Presentation on theme: "Reconciling Federal, State and Institutional Policies Determining Educational Access for Immigrant & Undocumented Students: Implications for Professional."— Presentation transcript:
Reconciling Federal, State and Institutional Policies Determining Educational Access for Immigrant & Undocumented Students: Implications for Professional Practice
National Forum on Higher Education for the Public Good Mission: To significantly increase awareness, understanding, commitment, and action relative to the public service role of higher education in the United States.
Research Purpose To explore how colleges and universities negotiate laws that constrain undocumented students’ educational access and reconcile them with institutional values, governance arrangements, professional norms, and local circumstances.
Demographics of Undocumented Students Nearly 5% of the US population is undocumented. Approximately 11 million people total 9.6 million are from Latin America 7 million are from Mexico Approximately 1.1 million children are undocumented immigrants in the US. An estimated 65,000 undocumented children graduate from high school each year
Policy Context: Federal Plyler vs. Doe of 1982 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) Proposed DREAM Act
Policy Context: State ISRT Policy Trends 13 States with inclusive laws CA, CT, IL, KS, MD, NE, NM, NY, TX, UT, WA, and WI State Dream Act: Illinois 3 States with restrictive laws AZ, CO, GA Enrollment Policy Trends South Carolina, Alabama, North Carolina, Georgia
Social Mobility Civic Returns Universal Access Higher Education Society Values Intrinsic to Higher Education
Universal Access to Higher Education Universal AccessFirst GenerationLow SES Traditionally Underrepresented Institutions Citizenship
Research Questions To what extent do state policy, professional organizations, and forms of institutional control influence the way that institutions mediate policies related to undocumented students? What mechanisms do institutional leaders perceive influence the development and implementation of policies related to undocumented students at their institutions?
Methodology Collected survey data on financial aid and admissions practices in February and June 2011 Survey was completed by financial aid directors, admissions directors, and enrollment managers (i.e. members of NASFAA and AACRAO) n = 448 (NASFAA); n = 228 (AACRAO)
Findings: Impact of State Policy Environments on Institutional Access for Undocumented Students Institutions located in states with inclusive policies are more likely to have institutional policies that admit undocumented students. Institutions in states with an inclusive policy environment are more likely to have institutional policies that extend the provision of in-state tuition to undocumented students. Institutions located in states with inclusive policies are more likely to offer financial aid to undocumented students.
Findings: Impact of Institutional Characteristics on Institutional Access Policies for Undocumented Students Public institutions are more likely than private institutions to have policies in place that admit undocumented students. Private and for-profit institutions are more likely to offer financial aid to undocumented than public institutions. Four-year colleges and universities tend to provide financial to undocumented students more so than community colleges, trade school and graduate-level only institutions.
Findings: Impact of Demographic Shifts on Access Policies for Undocumented Students Institutions located in states with a higher proportion of undocumented immigrants tend to report maintaining an in-state tuition policy more so than institutions in states with fewer undocumented immigrants.
Findings: The Role of Professional Organizations on Access Policies for Undocumented Students Awareness at the institutional level of NASFAA’s access- oriented position on undocumented students increases the probability that an institution has an inclusive admissions policy relative to institutions that did not report an awareness of NASFAA’s position on the issue. Awareness of NASFAA’s policy increased the likelihood that an institution had financial aid policy for undocumented students.
Case Studies on Institutional Practice Small urban Catholic liberal arts college in the Midwest Recently drafted a formal policy allowing undocumented students to be admitted to the college, although college has never required proof of citizenship for admission Allows undocumented to receive merit-based financial aid, as well as limited need-based aid available through privately raised funds
Case Studies on Institutional Practice Regional public four-year university in the Midwest Does not require proof of citizenship for admission Policy of allowing in-state tuition rates if student graduated from high school in the state Also has a policy allowing in-state tuition for children of migrant workers that dates back to 1970s (policy remains untouched for 20 years) Allows undocumented students to receive merit-based Presidential Scholarship but does not offer need-based financial aid
Factors That Appear to Influence Institutional Leaders’ Decisions : Personal/professional experience with issue of undocumented students Institutional mission and values Demographics and needs of surrounding communities Support/interest from governing board
Implications: State Policy State policy plays a tremendous role in determining institutional practice State policy acts as a filter for institutions as they mediate federal policy States serve as a central source of legitimacy
Institutions as Catalysts for Change Institutions have autonomy to mediate the law The diffusion of policy among public institutions is an important source of legitimacy Public institutions’ role in providing access to education is important Lack of financial aid at the public and community college levels is still a barrier for access
Associations National higher education associations such as NASFAA and AACRAO are critical in shaping institutional practice Following associations’ policy positions may also bring legitimacy to institutions
Recommendations Empower educators to take an active role in informing state policy In order to ensure access, state policy should also focus in offering financial aid Enhance professional associations’ influence by: Intensifying dissemination efforts regarding institutional policies and practices to institutions Offering continuous training to professional staff about the complexities of serving undocumented students
Future Research Expand research to other important boundary function associations Sophisticate the financial aid model by adding resources and financial information Historical and longitudinal analyses are necessary to understand changes in institutional policy and practice over time Expand case studies to other institutions, including a community college