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4/10/20151 State Driven Agents CIS 479/579 Bruce R. Maxim UM-Dearborn.

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Presentation on theme: "4/10/20151 State Driven Agents CIS 479/579 Bruce R. Maxim UM-Dearborn."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/10/20151 State Driven Agents CIS 479/579 Bruce R. Maxim UM-Dearborn

2 4/10/20152 Buckland Software The executables and source code available The Boost library is available from The Visual C++ environment need to be configured to compile the source code by setting the appropriate paths

3 4/10/20153 Paths Include file paths C:\boost C:\AI_Source\Common C:\AI_Source\Common\lua-5.0\include C:\AI_Source\Common\laubind Source file paths C:\AI_Source\Common C:\AI_Source\Common\lua-5.0 C:\AI_Source\Common\laubind Library file paths C:\AI_Source\Common\lua-5.0\lib

4 4/10/20154 FSM Agent Advantages Quick design and simple to code Easy to debug Low computational overhead Intuitive so they make sense to domain experts Flexible, easy for programmers to tweak to modify behaviors

5 4/10/20155 FSM State Examples Pacman ghosts –evade, chase Quake bots –find armor, find health, seek cover, run away FIFA soccer players –strike, dribble, chase ball, mark player NPC’s in real time strategy games –move to position, patrol, follow path

6 4/10/20156 Switch Implementation - 1 Define an enumerated type with the state names enum StateType(RunAway, Patrol, Attack); Then define method that manages the transitions void Agent::Update(StateType CurrentState) { switch (CurrentState) { case Runaway: EvadeEnemy( ); if (Safe( )) ChangeState(Patrol); break; …

7 4/10/20157 Switch Implementation - 2 This works OK for simple FSM’s Becomes overly complicated for FSM’s with lots of states and transitions Requires recompilation if states are changed Not easy to have simultaneous behaviors implemented (run and shoot) without defining lots of states

8 4/10/20158 State Transition Table -1 Current StateConditionState Transition RunawaySafePatrol AttackWeaker than enemyRunaway PatrolThreatened and stronger than enemy Attack PatrolThreatened and weaker than enemy Runaway

9 4/10/20159 State Transition Table - 2 Agent queries table as needed Table can stored in file and edited without recompiling the program Each state can be modeled as a separate objects or functions called by the agent Fairly easy to extend and modify

10 4/10/201510 State Design Pattern - 1 The state transition rules can be embedded in the states themselves All states share a common interface using a pure virtual class class State { public: virtual void Execute(Troll* troll) = 0; }

11 4/10/201511 State Design Pattern - 2 class Troll { State* m_pCurrentState; public: void Update() { m_pCurrentState->Execute(this); } void ChangeState(const State* pNewState) { delete m_pCurrentState; m_pCurrentState = pNewState; }

12 4/10/201512 State Design Pattern - 3 class State_Runaway : public State { public: void Execute(Troll* troll) { if (troll->isSafe()) troll->ChangeState(new State_Sleep()); else troll->MoveAwayFromEnemy(); }

13 4/10/201513 State Design Pattern - 4 class State_Sleep : public State { public: void Execute(Troll* troll) { if (troll->isThreatned()) troll->ChangeState(new State_RunAway()); else troll->Snore(); }

14 4/10/201514 West World Miner States EnterMineDigForGold QuenchThirstSaloon VisitBankDepositGold GoHomeSleep wealthy enough not thirsty not wealthy rested thirsty pockets full

15 4/10/201515 Classes All West World inhabitants are derived from the base class BaseGameEntity Each entity will be assigned a unique identifier The Miner class is an example of one such class The State class is the base abstract class and each of the four Miner states needs its own class definition

16 4/10/201516 Reusable Classes The State base class and the Miner owned classes would be more easily reused if were templates Creating a StateMachine class with ways of tracking the Miner’s current, previous, and global states gives the FSM a crude memory to allow more complex (context sensitive) behaviors

17 4/10/201517 Adding New NPC Elsa only visits two states VisitBathroom (1 chance in 10) or DoHouseWork This makes use of the template version of the State class and required the definition of a new global state WifeGlobalState to deal with the bathroom visits This requires adding classes MinersWife and MinersWifeOwnedStates

18 4/10/201518 Adding NPC Communication Good games make use of event driven architectures When events occur they are broadcast to other game objects who are programmed to react to the event or ignore it Intelligent game agents can send messages to each other to allow cooperative behaviors

19 4/10/201519 Telegram Structure struct Telegram { //the entity that sent this telegram int Sender; //the entity that is to receive this telegram int Receiver; //the message itself. These are all enumerated in the file //"MessageTypes.h" int Msg; //If a delay is necessary this field is stamped with the time //the message should be dispatched. double DispatchTime; //any additional information that may accompany the message void* ExtraInfo; // constructors not shown here }

20 4/10/201520 Message Types #include enum message_type { Msg_HiHoneyImHome, Msg_StewReady, }; inline std::string MsgToStr(int msg) { switch (msg) { case 1: return "HiHoneyImHome"; case 2: return "StewReady"; default: return "Not recognized!"; }

21 4/10/201521 Elsa’s New States CookStew VisitBathroom DoHouseWork previous state Previous state Receive “honey I’m home” Delayed message to self “Stew Ready” 1 chance in 10

22 4/10/201522 Message Management Creation, dispatch, and management of telegrams is handled by the class MessageDispatcher The method DispatchMessage is used by every agent to send a message to entity with a known ID The database of ID’s are managed by the class EntityManager

23 4/10/201523 Use Priority Queue Telegrams with delays are store in a priority queue ordered by their Time Stamp data Telegrams without delays (e.g. “I just shot you with my crossbow”) are sent right away The front queue message is removed long with any unprocessed expired telegrams

24 4/10/201524 FSM Changes The BaseEntity class needs to be modified (add HandleMessage ) so that any derived class can receive messages The State class needs to be modified so that BaseEntity states can choose to accept and handle messages (add OnMessage method) The StateMachine class needs its own version of HandleMessage

25 4/10/201525 Elsa Cooks Dinner Miner enters shack and sends “honey I’m home” message Elsa receives “honey I’m home” and changes state to CookStew Elsa puts Stew in oven and sends delayed message “Stew ready” Elsa receives “Stew ready”, takes out stew, and sends Miner “Dinner ready” message Miner receives “Dinner ready” and changes state to EatStew

26 4/10/201526 What happens? In between messages the NPC’s are free to respond to all state appropriate inputs This may means that the Miner has left the building before receiving the “Dinner ready” message Sometimes you need two FSM’s working in parallel (one for character movement and one for character’s weapon) Sometimes you need nested state machines (aka hierarchical FSM’s)

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