Presentation on theme: "A DIPOSE T ISSUE - F ED S TATE. C ARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM."— Presentation transcript:
A DIPOSE T ISSUE - F ED S TATE
C ARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
I NCREASED GLUCOSE TRANSPORT Glucose transport into adipocytes is very sensitive to the concentration of insulin in the blood (1). Circulating insulin levels are elevated in the absorptive state, resulting in an influx of glucose into adipocytes.
I NCREASED GLYCOLYSIS The increased intracellular availability of glucose results in an enhanced rate of glycolysis ②. In adipose tissue, glycolysis serves a synthetic function by supplying glycerol phosphate for TAG synthesis.
I NCREASED ACTIVITY IN THE HMP Adipose tissue can metabolize glucose by means of the HMP, thereby producing NADPH, which is essential for fat synthesis ③. However in humans, de novo synthesis is not a major source of fatty acids in adipose tissue.
F AT METABOLISM
I NCREASED SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS De novo synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl CoA in adipose tissue is nearly undetectable in humans, except when refeeding a previously fasted individual ④. Instead, most of the fatty acids added to the lipid stores of adipocytes are provided by dietary fat (in the form of chylomicrons), with a lesser amount is supplied by VLDL from the liver.
I NCREASED TAG SYNTHESIS After consumption of a lipid- containing meal, hydrolysis of the TAG of chylomicrons (from the intestine) and VLDL (from the liver) provides adipose tissue with fatty acids ⑤. These exogenous fatty acids are released by the action of lipoprotein lipase, an extracellular enzyme attached to the capillary walls in many tissues—particularly adipose and muscle.
I NCREASED TAG SYNTHESIS Because adipocytes lack glycerol kinase, glycerol 3- phosphate used in TAG synthesis must come from the metabolism of glucose (see p. 189). Thus, in the well fed state, elevated levels of glucose and insulin favor storage of TAG, all the carbons of which are supplied by glucose.
D ECREASED TAG DEGRADATION Elevated insulin favors the dephosphorylated (inactive) state of hormone-sensitive lipase. TAG degradation is thus inhibited in the well-fed state.