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CHANGE IS HAPPENING

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Common Core State Standards (CCSS) By 2013 all of California’s K-12 schools will be implementing California’s CCSS. Some schools and school districts have already started implementing the new standards. California’s Curriculum Frameworks and Teaching Performance Assessments (TPAs) are being changed to align with the new standards.

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CCSS At the end of the school year, students in Grades 3-8 and Grade 11 will be given summative assessments in English language arts and in mathematics aligned to the new standards.

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CCSS By the time students who are now entering our credential programs finish our programs, all of California’s K-12 schools will be implementing the CCSS. Will our credential candidates be prepared to work in a Common Core environment?

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CCSS How about our.... Multiple Subject Credential candidates? Single Subject Credential candidates? Education Specialist Credential candidates? Reading and Literacy Leadership Specialist Credential candidates? Educational Administration Credential candidates?

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CCSS Highlights The standards were developed by first asking “What do students need to know or understand and be able to do to be College and Career Ready by the end of grade 12?” Then the writers built a staircase of knowledge and skills that students need to acquire by the end of each grade, K through 12, to be College and Career Ready by the end of grade 12.

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CCSS Highlights For each grade, the standards “define end-of-year expectations” (CCSS, ELA, p. 4) “define what all students are expected to know and be able to do, not how teachers should teach” (CCSS, ELA, p. 6, emphasis added)

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CCSS Highlights “Teachers are thus free to provide students with whatever tools and knowledge their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful for meeting the goals set out in the standards.” (CCSS, ELA, p. 4)

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CCSS Highlights The standards are intended to be a living work: as new and better evidence emerges, the standards will be revised accordingly” (CCSS, ELA, p. 3) Such changes in California will, however, require another adoption cycle.

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CCSS Highlights To date, the CCSS have been adopted by 45 states and 3 territories. …all the states except Alaska, Minnesota, Nebraska, Virginia, and Texas.

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CCSS Highlights There are two parts to the standards : English Language Arts & Literacy in History/ Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Mathematics

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CCSS Highlights Both parts have introductions that are rich with information about the thinking and intentions of the standards’ writers. Both parts have appendices. California did not adopt the appendices, but there is valuable information in them as well.

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CCSS Highlights The English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects has three main sections K−5 English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6−12 English Language Arts 6−12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

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CCSS Highlights The writers of the Language Arts standards looked at the text complexity that students need to be able to read by the end of Grade 12 to be College and Career Ready (CCR). They then created a staircase of text complexity through the grades that students need to be able read with comprehension to reach this goal. GradeK CCR Lexile rating N/A

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CCSS Highlights GradeLexileExamples of narrative texts within each range 11-CCR : War and Peace : Pride and Prejudice : Harry Potter and the Half Blood 990: Tale of Two Cities : Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone 870: James and the Giant Peach : Charlotte’s Web K-1 N/A 60: The Chick and the Duckling

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CCSS Highlights The Language Arts standards have separate, parallel strands for narrative and informational text, grades K-12. The standards expect teachers, beginning in kindergarten, to teach to both types of texts, 50/50. In grades 6-12 this is largely accomplished by content area teachers teaching reading and writing in their respective disciplines.

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CCSS Highlights The standards insist that reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language be a shared responsibility across the school. Beginning in grade 2, the standards expect students to read with comprehension: informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in their text level complexity grade band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed, at the high end of the range by the end of the year.

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CCSS Highlights The Language standards have separate, parallel strands for three types of writing, K-12: Opinion/Argumentative Informative/Explanatory Narrative There are exemplars of children’s writing of each of these types of text for each grade in Appendix C.

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CCSS Highlights In Grades 6-12, the standards require teachers of content areas to use “their content area expertise to help students with the particular challenges of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language in their respective fields.” (CCSS, ELA, p. 3)

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CCSS Highlights “While the standards delineate specific expectations in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, each standard need not be a separate focus for instruction and assessment.” (CCSS, ELA, p. 5) A given task can involve more than one aspect of literacy (e.g., writing about something one has read).

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CCSS Highlights The CCSS do not replace California’s 1998 History- Social Science and Science Standards, rather, they supplement them.

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CCSS Highlights However, this new emphasis on reading with comprehension and on writing in History-Social Science and in Science is a major change in the History-Social Science and the Science Standards in California.

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CCSS Highlights While the CCSS do not replace California’s current Science standards, California is part of a national movement to adopt the “Next Generation of Science Standards.” The “Next Generation of Science Standards” have already been approved by legislation. They will replace the current Science standards if approved by the State Board by fall 2012.

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CCSS Highlights Mathematics is considered a technical subject. Therefore, teachers of mathematics are also expected to teach reading with comprehension and writing in their discipline.

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CCSS Highlights However, unlike History-Social Studies and Science, the CCSS for Mathematics will replace California’s current standards for mathematics. They rely heavily on insights of the National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM) and the National Research Council’s report, Adding It Up (CCSS, Mathematics, p. 6)

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CCSS Highlights They begin with what is known about how students’ mathematical knowledge, skill, and understanding develop over time. (CCSS, Mathematics, p. 4) They stress conceptual understanding as well as procedural skills. (CCSS, Mathematics, p. 4) They aim to counter the tendency for mathematics curriculum to be “a mile wide and an inch deep” by being focused and coherent. (CCSS, Mathematics, p. 3)

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CCSS Highlights The Math standards for grades K-5 have four major strands (called domains) that continue throughout K-5, plus Counting in Kindergarten and Fractions in grades 4 & 5. DomainK12345 Counting and Cardinality√ Operations and Algebraic Thinking√√√√√√ Numbers and Operations in Base Ten√√√√√√ Measurement and Data√√√√√√ Geometry√√√√√√ Numbers and Operations: Fractions√√

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CCSS Highlights Grades 6 through 12 have other domains. Domain678H.S. Ratios and Proportional Relationships√√ Expression and Equation√√√ The Number System√√√ Geometry√√√√ Statistics and Probability√√√√ Functions (up to & including Calculus)√√ Number and Quantity√ Algebra√ Modeling√

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CCSS Highlights The standards “do not dictate curriculum or teaching methods. For example, just because topic A appears before topic B in the standards in a given grade, it does not necessarily mean that topic A must be taught before topic B” (CCSS, Mathematics, p. 5) The standards say “…educators should make every effort to meet the needs of individual students based on their current understanding ” (CCSS, Mathematics, p. 5)

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CCSS Highlights Two consortiums have been awarded Race to the Top grants to develop assessments for the CCSS. The SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) The Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC)

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CCSS Highlights States may join either or both consortia as “participating” members but only one consortium as a “governing” member. California is a governing member of the SBAC. As a governing member, it has a leadership role and formal voting status.

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CCSS Highlights In both consortiums, students will be required to take the assessments using computer technology. The types of computer technology allowed by SBAC are specified on its website. They include touch-based devices such as tablets (e.g., iPads).

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CCSS Highlights SBAC’s assessments will be adaptive: If a student answers a question correctly, he/she will be given a harder question. If he/she answers a question incorrectly, he/she will be given an easier question.

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CCSS Read all about it The CCSS are at California’s augmented CCSS are at

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CCSS Read all about it California’s augmentations in California’s CCSS are underlined. For example: Grade 1: Measurement and Data 3. Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. 3.1 Relate time to events (e.g., before/after, shorter/longer).

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CCSS Read all about it SBAC provides information about itself and its plans at The California Dept. of Education’s SBAC page is at

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CCSS Read all about it Recommended Readings: Pathways to the Common Core: Accelerating Achievement by Calkins, Ehrenworth, and Lehman (Heinemann, 2012). [This book discusses the English Language Arts part of the CCSS.]

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CCSS Our part.... What changes do we need to make in our various credential programs? Individually? Collectively? Within our respective disciplines?

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CCSS Questions we might ask: Will all our credential candidates understand the CCSS? Will all our credential candidates understand the role of background knowledge in making sense of print and in the writing process? Will all our credential candidates be prepared to help their students with the technology required to take the assessments? Will all our credential candidates...?

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