Presentation on theme: "Chumbler - Properties of Matter1 States of Matter Chemistry The Four States of Matter."— Presentation transcript:
Chumbler - Properties of Matter1 States of Matter Chemistry The Four States of Matter
Chumbler - Properties of Matter2 States of Matter The Four States of Matter Four States Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
Chumbler - Properties of Matter3 States of Matter The Four States of Matter Basis of Classification of the Four Types Based upon particle arrangement Based upon energy of particles Based upon distance between particles
Chumbler - Properties of Matter4 States of Matter Solids Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position. Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. Solids have an infinite number of free surfaces.
States of Matter Two Types of Solids Crystalline and Amorphous Crystalline have a very orderly, 3-D arrangement of particles. Amorphous solids are made of particles that are in no special order. Chumbler - Properties of Matter5
6 States of Matter Solids Particle Movement Examples
Chumbler - Properties of Matter7 States of Matter Liquids Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another. Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume. Liquids take the shape of any container it is put in.
States of Matter Liquids cont. The particles in liquids move fast enough to overcome some of the attractions between them. Realize that the particles in a liquid state are still very close together; they just slide past each other. Liquids have two properties Surface Tension – is a force that acts on the particles at the surface of a liquid, which cause spherical drops Viscosity – is a liquids resistance to flow, the stronger attraction between liquid particles the more viscous the liquid. Chumbler - Properties of Matter8
9 States of Matter Liquids Particle Movement Examples
Chumbler - Properties of Matter10 States of Matter Gases GGas is the state in which matter changes in both shape and volume PParticles in a gas move very fast and are very far apart and move freely. GGases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.
State of Matter Boyle’s Law – state that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas increases as its pressure decreases Charles Law - states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases Chumbler - Properties of Matter11
Chumbler - Properties of Matter12 Gases Particle Movement Examples States of Matter
Chumbler - Properties of Matter13 States of Matter Plasma Plasma is the state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume. A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. Plasmas conduct electric current, while gases do not.
Chumbler - Properties of Matter14 States of Matter Plasma Particles The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are freely streaming through the positively charged ions (blue ).
Chumbler - Properties of Matter15 States of Matter Plasma Examples
Chumbler - Properties of Matter16 States of Matter Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Solids Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume because the particles are locked into place Solids are not easily compressible because there is little free space between particles Solids do not flow easily because the particles cannot move/slide past one another
Chumbler - Properties of Matter17 States of Matter Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Liquids Liquids have an indefinite shape because the particles can slide past one another. Liquids are not easily compressible and have a definite volume because there is little free space between particles. Liquids flow easily because the particles can move/slide past one another.
Chumbler - Properties of Matter18 Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Gases GGases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume because the particles can move past one another. GGases are easily compressible because there is a great deal of free space between particles. GGases flow very easily because the particles randomly move past one another. States of Matter
Chumbler - Properties of Matter19 States of Matter Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Plasmas Plasmas have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume because the particles can move past one another. Plasmas are easily compressible because there is a great deal of free space between particles. Plasmas are good conductors of electricity and are affected by magnetic fields because they are composed of ions (negatively charged electrons and positively charged nuclei).
Chumbler - Properties of Matter20 States of Matter The Four States of Matter The Classification and Properties of Matter Depend Upon Microscopic Structure Particle arrangement Particle energy Particle to particle distance
Change of State Is the change of a substance from one physical form to another All changes of state are physical changes Particles of a substance have different amount of energy Chumbler - Properties of Matter21
Melting Is the change of state from a solid to a liquid The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is the melting point Melting is an endothermic change because energy is gained by the sub. Chumbler - Properties of Matter22
Freezing Is the change of state from a liquid to a solid The temperature at which a substance changes into a solid is the freezing a point Freezing is an exothermic change because energy is removed from or taken out of… Freezing point of water is 0 o C Chumbler - Properties of Matter23
Vaporization Is the change of state from a liquid to a gas 2 types of Vaporization i. Boiling Point – occurs when a boiling point is reached 1. BP for water is 100 o C ii. Evaporation- occurs below the boiling point 24
Condensation Is the change of state from a gas to a liquid Example: beads of ice on a glass of water Chumbler - Properties of Matter25
Sublimation Is the change of state from a solid directly to a gas Example: Dry ice Chumbler - Properties of Matter26