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Electron Configuration: Ions Valence Electrons. Electron Configuration - Cations  Cations – atoms that lose electrons - metals  Electron Configuration:

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Presentation on theme: "Electron Configuration: Ions Valence Electrons. Electron Configuration - Cations  Cations – atoms that lose electrons - metals  Electron Configuration:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electron Configuration: Ions Valence Electrons

2 Electron Configuration - Cations  Cations – atoms that lose electrons - metals  Electron Configuration: Magnesium – 12 electrons in its neutral state  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Magnesium ion  Loses 2 electrons  New configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6  Notice that the electron configuration is the same as the noble gas Neon  This indicates that by giving 2 electrons away, it obtains an outer octet (stable valence configuration!)

3 Electron Configuration - Anions  Anions – gain electrons – non-metals  Electron Configuration: Chlorine – 17 electrons in its neutral state  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Chlorine ion  Gains 1 electron  New configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6  Notice that the electron configuration is the same as the noble gas Argon  This indicates that by gaining 1 electron, it obtains an outer octet (stable valence configuration!)

4 Electron Configuration  Both ions obtain a noble gas configuration  This makes the ion and the noble gas isoelectronic  Isoelectronic: when two elements and/or ions have the same electronic configurations with one another  They tend to have similar chemical properties.

5 Isoelectric Examples  Li +1 1s 2  He1s 2  S -2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6  Ar1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6

6 Valence Electrons  Valence electrons are the outer-most electrons in an atom  For main group elements (Groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18) they are the highest level s and p electrons  Example: Chlorine 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 - The 3s and 3p electrons are valence e -

7 Valence Electrons  The d orbital electrons of the transition elements can also be valence electrons, but they are complicated so we will not study them  However, this is what gives transition elements multiple oxidation states  Example: Manganese: [Ar] 4s 2 3d 5 (neutral atom) Possible valence electron configs: 2 to 7!


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