2Key Questions: Chapter 8 8.1 How is space politically organized into states and nations? 8.2 How do states spatially organize their governments? 8.3 How are boundaries established, and why do boundary disputes occur? 8.4 How does the study of geopolitics help us understand the world? 8.5 What are supranational organizations, and what are their implications for the state?
6Homographs are words with different pronunciation, meanings and origins but the same spelling. •bat - piece of sports equipmentOR an animal•down – a lower placeOR soft fluff on a bird•row – lineOR propel a boat•wave – move the hand in greetingOR sea water coming intoshore
10How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations? The Modern State IdeaIdea of the state appeared in various forms across world regions 400 or 500 years agoThe European state idea most influenced the development of the modern state systemEmerging political state was accompanied by mercantilism, which led to the accumulation of wealth through plunder, colonization, and the protection of home industries and foreign markets
11How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations? The Modern State IdeaThe Peace of Westphalia, negotiated in 1648, marks the beginning of the modern state system.In the Westphalian system it became the territory that defined the society.Territory is treated as a fixed element of political identification, and states define exclusive, nonoverlapping territories.
13How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations? Nation-StateA nation-state is a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space.The goal of creating nation-states dates to the French Revolution: democracyKey problem:assumes the presence of reasonably well-defined, stable nations living contiguously in discrete territories.
14How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations? Nation-StateWhen people have a strong sense of nationalism, they have a loyalty to, and a belief in, the nation itself.A state, in contrast, seeks to promote a sense of nationhood that coincides with its own borders.States provide security, infrastructure, and goods and services for their citizens.
15Guest Field Note: Cluj-Napoca, Romania “To Hungarians, Transylvania is significant because it was an important part of the Hungarian Kingdom for a thousand years. Many of their great leaders were born and buried there, and many of their great churches, colleges, and architectural achievements are located there too.”*Could be an audio file.Figure 8.5Credit: George White, South Dakota State University
18European Colonialism and the Diffusion of the Nation-State Model How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations?European Colonialism and the Diffusion of the Nation-State ModelEurope exported its concepts of state, sovereignty, and the desire for nation-states to much of the rest of the world through two waves of colonialism.16th c. colonialism – Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, Belgium, and the NetherlandsLate 19th c. colonialism – Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and ItalyDespite the end of colonialism, the political organization of space and the global world economy persist.
20Construction of the Capitalist World Economy How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations?Construction of the Capitalist World EconomyEuropean states and areas dominated by European migrants emerged as the major centers of economic and political activity.Europeans extracted wealth from colonies and put colonized peoples in a position of subservience.Colonialism knitted together the economies of widely separated areas, which gave birth to a world economy.Understanding the world economy is like analyzing a pointillist painting:
26How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations?
27How Is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations? World-Systems and Political PowerEach state is theoretically sovereign, but not all states have the same ability to influence others or achieve their political goals.Regardless of many problems and lack of simple solutions to nation and state conflicts, the European territorial state idea became the world model and still shapes the political organization of space worldwide.The Enduring Impact of the Nation-State Idea
30How Do States Spatially Organize Their Governments? Political geographer Richard Hartshorne described the forces within the state that unify the people as centripetal and the forces that divide them as centrifugal.centripetal centrifugalpeace fightingAccording to Hartshorne, whether a state continues to exist depends on the balance between centripetal and centrifugal forces.
31How Do States Spatially Organize Their Governments? Form of GovernmentUnitary governments: centralized states whose administrative framework is designed to ensure the central government’s authority over all of the state: Ex. FranceIn a strong federal system, the regions have much control over government policies and funds (Ex. United States), and in a weak federal system, the central government retains a significant measure of power.Federalism accommodates regional interests by vesting primary power in provinces, States, or other regional units over all matters except those explicitly given to the central government.
40Establishing Boundaries How Are Boundaries Established, and Why Do Boundary Disputes Occur?Establishing BoundariesStates typically define the boundary in a treaty-like legal document in which actual points in the landscape or points of latitude and longitude are described.Cartographers delimit the boundary by drawing on a map.If either or both of the states so desire, they can demarcate the boundary by using steel posts, concrete pillars, fences, walls, or some other visible means to mark the boundary on the ground.
41How Are Boundaries Established, and Why Do Boundary Disputes Occur? Types of BoundariesGeometric boundaries are drawn using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and rangePhysical-political boundaries follow an agreed upon figure in the natural landscapeEx.: The center point of a river or crest of a mountain range.
42Types of Boundary Disputes How Are Boundaries Established, and Why Do Boundary Disputes Occur?Types of Boundary DisputesDefinitional boundary disputes focus on the legal language of the boundary agreement.Locational boundary disputes center on the delimitation and possibly the demarcation of the boundary. The definition is not in dispute, but its interpretation is.Operational boundary disputes involve neighbors who differ over the way their border should function.Allocational boundary disputes are becoming more common as the search for resources intensifies.
45How Does the Study of Geopolitics Help Us Understand the World? Classical GeopoliticsGeopolitics is the interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations on Earth’s surface.Late 19th century/early 20th century geopoliticians were usually either part of the German school or the British/American school.
46How Does the Study of Geopolitics Help Us Understand the World? The German SchoolFriedrick Ratzel: the state resembles a biological organism whose life cycle extends from birth through maturity and, ultimately, decline and death.“Nourishment” for the state is provided through acquisition of territories that provide adequate space for the members of the state’s dominant nation to survive – lebensraum (Hitler embraced this idea in the 1930s)
47How Does the Study of Geopolitics Help Us Understand the World? The British/American SchoolSir Halford J. Mackinder: land-based power, not sea power, would ultimately rule the world.Warned that if the pivot area in Eurasia (the “heartland”) became influential in Europe a great empire could be formed.Influence of Geopoliticians on PoliticsNATO
48How Does the Study of Geopolitics Help Us Understand the World? Critical GeopoliticsInfluence and reinforce political behaviors and policy choices; affects what happens and how most people interpret what happens.Examples:President Reagan referred to the Soviet Union as the “Evil Empire,” and the U.S. as “the shining city on a hill”President Bush said, after Sept. 11, “…nations are either with us or against us in the war on terror.”
49How Does the Study of Geopolitics Help Us Understand the World? Geopolitical World OrderCold War: bipolar, with Soviet versus West alliancesNew World Order: Global cooperation to bring discipline to rogue statesUnilateralism: one country (e.g., United States) in position of dominance, with other countries following its lead