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Territorial configurations of governance: Contrasting rescaling experiences in the UK and Spain CRESR Seminar, 17 th October 2012 Tony Gore CRESR, Sheffield.

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Presentation on theme: "Territorial configurations of governance: Contrasting rescaling experiences in the UK and Spain CRESR Seminar, 17 th October 2012 Tony Gore CRESR, Sheffield."— Presentation transcript:

1 Territorial configurations of governance: Contrasting rescaling experiences in the UK and Spain CRESR Seminar, 17 th October 2012 Tony Gore CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University

2 Literature on 'state rescaling' Post-war rescaling episodes in GB Decentralisation and consolidation in post-Franco Spain Towards a rescaling typology Lessons for rescaling thinking and research Introduction

3 Focus mainly on economic management and regulation: regions, city regions, etc. Provision of basic services excluded, but exact division unclear (lack of conceptual precision) Processes emphasise elite political strategies rather than social relations/negotiations Role of the state often seen in instrumentalist and/or reductionist terms (promotion of economic growth and capital accumulation) Literature on 'state rescaling'

4 Local and regional rescaling in GB DecadeLocal GovernmentRegional Policy/Government 1940sLG Boundary Commission reportBarlow Report 1950s LG Commissions (Eng & Wales) New Town Dev't Corporations Development Areas Industrial Development Certificates 1960s Greater London Council 32 London Boroughs Limited mergers & redefinitions Regional Planning Councils SDAs, DAs, IAs Location of Offices Bureau 1970s Major LG reorganisation (Eng, Wales & Scotland - 2 tier system) Separation of utility boards Continuation of assisted areas Scottish/Welsh Dev't Agencies Rural dev't agencies (MW, NI, H&I) 1980s Abolition of GLC & Met Counties Urban Development Corporations Privatisation of utilities Enterprise Zones Severe reduction in assisted areas 1990s Move to single tier in Scotland and Wales Similar move in parts of England Urban Regeneration Companies Open energy/telecomms market Government Offices for the Regions European Structural Fund areas Training and Enterprise Councils 2000s Greater London Authority Multi-Area Agreements Selected LA mergers LA shared service provision Neighbourhood partnerships Devolution of powers (Sc, W, NI) Regional Development Agencies Regional Assemblies European Structural Fund areas Pan-regional initiatives 2010sStatutory City Regions LA shared service provision Combined authorities Abolition of RDAs Local Enterprise Partnerships RDG, UGF, EZs

5 Move to single tier LAs in Wales and parts of England, 1996

6 Move to single tier LAs in Scotland, 1996

7 LG merger process in England, 2009- 2012

8 Local Enterprise Partnerships in England

9 Structure of Government in Spain LevelSpanish NameBritish Equivalent Consortia Member NationalGobierno de España (1)Central GovernmentYes RegionalComunidades Autónomas (17)Regional CouncilsYes Sub-regionalDiputaciones Provinciales (52)Provincial CouncilsYes Inter-municipalComarcas (117)County CouncilsPoss Mancomunidades (1,020)Municipal AssociationsNo LocalMunicipios (8116)Local AuthoritiesYes

10 Spain: Historical Regions

11 Spain's Autonomous Communities

12 Provinces of Spain

13 Pop'n RangeNumber% of Total% of Pop'nAvge Size 2,000 or less 5,79171.47.2500 2,001-5,000 1,00512.47.63,100 5,001-20,000 92211.420.89,400 20,000-50,000 2533.113.329,500 50,001 or more 1451.851.1155,000 All 8,116100.0 5,500 Size of Spain's Municipalities, 2011

14 Country Avge Size of Municipality % with <5,000 Population Number with >100,000 Pop'n Czech Republic1,650965 France1,7009537 Slovakia1,900953 Hungary3,200919 Austria3,500915 Latvia4,350912 Spain5,5008463 Germany6,7007781 Italy7,3007143 Greece10,750538 Portugal34,4002023 Netherlands36,900225 Denmark55,50036 UK140,000067 EU275,40082500 Comparison with Selected EU Countries

15 DeviceNumberNatureFocus Mancomunidades1,020 Voluntary horizontal association between LAs Delivery of services & area promotion Consorcios981 Voluntary association between LAs & others Single function or interregional Comarcas117 Transfer of powers from above and below Delivery of services & area promotion Áreas Metropolitanas3 Metropolitan strategic association Barcelona, Valencia: planning/econ. dev't Legal obligation2Metropolitan strategic association Barcelona, Madrid: planning/infrastructure; selected services Collaborative local governance in Spain

16 Comarcas in Catalonia

17 Comarcalización de Aragón

18 El Maestrazgo - Location

19 Cantavieja from below

20 Cantavieja from above

21 Comarca del Maestrazgo (Teruel Province)

22 Comarca del Maestrazgo - Boundaries

23 Logo for Maestrazgo Comarca

24 Comarca del Maestrazgo - Main Office

25 Mancomunidad Turística del Maestrazgo

26 Logos for Mancomunidad Turística & Parque Cultural

27 Area covered by Maestrazgo Parque Cultural

28 Towards a typology of rescaling techniques Formal Boundary Changes Transfer of Powers & Functions Cross-Boundary Governance EnlargementDevolutionVoluntary LA associations ReductionCentralisationShared service provision AmalgamationConsolidation/fragmentationPublic-private partnerships Removal of enclavesRemoval/addition of tier(s)Pan-regional initiatives RedrawingChange in fiscal autonomySpecial purpose vehicles Privatisation/marketisation

29 Treat state institutions in terms of social relations and hence sites of negotiation Examine historical, economic and institutional conditions & frameworks (incl. prior rescaling) Trace through processes of negotiation and positions taken by those involved Factor in public perceptions re. attachment to places/territories Include fiscal arrangements as central: rescaling as power transfer or cost reduction Lessons for state rescaling theory and research

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