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State Department Kaitlin Beranek, Caroline Gillis, Grant Piper.

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Presentation on theme: "State Department Kaitlin Beranek, Caroline Gillis, Grant Piper."— Presentation transcript:

1 State Department Kaitlin Beranek, Caroline Gillis, Grant Piper

2 Contents Structure and Role of State Department Desert Shield Background of Conflict - As relates to State Department Main State Department Players Policy Environment - Creating policy or reacting to it? Joint Endeavour Background of Conflict Main Players Policy Environment

3 Structure of State Department - Hierarchical organization: Secretary of State at top Decision making follows hierarchical pattern - Regional bureaus, functional bureaus - Mission statement (in part): “The Department's mission is to shape and sustain a peaceful, prosperous, just, and democratic world and foster conditions for stability and progress for the benefit of the American people and people everywhere.”

4 Role of State Department - As the lead foreign affairs agency, the Department of State has the primary role in: Leading development of foreign policy Managing the foreign affairs budget Leading and coordinating U.S. representation abroad Conducting negotiations and treaties Coordinating international activities of other U.S. agencies - Secretary of State is President’s principal foreign policy advisor - President has some “State Department” roles like negotiating treaties and receiving dignitaries and must confirm State Department policy

5 Background on Operation Desert Shield - Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990 Despite preventative attempts from international community (Egypt, United States specifically) - There were fears for the safety of Saudi Arabia (a US ally) - President George HW Bush set his mind to action immediately - James Baker was Secretary of State April Glaspie was ambassador to Baghdad - A US- led coalition of 34 countries joined together to oppose Iraq - The short conflict ended on February 28, 1991

6 Key Players in Desert Shield Secretary of State: James Baker (R-TX) → direct contact with President Bush as member of advising committee → initially rejected military intervention → began reaching out for support → meeting with Iraq foreign minister Tariq Aziz: pointless

7 Key Players U.S. Ambassador to Iraq: April Glaspie → expert on Middle East and Arab world → role as careerist in State Department → met with Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq → gave false impression of U.S. stance and plans?

8 Key Players U.S. Ambassador to Kuwait: Nathaniel Howell → stationed in U. S. Embassy → forced to remain in Kuwait after invasion

9 Policy Environment in Desert Shield Presidential Influence -Major and decisive -President made a decision, stuck to it -State Department had to react to presidential decision and go along with the established policy -No opportunity for State Department policy, even in negotiation, president said where the US stood -Very hands on approach by President Bush

10 Background on Operation Joint Endeavor - In the early ‘90s, the Yugoslav Federation dissolved Ethnic Serbs fought against Bosniaks and Croats wh0 declared their independence from Yugoslavia. At the same time, civil war in Bosnia - President Clinton and NATO experienced issues that would hamstring their efforts in the conflict for years (ex: Bush era Lift and Strike strategy failure) - Secretary of State in ‘95: Warren Christopher Assistant Secretary for Western Europe in ‘95: Richard Holbrooke

11 Background: Dayton Peace Accords - Agreed upon on November 21, Ended Bosnian War - Outlined framework for peace in Bosnia - Between Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia - Accords negotiated by Richard Holbrooke Conference led by Warren Christopher - United States and allies entered Bosnia as peacekeepers after signing

12 Key Players in Operation Joint End eavour Secretary of State: Warren Christopher (D-CA) → direct contact with President Clinton as member of advisory committee → more autonomy → supportive of peacekeeping operations → overshadowed by Asst. Secretary of State Richard Holbrooke

13 Key Players U. S. Assistant Secretary of State: Richard Holbrooke → larger amount of independence → contact with American public → met with Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian Foreign Ministers → important contributor to Dayton Accords

14 Key Players U. S. Ambassador to Yugoslavia: Warren Zimmermann → role as last ambassador to Yugoslavia → considered Baker’s treatment of the Balkans a failure to curb tensions → believed U.S. could have utilized influence more strongly and much sooner → opposed to Serbian violence towards Bosnia

15 Policy Environment in Joint Endeavor Presidential Influence -Weak/slight (especially compared to Bush) -Influenced into non-action -Hands off approach -Opened door for outside expert help from Richard Holbrooke -Influenced State Dept. to make their own policy

16 Sources https://books.google.com/books?id=EXbQoSUOP4AC&pg=PA305&dq=james+baker%27s+role+in+desert+shield&hl=en&sa=X &ei=8PXjVI7RKcbfsATn- 4L4DQ&ved=0CE0Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=james%20baker's%20role%20in%20desert%20shield&f=false https://books.google.com/books?id=wW5wumFHKSEC&pg=SL11- PA334&dq=april+glaspie&hl=en&sa=X&ei=F_njVOe6LbTPsQSdxIKACA&ved=0CEoQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=april%20glaspie &f=false https://books.google.com/books?id=CMZgD1Pa_YkC&pg=PA279&dq=april+glaspie&hl=en&sa=X&ei=F_njVOe6LbTPsQSdxIKA CA&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=april%20glaspie&f=false https://books.google.com/books?id=vxgy4R3-A- sC&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=richard+holbrooke%27s++role+in+operation+joint+endeavor&source=bl&ots=yj0dbB0w0Q&sig= OYih_izscgnB5bO77hJ4reexAg8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7wvkVO_zH5ORyAS- t4LgBg&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=richard%20holbrooke's%20%20role%20in%20operation%20joint%20endeavor&f =false yugoslavia


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