Presentation on theme: "CIRCLE Seminar Series University of Lund 4 June 2014"— Presentation transcript:
1CIRCLE Seminar Series University of Lund 4 June 2014 Smart specialisation and the “entrepreneurial state” thesis Kevin Morgan Cardiff UniversityCIRCLE Seminar SeriesUniversity of Lund4 June 2014
2Overview Debating the state in innovation Place-based innovation the neo-liberal critiquecritiques of the critiquePlace-based innovationterritorial/relational conceptions of placetriple challenge of smart specialisationRegional policy repertoiresstate-centric v network-based repertoires
3Debating the state: the neo-liberal critique Politically based on a zero-sum conception (less state = more market)Theoretically based on Hayekian insights:Industrial policy will induce rent-seeking, so states should not engage in “picking winners”Informational: the state cannot be a surrogate for the decentralised information processing capacity of markets
4Debating the state: the “entrepreneurial state” thesis A recent critique of the neo-liberal critique is The Entrepreneurial State, which aims to:change the way we talk about the stateclaims the state is innovative and risk-takingshows how the smart technologies of the iPhone (Internet, GPS, touchscreen display, SIRI etc) were all funded by the stateBut it uses DARPA to illustrate the thesis (ie. a unique mission-driven US defence agency)Big problems with mission-driven innovation policy (see Morgan & Sayer)
5Debating the state: the experimentalist state A more persuasive critique of the neo-liberal critique is the social learning approach (eg Rodrik; Sabel; Gertler/Wolfe):the state lacks information, but so does the private sector!firms and states need to collaborate to learn together in a trial-and-error process of experimentation (the process being more important than the policy)the aim is to elicit information, find joint solutions, and evaluate outcomes as they emerge (drawing on the “embedded autonomy” thesis of Peter Evans)
6Place-based innovation The “relational turn” in geography has enriched our understanding of the constitution of “place”But it does not help to juxtapose relational and territorial conceptions - places are bounded and porous, shaped by local and trans-local forcesSpatial fetishism can be a problem in territorial conceptions of place - but regional governments act in and for their regions (ie. spaces are not agents but some agents act for their spaces)
7Smart specialisationSmart specialisation concept has been heavily influenced by certain theories –the experimental state thesis (eg Foray draws on Rodrik et al for the self-discovery process)evolutionary economic geography (eg path dependence and related variety etc)relational turn (eg the role of trans-local factors and networks)
8The triple challengeThe challenge of smart specialisation is threefold:Conceptual challenge – do the core theoretical arguments stack up?Operational challenge – is the six-step approach feasible for poor state-centric regions?Political challenge - can the multi-level polity be synchronised for an integrated place-based approach to innovation and development?
9Regional policy repertoires Too much variability to speak of “the region” or “the regional state”In politically constituted regions (where there is a mandated agency to act on behalf of the region) there are contrasting repertoires even in apparently similar regions:state centric repertoire (Wales)network-based repertoire (Basque Country)
10State-centric repertoires Wales has fashioned a state-centric repertoire for two very different reasons:by default - because it has a weak indigenous business class and a dependent civil society, so economy and society looks to the state for a lead in a country which is a de facto one-party stateby design - because it abolished its regional development agency (WDA) and absorbed its functions within the state, a move that reduced diversity, pluralism and the capacity for robust feedback (“speaking truth to power”)
11State-centric repertoires State-centricity in a one-party state, combined with weak feedback mechanisms, led to very expensive disasters (eg the Technium Centres which cost more than £100 million)The big question is whether this state-centric system can rise to the S3 challenge, where non-state actors – business and universities - have been allotted a major role in the process of entrepreneurial discovery?
12Network-based repertoires The Basque Country has a strong state system but the state is pervasive but not invasive (ie it respects subsidiarity)The BC has a stronger indigenous business community and a much stronger regional innovation systemIntermediate institutions (technology centres and cluster organisations etc) co-design policy with the regional state and enhance diversity
13Network-based repertoires But the BC regional innovation system has its own challenges in the S3 eraDesigned in an age of plenty, the RIS is now threatened by the age of austerityAlready signs of institutional cannibalism as RIS bodies vie for funds and functionsOther problems include a weak university system and an under-developed M&E system
14ConclusionsConceptions of the state need to move beyond the caricatures of right and leftThe “entrepreneurial state” is a smart state (not the shrunken state of neo-liberalism) but it is not the public sector normPlace-based innovation needs to address new models of innovation - like social innovation and sustainability transitions etcThe politics of regional innovation policy is poorly understood...the RIS literature remains very technocratic
15ReferencesForay, D. et al (2012) Guide to Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation, European CommissionGertler, M. and Wolfe, D. (2002) (eds) Innovation and Social Learning, PalgraveMazzucato, M. (2013) The Entrepreneurial State, Anthem PressMorgan, K. (2013) The Regional State in the Era of Smart Specialisation, Economiaz, 83(2)Morgan, K. and Sayer, A. (1988) Microcircuits of Capital, Polity PressRodrik, D. (2004) Industrial Policy for the Twenty-First Century, UNIDOSabel, C. and S. Reddy (2007) Learning to Learn, Challenge, 50 (5)