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Chumbler - Properties of Matter1 States of Matter Chemistry The Four States of Matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Chumbler - Properties of Matter1 States of Matter Chemistry The Four States of Matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chumbler - Properties of Matter1 States of Matter Chemistry The Four States of Matter

2 Chumbler - Properties of Matter2 States of Matter The Four States of Matter Four States  Solid  Liquid  Gas  Plasma

3 Chumbler - Properties of Matter3 States of Matter The Four States of Matter Basis of Classification of the Four Types  Based upon particle arrangement  Based upon energy of particles  Based upon distance between particles

4 Chumbler - Properties of Matter4 States of Matter Solids  Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position.  Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume.  Solids have an infinite number of free surfaces.

5 States of Matter Two Types of Solids  Crystalline and Amorphous  Crystalline have a very orderly, 3-D arrangement of particles.  Amorphous solids are made of particles that are in no special order. Chumbler - Properties of Matter5

6 6 States of Matter Solids Particle Movement Examples

7 Chumbler - Properties of Matter7 States of Matter Liquids  Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another.  Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume.  Liquids take the shape of any container it is put in.

8 States of Matter Liquids cont. The particles in liquids move fast enough to overcome some of the attractions between them. Realize that the particles in a liquid state are still very close together; they just slide past each other.  Liquids have two properties Surface Tension – is a force that acts on the particles at the surface of a liquid, which cause spherical drops  Viscosity – is a liquids resistance to flow, the stronger attraction between liquid particles the more viscous the liquid. Chumbler - Properties of Matter8

9 9 States of Matter Liquids Particle Movement Examples

10 Chumbler - Properties of Matter10 States of Matter Gases GGas is the state in which matter changes in both shape and volume PParticles in a gas move very fast and are very far apart and move freely. GGases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.

11 State of Matter Boyle’s Law – state that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas increases as its pressure decreases Charles Law - states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases Chumbler - Properties of Matter11

12 Chumbler - Properties of Matter12 Gases Particle Movement Examples States of Matter

13 Chumbler - Properties of Matter13 States of Matter Plasma  Plasma is the state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume.  A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields.  Plasmas conduct electric current, while gases do not.

14 Chumbler - Properties of Matter14 States of Matter Plasma Particles The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are freely streaming through the positively charged ions (blue ).

15 Chumbler - Properties of Matter15 States of Matter Plasma Examples

16 Chumbler - Properties of Matter16 States of Matter Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Solids  Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume because the particles are locked into place  Solids are not easily compressible because there is little free space between particles  Solids do not flow easily because the particles cannot move/slide past one another

17 Chumbler - Properties of Matter17 States of Matter Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Liquids  Liquids have an indefinite shape because the particles can slide past one another.  Liquids are not easily compressible and have a definite volume because there is little free space between particles.  Liquids flow easily because the particles can move/slide past one another.

18 Chumbler - Properties of Matter18 Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Gases GGases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume because the particles can move past one another. GGases are easily compressible because there is a great deal of free space between particles. GGases flow very easily because the particles randomly move past one another. States of Matter

19 Chumbler - Properties of Matter19 States of Matter Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Plasmas  Plasmas have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume because the particles can move past one another.  Plasmas are easily compressible because there is a great deal of free space between particles.  Plasmas are good conductors of electricity and are affected by magnetic fields because they are composed of ions (negatively charged electrons and positively charged nuclei).

20 Chumbler - Properties of Matter20 States of Matter The Four States of Matter The Classification and Properties of Matter Depend Upon Microscopic Structure  Particle arrangement  Particle energy  Particle to particle distance

21 Change of State  Is the change of a substance from one physical form to another  All changes of state are physical changes  Particles of a substance have different amount of energy Chumbler - Properties of Matter21

22 Melting  Is the change of state from a solid to a liquid  The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is the melting point  Melting is an endothermic change because energy is gained by the sub. Chumbler - Properties of Matter22

23 Freezing  Is the change of state from a liquid to a solid  The temperature at which a substance changes into a solid is the freezing a point  Freezing is an exothermic change because energy is removed from or taken out of…  Freezing point of water is 0 o C Chumbler - Properties of Matter23

24 Vaporization  Is the change of state from a liquid to a gas  2 types of Vaporization  i. Boiling Point – occurs when a boiling point is reached  1. BP for water is 100 o C  ii. Evaporation- occurs below the boiling point 24

25 Condensation  Is the change of state from a gas to a liquid Example: beads of ice on a glass of water Chumbler - Properties of Matter25

26 Sublimation  Is the change of state from a solid directly to a gas Example: Dry ice Chumbler - Properties of Matter26


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