Presentation on theme: "State A territory with defined boundaries"— Presentation transcript:
1State A territory with defined boundaries A population with a common identity-not necessarily nationalInternal administration, governmentDiplomatic recognitionSovereignty
2International system Units/agents/actors Structure Interdependence between units/agentsRegular interactions between unitsFunctional differentiation between units
3International systemNature of units/relative capabilities determine structurei.e. distribution of power: if there is concentration of power in one state-unipolar system;in two states-bipolarIn three states-tripolar
4Types of international systems Independent state systemHegemonic state system-one preponderant state determine basic rulesImperial state system-supremacy of one state-loss of sovereignty for the other unitsFeudal system
5Greek city states Athens-Sparta rival city states Start as an independent state systemEnd up as dual hegemony systemPersian threat-lead to military power in Athens-increase tendencies of hegemonic rule
6Roman empire Encompass all of Europe, Middle East and Africa Major restructuring of these areas under imperial state systemIntroduce ideas of international law and international society
7Roman inputs to IR theory Stoics-ability to reason sets humanity apart-so universal laws of humanityNatural rights and equality of peopleUniversal image of humanity that goes beyond the boundaries of city states
8Medieval EuropeFall of Rome-476 A.D decentralization of political authorityOnly major authority is religious/political-Catholic churchHoly Roman empire-Charlemagne 800 A.D-major political organization
9Feudal Europe Public authority in private hands- Lords controlled their own territory-private possessionPredominance of lords over kingsFragmentation and decentralization of powerdefined authority in terms of a hierarchy of personal relations, with only loose reference to territorial rights.
10Power and authority of the Church Central authorityLegitimation of the secular rulers- kings through papal authorityThat is because he is the presumptive living embodiment of Christ’s willOwns 1/3rd of all land in EuropeCannot be taxedPope represent highest authority and kings are subservient to Pope
11Emergence of sovereign states Kings acquire financial resources-taxes and coercive power-right to use forceClash between secular and religious orderQuestioning of religious authority of the Church-as kings gain power they question the central authority of the Church
12Impact of reformation Divide secular and religious authority Open the road for a political authorityOppose centralization under the Church
13Peace of WestphaliaThirty years Wars-Holy Roman empire-protestants vs.catholicsShifting balance of power-as in Peloponnesian WarsWestphalia-1648 ended the central authority of the church
15Post Westphalian order sovereignty-not recognize a higher authority than one’s ownTerritoriality-right to political authority over a well defined areaAutonomy-no external actors enjoys authority in that areaIndependent state system
16Article LXIV (64)And to prevent for the future any Differences arising in the Politick State, all and every one of the Electors, Princes and States of the Roman Empire, are so establish’d and confirm’d in their antient, Prerogatives, Libertys, Privileges, free exercise of Territorial Right, as well Ecclesiastick, as Politick Lordships, Regales, by virtue of this present Transaction: that they never can or ought to be molested therein by any whomsoever upon any manner of pretenceArticle 64 establishes territoriality and the right of the state to choose its own religion, as well as the right to noninterference by other states in any of these matters.
17Article LXV (65)They shall enjoy without contradiction, the Right of Suffrage in all Deliberations touching the Affairs of the Empire; but above all, when the Business in hand shall be the making or interpreting of Laws, the declaring of Wars, imposing of Taxes….. Above all, it shall be free perpetually to each of the States of the Empire, to make Alliances with Strangers for their Preservation and Safety; provided, nevertheless, such Alliances be not against the Emperor, and the Empire, nor against the Publick Peace, and this Treaty, and without prejudice to the Oath by which every one is bound to the Emperor and the Empire.This article establishes that no supernational authority (i.e., the Catholic Church or the Holy Roman Empire) can make or negate alliances made between sovereigns for the purpose of protecting their respective state’s security
18Article 67Article 67 establishes that sovereign states can determine their own domestic policies, free from external pressures and “with full Jurisdiction within the inclosure of theirWalls and their Territorys.”
19Sovereign state Make treaties with other sovereign states Do not interfere in domestic politics of othersDevelop strong controls over its bordersActively engage in state building activities
20Westphalian ordera system of territorially organized states operating in an anarchic environmentConstitutionally independent (sovereign) actorshave exclusive authority to rule within their own borders.sovereignty is exclusive property rights exercised over a definite territorial space,
21Territorialityall the landmass of the world is carved up into spatially exclusive unitsstates do not have overlapping jurisdictions regarding territory (exceptions??)states have borders that serve to physically protect from outside threatsPromote economic objectives/cultural valuesbrings together physical space and public authority.
22Territoriality vs.authority Political organization is territorial when the legal reach of public authority is coterminous with certain spatial boundaries,Does this mean there are other types of authority that is not territorial?Contrast to medieval political organization-multiple forms of authority coexist
23Krasner-organized hypocrisy Territoryrecognition,AutonomyControlThese are the attributes of sovereigntyHowever, very few states possess all of them
24Uses of sovereignty control over borders, external recognition, ultimate right to decide,Capacity to exclude external authority structures.