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Go Glocal Intercultural Comparison of Leadership Ethics Rafael Capurro Stuttgart Media University International Center for Information Ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "Go Glocal Intercultural Comparison of Leadership Ethics Rafael Capurro Stuttgart Media University International Center for Information Ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Go Glocal Intercultural Comparison of Leadership Ethics Rafael Capurro Stuttgart Media University International Center for Information Ethics (ICIE) 6th Leadership Forum: Growing successfully – Crossing borders DB Akademie GmbH, Potsdam November 30 – December 2, 2006

2 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West2 Content Introduction I. Leadership Ethics in the „Far West“ II. Leadership Ethics in the „Far East“ III. How do we speak? IV. Lessons Learned Conclusion: Go Glocal

3 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West3 Introduction Two dangers of intercultural dialogue:  We remain satisfied with merely juxtaposing concepts  We remain at an early stage of an intercultural dialogue, defined by what may only look like a common ground or an incompatible view... …that in light of further dialogue, however, will dissolve into far more complex inter- relationships.

4 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West4 Introduction The task of intercultural ethics:  The quest for a global morality.  Universal moral principles and local moral traditions.  The task of intercultural ethics.  Ethics as problematization of morality. We live in the „era of comparison“ (F. Nietzsche)

5 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West5 Introduction Corporate Social Responsibility:  Giving reasons for our actions  Human Rights  Sustainable Development (Ecology) The precautionary principle/custom:  Principles create obligations  Precaution as an attitude

6 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West6 Introduction Intercultural Comparison of Leadership Ethics François Jullien‘s paths of comparative thinking between the „Far West“ and the „Far East“ (China).

7 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West7 I. Leadership Ethics in the „Far West“ Some leadership maxims from the „Far West“: „Thou Shalt Not…“ (morality and monotheism) (J. Assmann) “meleta to pan“ (Periander, 600 BC) (take care of the whole) „kairón gnothi“ (Pittakus, 600 BC) (know the right moment/opportunity) „epimeleia heaoutou“ (Plato/Socrates) (take care of one‘s self) Follow the „phronesis“ (Aristotle) (follow practical reason) Become master of the situation (virtù) (Macchiavelli) Universalize your maxim (Kant) Consider the consequences (Utilitarianism)

8 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West8 I. Leadership Ethics in der „Far West“ Greek roots of key leadership concepts  Goal (telos/eidos)  Action (praxis/poiesis)  Means (di‘ou, ta pros to telos, hodós,)  Will (boulesis)  Subject (hypokeimenon)  Leader (hegémon; demiourgós = pottery god)  Actualization (efficacy) (dynamis/enérgeia/entelécheia)

9 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West9 I. Leadership Ethics in the „Far West“ Leadership and action are related to a model (eidos) or goal (telos) that the leader (hegémon) is supposed to achieve through theoretical and practical reason (phronesis) on the basis of a plan/an idea(l) in order to master a situation. Efficacy = the power or capacity to produce a desired effect Such action is strategic (the action of a war leader or strategós), i.e., it concerns a project that anticipates a process towards a goal.

10 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West10 I. Leadership Ethics in the „Far West“ Such in-formative action is  direct  based on the will/the freedom, the courage (andreia) and the knowledge of a leader or (decision) maker  heroic Nature (physis) itself is conceived as a production process (téchne) as done by a ‚pottery god‘ (demiourgós)

11 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West11 II. Leadership Ethics in the „Far East“ Key leadership concepts in the „Far East“:  Process („dao“) (no goal)  Transformation (not in-formation)  Indirect (not direct)  Discrete (no ‚show‘)  Potentiality of the situation (not power of a subject)

12 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West12 II. Leadership Ethics in the „Far East“ Key concept in Chinese war strategy: potentiality of the situation. The potentiality of the situation (not the will/knowledge of a leader) is efficient. Key task of the leader: to evaluate this potentiality (through lists/registers).

13 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West13 II. Leadership Ethics in the „Far East“ Process: no mean/goal relationship Tendency of the situation from the very beginning (no model to follow) Denial of self: no hero and no theatrical effects Morality is more effective than violence or (individual) power Ripening process of nature that is called „heaven“

14 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West14 II. Leadership Ethics in the „Far East“ The polarity of heaven/earth develops a sponaneous interaction of initiative and receptivity (yin and yang) Such action is discrete and indirect or gradual (no sudden events) No plan or dream of mastery No blocking through models What is an agreement? What are rules for?

15 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West15 II. Leadership Ethics in the „Far East“ ‚No action‘ (wu wei) but in such a way that nothing remains undone. The efficiency of the „dao“ vs. Western efficacy See also: „Efficiency is doing better what is already being done“ (Peter F. Drucker) Immanentism vs. transcendence The opportunity is not a chance (tyche) beyond a project but arises out of a ripening process.

16 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West16 III. How do we speak? Direct and indirect speech: A comparative view of language:  Leadership ethics in the „Far West“ is based on direct speech  Leadership ethics in the „Far East“ is based on indirect speech

17 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West17 III. How do we speak? Direct speech in the „Far West“:  Freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of access (World Summit on the Information Society, WSIS)  Free speech (parrhesia) as a fundamental dimension of (Athenian) democracy (M. Foucault)  The tradition of indirect speech in the West: „Tricky reason“ (metis) Leo Strauss „Persecution and the Art of Writing“

18 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West18 III. How do we speak? The tradition of indirect speech in the „Far East“:  In China the master speaks less and gives signs. He calls the attention instead of transmitting a message.  Confucius: No speculative moral theory but a ‚logic of the path‘.  Lao-Tse: giving hints  Dshuang-Tse: Fluctuating speech acompanying the global process of the Dao.

19 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West19 IV. Lessons Learned Changing the „place of thinking“ (Jullien):  Overcoming ethnocentrism  Becoming aware of different paths of thinking  Taking distance from ourselves  Meeting the other where he/she is, instead of ‚trans- lating‘ him/her into your own. Westernization and Easternization have produced hybrid cultures: the „Far East“ has ambitious goals and the „Far West“ deals with the question of ecology and sustainability.

20 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West20 Conclusion „Feed your life“ (Dshuang-Tse/F. Jullien) and the life of your company, your society, our common world... Go glocal:  Open your mind to intercultural dialogue  Do things responsibly – locally and globally.  Follow the potentiality of the situation.  „Growing successfully – Crossing borders“

21 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West21 Bibliography Assmann, Jan: Religion und kulturelles Gedächtnis. München 2000. Capurro, Rafael: Ethik der Informationsgesellschaft. Ein interkultureller Versuch. In: Wolfgang Coy et al. (Ed.): Shapes of the Things to Come - Die Zukunft der Informationsgesellschaft (2007) (in print). Capurro, Rafael: Privacy. An intercultural perspective. In: Ethics and Information Technology. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2005, 37-47. Capurro, Rafael: Intercultural Information Ethics. In: Rafael Capurro, Johannes Frühbauer, Thomas Hausmanninger (Eds.): Localizing the Internet. Ethical Issues in Intercultural Perspective. Schriftenreihe des ICIE, Bd. 4, München (2007) (in print)

22 R. Capurro: Leadership Ethics East/West22 Bibliography Clausewitz, Carl von: Vom Kriege. Bonn 1980. Foucault, Michel (1983). Discourse and Truth: the Problematization of Parrhesia. Jullien, François: Conférence sur l‘efficacité. Paris 2005 (German: Vortrag vor Managern über Wirksamkeit und Effizienz in China und im Westen. Berlin 2006). -: Traité de l‘efficacité. Paris 1996 (German: Über Wirksamkeit. Berlin 1999; English: A Treatise on Efficacy: Between Western and Chinese Thinking. Hawaii Press 2004). -: Nourrir sa vie. À l‘écart du bonheur. Paris 2005. Nagenborg, Michael: Ein Ortswechsel des Denkens. Interview mit Rafael Capurro. In: Telepolis 20.03.2005. Strauss, Leo (1988). Persecution and the Art of Writing. The University of Chicago Press.

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