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Kaitlin Beranek, Caroline Gillis, Grant Piper

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Presentation on theme: "Kaitlin Beranek, Caroline Gillis, Grant Piper"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kaitlin Beranek, Caroline Gillis, Grant Piper
State Department Kaitlin Beranek, Caroline Gillis, Grant Piper

2 Contents Structure and Role of State Department Desert Shield
Background of Conflict - As relates to State Department Main State Department Players Policy Environment - Creating policy or reacting to it? Joint Endeavour Background of Conflict Main Players Policy Environment

3 Structure of State Department
- Hierarchical organization: Secretary of State at top Decision making follows hierarchical pattern - Regional bureaus, functional bureaus - Mission statement (in part): “The Department's mission is to shape and sustain a peaceful, prosperous, just, and democratic world and foster conditions for stability and progress for the benefit of the American people and people everywhere.” Secy of State in red box ambassadors for countries in regional bureaus - purple boxes: Europe & Eurasia South & Central Asia

4 Role of State Department
- As the lead foreign affairs agency, the Department of State has the primary role in: Leading development of foreign policy Managing the foreign affairs budget Leading and coordinating U.S. representation abroad Conducting negotiations and treaties Coordinating international activities of other U.S. agencies - Secretary of State is President’s principal foreign policy advisor - President has some “State Department” roles like negotiating treaties and receiving dignitaries and must confirm State Department policy

5 Background on Operation Desert Shield
- Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990 Despite preventative attempts from international community (Egypt, United States specifically) - There were fears for the safety of Saudi Arabia (a US ally) - President George HW Bush set his mind to action immediately - James Baker was Secretary of State April Glaspie was ambassador to Baghdad - A US- led coalition of 34 countries joined together to oppose Iraq - The short conflict ended on February 28, 1991

6 Key Players in Desert Shield
Secretary of State: James Baker (R-TX) → direct contact with President Bush as member of advising committee → initially rejected military intervention → began reaching out for support → meeting with Iraq foreign minister Tariq Aziz: pointless -both Baker and Bush from TX and long personal/professional history, relatively close relationship -experience with Marine Corps -had to change his viewpoint when Bush pushed for intervention→ shows that Pres wields a lot of power over the head of the entire bureaucracy: bc he appointed him? so they share ideologies? even though he appoints him, Baker’s priority is still US relations with world, not necessarily always agreeing with/keeping Pres happy -important in gaining overseas support, although much of this support was strictly monetary -pointless meeting→ evidence for state dept losing influence? not necessarily, more so that the decisions had already been put into motion→ also felt as though Iraq was being stubborn and inflexible….was American demanding Iraq obey its demands or was it actually searching for a compromise? -after fighting actually began, Baker and Russian Foreign Minister offered compromise, Iraq returned with a deal of its own→ struggled to find a middle way, Iraq eventually gave in -these negotiations handled by State Dept

7 Key Players U.S. Ambassador to Iraq: April Glaspie
→ expert on Middle East and Arab world → role as careerist in State Department → met with Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq → gave false impression of U.S. stance and plans? -fun fact: from Canada -since she was careerist and expert on region, Pres trusted her and so didn’t give her a script to follow for meeting...why misunderstanding occurred -1st female ambassador to Arab nation→ women can’t vote there, would they have accepted a position given by a woman? -said US won’t react over Kuwait→ following policy laid out→ state dept restricted by policy? -cited Baker gave her instructions? highly contested and varied accounts given→ she claims she did not give say anything close to that and that she told Hussein the State Dept’s concerns about # of soldiers near Kuwait -she followed protocol and policy→ supports idea that bureaucracies and depts are dependent on precedent and history

8 Key Players U.S. Ambassador to Kuwait: Nathaniel Howell
→ stationed in U. S. Embassy → forced to remain in Kuwait after invasion -embassy allowed Americans in (sort of refugees); howell&co. essentially trapped there

9 Policy Environment in Desert Shield
Presidential Influence Major and decisive President made a decision, stuck to it State Department had to react to presidential decision and go along with the established policy No opportunity for State Department policy, even in negotiation, president said where the US stood Very hands on approach by President Bush

10 Background on Operation Joint Endeavor
- In the early ‘90s, the Yugoslav Federation dissolved Ethnic Serbs fought against Bosniaks and Croats wh0 declared their independence from Yugoslavia. At the same time, civil war in Bosnia - President Clinton and NATO experienced issues that would hamstring their efforts in the conflict for years (ex: Bush era Lift and Strike strategy failure) - Secretary of State in ‘95: Warren Christopher Assistant Secretary for Western Europe in ‘95: Richard Holbrooke TOO MUCH INFO ON THIS SLIDE- split into 2 Have split into 2. - Caroline

11 Background: Dayton Peace Accords
- Agreed upon on November 21, 1995 - Ended Bosnian War - Outlined framework for peace in Bosnia - Between Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia - Accords negotiated by Richard Holbrooke Conference led by Warren Christopher - United States and allies entered Bosnia as peacekeepers after signing 2nd background slide - Caroline

12 Key Players in Operation Joint Endeavour
Secretary of State: Warren Christopher (D-CA) → direct contact with President Clinton as member of advisory committee → more autonomy → supportive of peacekeeping operations → overshadowed by Asst. Secretary of State Richard Holbrooke -experience with Navy, WWII veteran whereas Baker was not -very experienced/had much experience with State Dept. -Pres Clinton elsewhere engaged/not a very strong stance on Op Joint Endeavour→ more independence -Holbrooke had larger role bc Christopher had many foreign engagements

13 Key Players U. S. Assistant Secretary of State: Richard Holbrooke
→ larger amount of independence → contact with American public → met with Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian Foreign Ministers → important contributor to Dayton Accords -bc of superiors distracted attention -attempting to foster support amongst public by saying American “national security interests” were being threatened -stipulations of meetings with Foreign Ministers were for peace in the region (overall goal) -goals of Dayton conference/discussions were “permanent peace” and agreement on “multiethnic Bosnian state”

14 Key Players U. S. Ambassador to Yugoslavia: Warren Zimmermann
→ role as last ambassador to Yugoslavia → considered Baker’s treatment of the Balkans a failure to curb tensions → believed U.S. could have utilized influence more strongly and much sooner → opposed to Serbian violence towards Bosnia -conflict had a long history and many causes -his role as ambassador to Yugoslavia slightly biased his views -bc Baker was caught up in Desert Shield, he failed to analyze and prevent Joint Endeavour→ should have made a strong statement sooner -had U.S. been more influential, could have prevented much violence→ supported military intervention -believed Bosnia had right to be separate from Croatia and Serbia -influenced by Cold War→ Bosnian reps wanted capital to be divided with walls and Zimmermann was appalled -MADELEINE ALBRIGHT: like Zimmermann, believed in immediate action, but directed her efforts through UN; had a lot of contact with and influence on Clinton; later became 1st female Sect of State!

15 Policy Environment in Joint Endeavor
Presidential Influence Weak/slight (especially compared to Bush) Influenced into non-action Hands off approach Opened door for outside expert help from Richard Holbrooke Influenced State Dept. to make their own policy

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