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Finite State Machines 1.Finite state machines with output 2.Finite state machines with no output 3.DFA 4.NDFA.

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Introduction # Many kinds if machines, including components in computers, can be modeled using a structure called a finite- state machine. # Finite-state machines are used extensively in applications in computer science and data networking. For example, FSM are the basis for programs for spell checking, grammar checking, indexing or searching large bodies of text, recognizing speech, ……

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Remark: We can use a state table to represent the values of the transition function f and the output function g for all pairs of states and input. Definition: A finite-state machine M = {S, I, O, f, g, s 0 } consists of: finite set S of states, finite input alphabet I, finite output alphabet O, transition function f that assigns to each state and input pair a new state, output function g that assigns to each state and input pair an output, initial state s 0.

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Example: Given a finite state machine with S ={s 0, s 1,s 2, s 3 }, I = {0,1}, O={0,1}. The values of the transition function f and the values of the output function g are shown in table

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Representation of FSM We use state diagram to represent FSM. State diagram is a directed graph with labeled edges. In this diagram, each sate is represented by a circle. Arrows labeled with the input and output pair are shown for each transition. Example: Example: Draw the state diagram for the finite-state machine S ={s0, s1,s2, s3 }, I = {0,1}, O={0,1} with the following state table.

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s0s0 s1s1 0 f(S 0,0)=S 1 s0s0 s1s1 0 f(S 0,1)=S 0 1 s0s0 s1s1 0 g(S 0,0)=1 s0s0 s1s1 0 g(S 0,1)=0 1,1,0,1 1 S ={s0, s1,s2, s3 } s0s0 s1s1 s2s2 s3s3

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s0s0 s1s1 0 1,0,1 s3s3 0,1 1,1 s0s0 s1s1 0 1,0,1 s3s3 0,1 1,1 s2s2 0,0 1,1 s0s0 s1s1 0 1,0,1 s3s3 0,1 1,1 s2s2 0,0 1,1 0,0 1,0

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Example: Construct the state table for the finite-state machine with the state diagram shown in Figure

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Find the output string generated by the finite-state machine in Figure if the input string is

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Home Work

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Finite-State Machines with No Output One of the most important application of finite-state machines is in language recognition. This application plays a fundamental role in the design and construction of compilers for programming languages. It does not have any output. Definition: Suppose that A and B are subsets of V*, where V is a vocabulary. The concatenation of A and B, denoted by AB, is the set of all strings of the form xy, where x is a string in A and y is a string in B.

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Example: Let A= {0, 11} and B= {1, 10, 110}, Find AB and BA. Solution: AB is the set of all strings of the form xy, where x is a string in A and y is a string in B. x=0 and y=1, 10, or 110 then xy= 01, 010, or 0110 x=11 and y=1, 10, or 110 then xy= 111, 1110, or So, AB= {01, 010, 0110, 111, 1110, 11110} and BA={10, 111, 100, 1011, 1100, 11011}(by similar way)

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Example: Given A 0 = { } and A n+1 = A n A, for n = 0, 1, 2…… Then let A={1, 00}. Find A n for only n= 0, 1, 2, and 3 Solution: A 0 = { }, we know that A n+1 = A n A n = 0 A 0+1 = A 0 A= {} {1, 00} = {1, 00} n = 1 A 1+1 = A 1 A A 2 = A 1 A = {1, 00} {1,00} = {11, 100, 001, 0000} A 3 = A 2 A = {11, 100, 001, 0000} {1, 00} = {111, 1100, 1001, 10000, 0011, 00100, 00001, }

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Let A={0,11}, and B={00, 01}. Find each of these sets. (a) AB, (b) BA, (c) A 2 (d) B 3 Home Work

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Deterministic Finite-State Automata A finite-state machine with no output is called finite-state automata. It also called deterministic finite-state automata (DFA). # We can represent finite-state automata using either state tables or state diagram. # Final states are indicated in state diagrams by using double circles. Definition: A DFA M=(S, I, f, s 0, F ) consists of: finite set S of states, finite input alphabet I, transition function f that assigns a next state, initial or start state s 0, subset F final state.

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Example : Construct the state diagram for the finite-state automata M= (S, I, f, s 0, F), where S = {s 0, s 1, s 2, s 3 }, I= {0,1}, F= {s 0, s 3 } and the transition function f is given in the following table. f Input state01 s0s0 s0s0 s1s1 s1s1 s0s0 s2s2 s2s2 s0s0 s0s0 s3s3 s2s2 s1s1 s0s0 s1s1 s3s3 s2s ,1 1 start

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Definition : # A string x is said to be recognized or accepted by the machine M = (S, I, f, s 0, F) if it takes the initial state s 0 to the final state, that is, f(s 0, x) is a state in F. # The language recognized or accepted by the machine M, denoted by L(M), is the set of all strings that are recognized by M. # Two finite-state automata are called equivalent if they recognize the same language. Language recognition by DFA

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Example: Determine the languages recognized by the finite-state automata M1, M2, M3.

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s0s0 s1s1 1 0 start 0,1 M1M1 The only final state of M 1 is s 0. The strings that takes s 0 to itself are those consisting of zero or more consecutive 1s. i.e {λ, 1, 11, 111, …...} So, L(M 1 )={1 n : n=0,1,2, 3,…}

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s0s0 s1s1 0 start 0,1 s2s2 s3s M2M2 The only final state of M 2 is s 2. The strings that takes s 0 are 1and 01. So, L(M 2 )={1,01}

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s0s0 s1s1 1 start 0,1 s2s2 s3s3 1 0 M3M3 0 The final states of M 3 is s 0 and s 3. The only strings that takes s 0 to itself are ⋋, 0, 00, 000,….. i.e any string of zero or more consecutive 0s. I.e. {0 n, n=0, 1, 2…} The only strings that takes s 0 to s3 are a string of zero or more consecutive 0s, followed by 10, followed by any string of combination of 0 and 1. i.e. {0 n 10x: n=0,1, 2,… and x any string of 0 and 1} So, L(M 3 )={0 n,0 n 10x: n=0,1, 2,… and x any string}

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Example: Construct a deterministic finite-state automaton that recognizes the set of all bit strings such that the first bit is 0 and all remaining bits are 1’s.

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Q 1 ) Construct a DFA that recognized each of these languages. a) The set of bit strings that begin with two 0s. b) The set of bit strings that contain two consecutive 0s. c) The set of bit strings that do not contain two consecutive 0s. d) The set of bit strings that end with two 0s. e) The set of bit strings that contain at least two 0s. Q 2 ) Determine the set of bit strings recognized by the following deterministic finite-state automaton. Home Work

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Definition : A NDFA, M= (S, I, f, s 0, F) consists of a set S of states, an input alphabet I, a transition function f that assigns a set of states to each pair of state and input (so that f: S x I P(S)), a starting state s 0,and a subset F of S consisting of the final states. Non Deterministic Finite-State Automata In DFA for each pair of state and input value there is a unique next state given by the transition function. But in NDFA there may be several possible next states for each pair of input value and state.

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Example : Find the state diagram for the NDFA with the state table shown in table. The final states are s 2 and s 3 f Input state01 s0s0 s 0, s 1 s3s3 s1s1 s0s0 s 1, s 3 s2s2 s 0, s 2 s3s3 s 0, s 1, s 2 s1s1 s0s0 s1s1 s3s3 s2s start 1 1 0,1 1

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Example : Find the state table for the NDFA with the state diagram shown in figure. f Input state01 s0s0 s 0, s 2 s1s1 s1s1 s3s3 s4s4 s2s2 s4s4 s3s3 s3s3 s2s2 s4s4 s3s3 s3s3 s0s0 s1s1 s3s3 s2s start 0 s4s ,1 1

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Home Work In Exercises 16–22 find the language recognized by the given deterministic finite-state automaton

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In Exercises 43–49 find the language recognized by the given nondeterministic finite-state automaton.

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