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**Lecture 1: Introduction and motivation**

Solid-State Physics I Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran Fall semester 2011 Educational team: Hamed Saberi, Ph.D. Massoud Amiri, M.Sc. Mehdi Zahedi, B.E.E. Lecture 1: Introduction and motivation Shahrivar 29, 1390 Abstract: The generation of multiqubit entangled states via a single global unitary operation acting on initially decoupled qubits is in general known to be a difficult problem. Therefore, several theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to develop sequential protocols for the generation of paradigmatic entangled multiqubit states. We demonstrate how the matrix-product state formalism provides a flexible structure for such a quantum factory of states. The proposed method relies on a suitable local optimization procedure, yielding an efficient recipe for the realistic and approximate sequential generation of any entangled multiqubit state under experimental restrictions. We give paradigmatic examples that may be of interest for theoretical and experimental developments.

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**Outline Part I: Getting to know to each other ...**

Part II: Introduction to the course subject: "More is different!" Solid-state physics: the advent Solid-state/condensed matter physics: main features and the significance Solid-state physics and emerging technologies Solid-state/condensed-matter tradition Solid-state "friends": Cross-fertilization Part III: Course outline and organization Course objective Course "space-time" Teaching style Textbooks and syllabus Grading/evaluation policy Tutorial sessions Genral tips to succeed in this course

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**Part I: Getting to know to each other**

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**Getting to know to each other …**

Lecturer: 1381: BSc in atomic and molecular Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran 1383: MSc in theoretical condensed matter physics, Shahid Beheshti University, under F. Ebrahimi, Tehran, Iran 2009: PhD in theoretical condensed matter physics, University of Munich (LMU), under J. von Deflt & E. Solano, Munich, Germany : Post-docs at LMU, UPV Bilbao and Regensburg Research interests: Numerical calculations for strongly correlated systems Quantum information processing Mesoscopic Physics: Quantum transport theory and spin electronics And you? Name: Institute : Field of specialization: Main science interests:

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**1+1≠2 Part II: Introduction to the course subject**

What is solid-state physics all about? "More is different!" P.W. Anderson 1+1≠2 2

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**Solid-state physics: the advent**

Solid-state physics studies how the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. The birth of solid-state physics as a separate field with the publication of Fredrick Seitz’s book, Modern Theory of Solids (1940) coalescing parts of many fields such as metallurgy, crystallography, magnetism, and electronic conduction in solids into the new field of solid-state physics. About twenty years later: the advent of the term condensed-matter physics, including solid-state but also liquids and a variety of materials in condensed phase like quantum fluids, liquid crystals, complex systems etc

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**Solid-state/condensed-matter phys.: main features**

B ? A 𝑃 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 = 𝑃 𝐴 + 𝑃 𝐵 + 𝑃 𝐶 + 𝑃 𝐷 C D Not necessarily! Collective phenomena, interactions, correlations Novel collective phenomena: High-temperature superconductivity, superfluidity, Anderson localization, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), persistent currents, Mott insulators, Kondo effect, Fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) etc "More is different!": Emergent simplifying properties at a higher level of complexity: crystal symmetry, thermodynamic limit, the laws of statistics etc

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**Solid-state physics: the significance**

As the largest branch of condensed-matter physics (CMP), it aims at understanding and explaining macroscopic properties of the materials from interactions among constituent particles. CMP identified as the largest field of contemporary physics: around 1/3 of US physicists belong to condensed-matter category! Over the past 50 years, 22 Nobel prizes in physics went to condensed-matter! Proof by contradiction: cf. budgets toward CMP in developing countires to that of the developed world!

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**Solid-state physics and emerging technologies**

Semiconductor technlogy: Transistor and integrated circuits technology Superconductor technologies: SQUID 2007's physics Nobel prize for hard disk technology Graphene (Nobel prize in physics 2010) The "tsunami" of Nanotechnology: phase-coherent contorl of nature at nano-scale Quantum dots: Artificial atoms

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**Solid-state/condensed-matter tradition**

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**Solid-state "friends": Cross-fertilization**

Quantum mechanics Quantum information Statistical physics Quantum chemistry Materials science Nanoscience and nanotechnology Metallurgy Spintronics Crytallography Electrical engineering Quantum optics Computational physics Quantum electronics Nanobiotechnology Many-body physics

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**Part III: Course outline and organization**

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Course objectives Introduction to basic concepts of solid-state physics either to excite the mind for pursuing a condensed matter career or to give a fair overview of the subject to audience with ambitions towards other disciplines of physics Illustration of modern examples of technological interest (carbon nanotubes, band structure of graphite and grapheme, quantum Hall effect, transport theory of nanostructures, giant magnetoresistance for hard disk technology along with a pedagogical presentation of the traditional solid-state topics Considerable attention to the theory of band structures, semiconducting materials and Fermi surface analysis Much emphasis on exercises of pedagogical merit as well as research-oriented ones through team work under intensive and regular tutorial sessions

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Course "space-time" Schedule: Sunday and Tuesday 14:30-16:00 (Lecture duration: 90 mins) Venue: Seminar Room of Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University

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**Gap-filled E-chalk Tablet PC & projector**

Teaching style Gap-filled E-chalk Tablet PC & projector

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**"A book is useful to at least one person: its own author!“**

Textbooks "A book is useful to at least one person: its own author!“ Undergraduate: Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel (Wiley 8th ed, 2004). Solid state physics: introduction to the theory, J. Patterson and B. Bailey (Springer 2nd ed, 2011). Introductory solid state physics, H.P. Myers (CRC Press 2nd ed, 1997). Elementary Solid State Physics, M.A. Omar (Addison-Wesley, 1994). Solid State Physics, J.S. Blakemore (Cambridge University Press 2nd ed, 1985). Solid state physics, J.R. Hook and H.E. Hall (Wiley 2nd ed, 1995). Solid state physics: an introduction, P. Hofmann (Wiley-VCH, 2008). Understanding solid-state physics, S.L. Holgate (Taylor & Francis, 2009).

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**Textbooks 2 More advanced:**

Solid state physics, G. Grosso and G.P. Parravicini (Academic Press, 2000). Solid-State Physics: An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science, H. Ibach and H. Lüth (Springer, 2009). Solid State Theory: An Intoroduction, U. Rössler (Springer, 2009). Solid State Physics, N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin (Brooks Cole, 1976). Principles of the Theory of Solids, J.M. Ziman (Cambridge University Press, 1979). Condensed matter physics, M.P. Marder (Wiley-Interscience, 2000). Quantum Theory of Solids, C. Kittel (John Wiley and Sons, 1987). Fundamentals of the Theory of Metals, A. Abrikosov (North-Holland, 1988).

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Textbooks 3 Condensed matter in a nutshell, G.D. Mahan (Princeton University Press, 2010). Solid state theory, W.A. Harrison (Dover Publications, 1980). Solid state physics: essential concepts, D.W. Snoke (Addison-Wesley, 2009). Electrical properties: Electrical properties of materials, L. Solymar and D. Walsh (Oxford University Press, 2009). Electronic Structure and the Properties of Solids: The Physics of the Chemical Bond, W.A. Harrison (Dover publications, 1989). Atomic and Electronic Structure of Solids, E. Kaxiras (Cambridge University Press, 2003). Device aspects: Solid state electronic devices, B. Streetman and S. Banerjee (Prentice Hall, 2005).

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Textbooks 4 Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, S.M. Sze (Wiley, 2001). Modern mesoscopics/transport aspects: Quantum Transport: Introduction to Nanoscience, Y.V. Nazarov and Y.M. Blanter (Cambridge University Press, 2009). “Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures”, C. W. J. Beenakker and H. van Houten, arXiv:cond-mat/ v1. Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures, T. Heinzel (Wiley-VCH; illustrated edition, 2003). Quantum Transport: Atom to Transistor, S. Datta (Cambridge University Press, 2005). Mesoscopic Phenomena in Solids, B. Altshuler, P.A. Lee, and R. A. Webb, (eds) (North-Holland, 1991).

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**Textbooks 5 Filed theoretical aspects: **

Condensed Matter Field Theory, A. Altland and B. Simons (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

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Syllabus Refer to course brochure

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**Grading/evaluation policy**

Credit Contribution Class activity (relevant and penetrating questions, suggestions, corrections, deep understanding, efforts and dedication towards the course and the subject, etc) 20% Exercises= handouts+ solution presentation upon tutorial sessions* (*5% per presentation) 20%+20% Midterm exam Final exam ∑ 100%

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**Office hour: Tuesday 16:30 - 17:30 E-mail: hamed.saberi@lmu.de **

Communications Office hour: Tuesday 16: :30 Skype: h_saberi ooVoo: h_saberi [Solid] Mailing-list Temporary course home-page:

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Request Please send me an with the subject "Solid-State Physics I" and in the body a message containing info of the following format: Surname, first name: Institute: Field of specialization: Main science interests: e.g. Saberi, Hamed Physics Departement, Shahid Beheshti University Condensed matter theory Mesoscopic Physics, Quantum information

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**Attaendance in tutorial sessions is highly recommended!**

Besides the 20% presentation credit, complementary course materials (and sometimes some parts of the syllabus) will be covered throughout the tutorial sessions! Please do stick to one tutor for evaluation but feel free to attend whichever sessions you wish

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**Tips to succeed in this course**

Working hard! To feel free to ask as many questions as possible/needed Discussing a lot with other course participants Identifying local experts (graduate students of condensed matter around etc) for possible questions/discussions Attending tutorial sessions regularly Providing regular feedbaks/suggestions to the educational team Avoiding philiosophiizng physics and learning rather by doing! And most importantly: Reading s and visiting course home-page regularly!

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**Just do it and get it to work!**

Caveats Pragmatism vs Iranian/Indian understading of sceince especially among students community Never expect to digest anything upon the first iteration. Don‘t get stuck, rather keep going ahead and always allow multiple iterations Don't be surprised happening to hear the most commonly used term of science, namely, "I don't know" even from Nobel laureates and try to practice the intellectual courage of using that as much as needed! Obsolete scientific concepts after adoption of Copenhagen doctrine: To understand, to learn, to teach, to read or to study, to waste time on deriving equations of others, to do science only to enjoy it etc Just do it and get it to work!

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**A bit of getting the chest off ...**

“To be, or not to be, that is the question: … ”!

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**Suggestions/feedbacks always welcome!**

“Those who never make mistakes make the biggest mistake of all: they never try anything new!” Looking forward to seeing you all in the course! Do you approve by now that: 1+1≠2?

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