(b) of the Clean Air Act—and these are federal.For existing sources, EPA issues guidelines to states under 111(d) to “guide” states on 111(d) plans.States develop 111(d) plans—single-state or multi-state.If state fails to submit plan, or the plan is inadequate, EPA imposes federal planThe carbon standards process begins with standards for new sources under section 111(b) of the Clean Air Act. The rule for new sources was proposed last September and noticed in the Federal Register January 8, This date is important because any plant for which construction was commenced January is an existing plant subject to 111(d) requirements and not 111(b) requirements for new sources.Once the new source standards is finalized—comments have closed and EPA says to expect it by the end of this calendar year—EPA must then issue guidelines to cover existing plants. It issued the draft guidelines on June 2nd.The guidelines establish minimum stringency for existing plants and provide states with “instructions” on what is approvable in a state’s 111(d) plan.One key aspect of the federal-state relationship is that EPA must put a federal plan for existing sources in place in the event that a state fails to submit a state plan or fails to submit an acceptable state plan. EPA’s draft guidelines don’t provide a very good sense of what we might expect if a state fails to meet the requirements of the guideline, though one can bet that the federal approach will be less flexible because EPA will be reluctant to impose a broad federal implementation mechanism in its federal plan.
4 Summary of EPA 111(d) Guidelines Dubbed EPA’s “Clean Power Plan”Sets minimum stringency for a state—called “state goals” that apply in aggregate to the state’s “affected” electric generating unitsEstablishes a compliance time period of ten years, with an interim target to apply on average between 2020 and 2029, and a final target in 2030Guidelines give states very broad flexibility to achieve state goals through any “efficacious means”
5 “Adjusted Output-Weighted Average CO2 Emission Rates” TOTAL CO2 EMISSIONSfrom Coal-, Oil- & Gas-fired Steam, Natural Gas Combined Cycle & “Other” Units (Affected EGUs)TOTAL NET ENERGY OUTPUTFrom Affected EGUs+ Renewables + New Nuclear + 6% at-risk nuclear + cumulative annual EE savingsLbsMWhOne thing to understand is that EPA’s state goals are expressed in terms of “Adjusted Output-Weighted Average Co2 Emission Rates”. This means that the goals are about more than just the emissions that come out of coal- and natural gas-fired power plants. They are also about renewable generation and energy efficiency (and new and at-risk nuclear for states that have nuclear power).States can stick with the rate-based goal or they can convert that goal to a mass budget. The mass budget alternative is supposed to be comparable to the rate—very important. The mass goal takes into account expected growth in the rate to mass conversion and so in theory it should not be any tighter than the rate. In reality it will be tighter or looser depending on how the rate to mass conversion is carried out and that is an issue of great concern to states because EPA has so far not provided adequate guidance on how to make that conversion.Or Convert the Goal to Tons.
6 BUILDING BLOCKS Heat Rate Improvements at Coal Plants 6% through both O&M and plant upgradesIncreased Utilization of Existing Natural Gas PlantsDial up existing NGCC to 70% capacity factorIncreased Utilization of Zero Carbon Resources,Including Nuclear and RenewablesOperate New Nuclear Plants, Preserve the 6% of Existing Nuclear capacity that EIA projects would retire; & Achieve renewables generation consistent with average regional renewables targetEPA “builds” state goals using 4 building blocks:Ability to make heat-rate improvements at coals plants;Ability to ramp up existing natural gas combined cycle plants (and ramp down existing coal);Ability to generate electricity with zero-carbon sources, namely nuclear & renewables energy; andAbility to implement EE programs to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year (following a ramp-up if necessary).EPA notes that these are not the only measures available to improve emissions performanceAchieve 1.5% Energy Savings through End-Use Energy EfficiencyStarting where a state is, increase energy savings at a rate of 0.2% per year until state reaches 1.5%
7 Are NOT a Compliance Pathway BUILDING BLOCKSAre NOT a Compliance PathwayEPA has not provided a compliance pathway—not really. That is left to each state, or to states working together.EPA used the building blocks to establish state goals, i.e. the stringency that a state plan must meet.But the building blocks are not the lowest cost way to achieve the reductions; they are not flexible; and in many cases they are not easily implemented by states.EPA used the building block approach as a way to set stringency while giving states very broad flexibility. This is good in the sense that EPA gave states the flexibility they asked for, but it is challenging because states are more or less starting from scratch. And states don’t really have any sense of how much their plan will cost or what the other impacts of the plan will be. Cost and impact depends on what a state chooses to do.
8 BEYOND THE BUILDING BLOCKS Heat Rate Improvements at Coal PlantsIncreased Utilization of Existing Natural Gas PlantsIncreased Utilization of Zero Carbon Resources,Including Nuclear and RenewablesAchieve 1.5% Energy Savings through End-Use Energy EfficiencyCo-firing lower carbon fuelsRetirementsNew Natural Gas PlantsMany states have indicated that they want to capture other sources of emissions reductions—not just the ones reflected in the 4 building blocks. Here we see some of those other sources of reductions that a state might like to capture through its compliance mechanism, especially if these approaches achieve the result at a lower cost and with flexibility that promotes reliability.Distributed Generation, Combined Heat and PowerCarbon capture & storage (e.g. EOR-related)Gains from Trade/Regional Compliance
9 EPA’s Draft Guideline to States EPA says “YES” to broad flexibility for states—“any efficacious means”Too many choices? Maybe not at closer look:Federal enforceability issues make “portfolio” approach undesirable to many states;Fewer regulatory hoops to jump through with direct emissions limitations on affected units;Self-correcting compliance plans do not require milestones or corrective measures; andDirect emissions limitations keep open the option for connecting a state’s plan to other states.Many state folks—those who have managed think beyond the immediate reaction to the building blocks analysis--have looked at the EPA guideline and they have suggested that EPA has given us too many choices! But a closer look at the proposal against what we know about state sensibilities in the energy and environmental arena indicates that there really are fewer choices than one might think.
10 Possible ApproachesApproaches getting most consideration to date include:Traditional plant-level performance standards;Mass-based emissions budget with trading;Rate-based standard with trading; orMass-based utility budget approach.So these are the “direct emissions limitation” approaches that have been under consideration by states and stakeholders to date.Note, note in this list is the so-called “state portfolio approach” in which states implement multiple measures, each of which is federally enforceable.
11 Mass-based Budget with Trading The ApproachState converts rate-based goals to mass-based emissions budget.State issues allowances (or permits) to emit. (1 ton = 1 allowance)Power plant owners report emissions and must turn in enough allowances to “cover” all of the plant’s emissions on a set date.Value of allowance becomes part of generator’s bid to ISO.Issues to ConsiderDirect emissions limits on affected units; no need to regulate other entities.EE, RE programs are complementary and remain separate and not federally enforceable.Multi-state cooperation possible by recognizing other states’ allowances.Self-correcting mechanism, meaning no need to specify “corrective measures”.
12 Rate-based Standard with Trading The ApproachState follows emissions rates imposed by EPA, or some variation designed to meet federal goal:Plants that do better than the rate generate credits that can be sold to other plants; andPlants that do worse than the rate must purchase credits to improve their emissions rate.Can credit EE & RE through crediting mechanism.Issues to ConsiderTo credit EE & RE, a federally enforceable mechanism needed for EM&V and crediting.Can avoid federal enforceability over RE & EE programs.May not capture all improvements to carbon profile that a mass-based standard would—such as retirements.Self-correcting approach, so no need to specify “corrective measures”
13 Mass-based Utility Budget Approach Issues to ConsiderAs long as this approach places all obligations on utility owner/operator of affected units, this is a direct emissions limitation approach and “corrective measures” not necessary.No need to have EE/RE crediting because reductions appear automatically.Multi-state utilities may want multi-state coordination to allow tons to cross state lines.The ApproachState converts rate-based goal to mass-based “budget”.State apportions budget to utilities.To stay under budget, each utility can undertake any measures in its control:Plant-level heat-rate improvements;Fuel switching;Retirements;End-use energy efficiency;Preserve Nuclear;Carbon capture & storage/EOR; and/orRenewables.
14 State Planning Timeline Comments on Draft Rule due Dec 1stFinal Rule Expected June 2015State plan timing:Initial state “submittal” in June 2016One-year extension possible for adopting single-state plansTwo-year extension possible for adopting regional plansPrograms go into effect upon adoption of state plans, unless superseded by federal plan
15 Quick SummaryEPA’s guideline sets stringency based on “building blocks”, does not dictate how states are to complyStates will decide on approach for achieving stringencyWhat seems like a case of “too many choices” probably isn’t—states and stakeholders usually end up with a short list of optionsSo these are the “direct emissions limitation” approaches that have been under consideration by states and stakeholders to date.Note, note in this list is the so-called “state portfolio approach” in which states implement multiple measures, each of which is federally enforceable.
17 Midwestern Power Sector Collaborative Group of coal-based utilities, coops, merchant and municipal generators, plus state officials & advocatesWorking together to understand and shape a Midwestern response to EPA actionsJoint, consensus-based comments filed before the draft, and now working on joint comments to EPA on the draft
18 Midwestern Collaborative Participants Industry folks:AlliantBasin Electric (observer)DTE EnergyGreat River EnergyMidAmericanNRGWeEnergiesWolverine Power CoopWisconsin Public Power Inc.Xcel EnergyState folks:IL Commerce CommissionKentucky Energy CabinetMichigan DEQ & PSCMissouri PSCWisconsin PSC & DNRWisconsin DNRAdvocates:Clean Air Task ForceClean WisconsinEnvironmental Defense FundIowa Environmental CouncilMichigan Ecology CenterMN Ctr for Energy & EnvOhio Environmental CouncilUnion of Concerned Scientists
19 Multistate Collaboration Why collaborate?“Gains from trade” make achieving goals easier region-wide.States with excess or lower cost reductions can sell those to other states, making it a “win-win”.Reliability of the electricity system—if something happens in one state to make compliance harder, the state can rely on options in other states.Lessen competitiveness issues between states.Regional wholesale electricity markets/power pools & multi-state utilitiesThe effects of measures to reduce emissions often appear outside the state, as with RE purchased from outside the state.Comparative advantage—each state does what it does best (or most cost-effectively).
20 Issues for Multi-State Compliance Each state is a sovereign entityThere is no regional government, only federal and state—Enforceable obligations between states may trigger the Compact Clause of the US Constitution, requiring congressional approval.Would any state want to make their 111d plan enforceable by another state?Not necessary to create new legal structures—the ones we have can work—Need on-ramps, because different states will have different pathways and timeframes for decision; andMay need off-ramps, because a state may change its mind.A state can develop a plan that is “multi-state ready” and keep its options open.
21 The “No Regrets” PathStates can prepare individual state plans while also exploring regional or multi-state cooperation.In devising state plans, states can consider designs that keep the regional/multi-state pathway open. For example, a common currency such as an emissions reduction credit or an emissions allowance.Ultimately linking up with others is a political decision to be made by governors, legislatures—In the meantime, multistate collaboratives allow states to pool resources and better understand options.
22 Thank You! Franz Litz Program consultant email@example.com
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