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Projections and Coordinate Systems Acknowledgements: Barron Orr, AZ Geospatial Extension Specialist Operation On-Target With support from: NSF DUE-0903270 Prepared by: in partnership with: John McGee Jennifer McKee Geospatial Technician Education Through Virginia’s Community Colleges (GTEVCC)

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Projections and Coordinate Systems Why do we need to worry about projections? Why do we need to worry about projections? Your “layers” need to “match up” so that they will stack up in the right place (relative to each other) Your “layers” need to “match up” so that they will stack up in the right place (relative to each other)

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Projections and Coordinate Systems Different organizations use different coordinate systems and projections Different organizations use different coordinate systems and projections If you can understand this (a bit) you will eliminate headaches later on… If you can understand this (a bit) you will eliminate headaches later on…

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Projections, Spheroids, Datums and Coordinate Systems We are trying to represent a 3- dimensional, roundish, lumpy earth on a flat map We are trying to represent a 3- dimensional, roundish, lumpy earth on a flat map We can’t do this unless we project this roundish object onto a flat surface We can’t do this unless we project this roundish object onto a flat surface

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A Round Planet on a Flat Map? ? Think of peeling an orange and then trying to lay the skin flat on a table – pretty difficult to do!

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Projection: Transforming a 3-D planet onto a flat surface

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Map Projections Geographic coordinates Geographic coordinates latitude, longitudelatitude, longitude degrees, minutes, secondsdegrees, minutes, seconds spherical, not projected coordinatesspherical, not projected coordinates Map projection Map projection Process of transforming spatial relationships on earth’s surface (a sphere) onto a flat mapProcess of transforming spatial relationships on earth’s surface (a sphere) onto a flat map

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Common Projections

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Some Less Common Projections!

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Most Commonly Used Projections In VA State Plane Coordinate System Projection (SPC): Used by Local Governments Universal Transverse Mercator Projection (UTM): Used by The “Feds”

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State Plane Coordinate System (SPC) State-Plane Coordinate systems are different in each state. State-Plane Coordinate systems are different in each state. They are most commonly used by local govts. because they represent small areas well.

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Virginia State Plane Coordinate Zone Boundaries (SPCZ) VA State Plane North Zone VA State Plane South Zone

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Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Coordinate System

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Virginia UTM Zones

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Most Commonly Used Projections In VA Virginia also has another customized projection that was developed by VDOT called the Virginia-Lambert Conformal Conic projection. Virginia also has another customized projection that was developed by VDOT called the Virginia-Lambert Conformal Conic projection. It is now used by almost all state agencies because it covers the entire state. It is now used by almost all state agencies because it covers the entire state.

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The Virginia Statewide Lambert Projection is a custom projection developed by VDOT. No “zones” (statewide coverage) No “zones” (statewide coverage) Here are the parameters for the VA Lambert (NAD83) projection Here are the parameters for the VA Lambert (NAD83) projection You won’t need this info. now, but keep it handy: You won’t need this info. now, but keep it handy: Parameter Value (deg. Expressed in DD) ZunitsNo UnitsMeters SpheroidGRS1980 Xshift0000 Yshift0000 1st Standard Parallel37.000 2nd Standard Parallel39.5000 Central Meridian-79.5000 Latitude of Projection Origin 36.000 False Easting000 False Northing000

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Why do you need to know this? The layers need to “fall on top of each other” The layers need to “fall on top of each other” Some of you will “get stuck” because one layer will not “fall on top of another layer” (because they may be in different coordinate systems / projections. Some of you will “get stuck” because one layer will not “fall on top of another layer” (because they may be in different coordinate systems / projections.

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