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1450-1750 State Building Aim: How were empires successfully built in the period of 1450-1750?

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Presentation on theme: "1450-1750 State Building Aim: How were empires successfully built in the period of 1450-1750?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 State Building Aim: How were empires successfully built in the period of ?

3 Key Terms: Ottoman Empire Chapter 21 Ottomans: Turkic people who advanced into Asia Minor during the 14 th century; established an empire in the Middle East, North Africa, and eastern Europe that lasted until after WWI. Mehmed II: Ottoman sultan called the “Conqueror”; captured Constantinople and destroyed the Byzantine Empire. Janissaries: Conscripted youths from conquered regions who were trained as Ottoman infantry divisions; became am important political influence after the 15 th century. Vizier: Head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15 th century often more powerful than the sultan. Suleymaniye mosque: Great mosque built in Constantinople during the 16 th century reign of the Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificent.

4 Ottomans The Osman Turks started on the Anatolian Peninsula in Turkey. They started on land granted them by the Seljuk Turks. They were a pastoral and peaceful people at the start. As the Seljuk Turks began to decline, the Osman began to expand. The Ottoman dynasty began.

5 Ottoman In the 14 th century, the Ottomans moved into the Balkans. They took the title of sultan and began to build a strong military by developing the “janissaries.” Janissary were an elite military guard recruited from Christians, converted to Islam, and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to the sultan.

6 The Ottomans Gain Strength Gunpowder made the Ottomans powerful Janissaries (elite fighting force made up of enslaved Christian boys) Janissaries selected by a process called devshirme Jannisary Learn more about the selection process of the Janissaries!

7 The Ottoman Empire Expands April 6, 1253, the Ottoman Turks laid siege to the city of Constantinople. May 29, 1253, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks and Mehmet II. The Turks spent 3 days sacking the city. Many people lost their lives inside the city. The city was later renamed Istanbul.

8 The Ottoman Empire Expands Selim I took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia – included Jerusalem, Mecca, and Madinah. He took the title of caliph, defender of the faith. The Ottoman Empire went from the Black Sea to the Red Sea to the Strait of Gibraltar. There was little impact on North Africa. Pashas, appointed government officials, collected taxes and maintained law and order reported to the sultan in Constantinople.

9 The Ottoman Empire Expands Ottomans started out as semi-nomadic Turks 1453 captured Constantinople, ended the Byzantine Empire (woohoo, lower taxes!) Added Syria, Egypt, North Africa to their empire Ottomans were a threat to the Hapsburg dynasty (Austria) until 1683

10 Constantinople renamed Istanbul Sophisticated city- aqueducts, marketplace, religious schools, hospitals Merchants and artisans Government carefully monitored trade Haghia Sophia turned into a Suleymaniye mosque Haghia Sophia

11 Ottoman Suleiman I, or Suleiman the Magnificent, came to rule in He expanded Ottoman rule into Europe and the western Med. Sea. He ruled for 46 years. He was a great military commander, but he known for his legislation as well. He codified Ottoman law keeping Islamic faith, took into account Christian inhabitants of the Empire, addressed taxes, and built more schools.

12 Ottoman The chief advisor to the sultan was the “grand vizier.” He led meetings of the imperial council that met 4 days a week. The sultan sat behind a screen and made his wishes known to the grand vizier. The empire was divided into districts and ruled by officials who were helped by bureaucrats trained at palace schools. Senior officials were given land but the sultan and were responsible for collecting taxes and supplying armies for the empire

13 Ottoman The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. Sultans had claimed the title of caliph since the 16 th century. They were responsible for guiding the flock and keeping Islamic law. In practice, they gave their religious duties to the “ulema”- a group of religious advisors. The ulema were responsible for the legal system and schools for educating Muslims.

14 Ottoman The Ottoman were tolerant of non- Muslims. Non-Muslims paid a tax, but they were allowed to practice their religion or to convert to Islam. Most people in the European areas of the empire remained Christian. In some areas, the large numbers converted to the Islamic faith.

15 Religious, but Tolerant The Ottoman Sultan was a political and religious ruler (incorporated the idea of “caliph”) Europeans were afraid of the Ottomans, but admired them as well “He tramples the soil of Hungary with 200,000 horses, he is at the very gates of Austria, threatens the rest of Germany…” o-1555 Excerpts from Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq: Ambassador of the Hapsburg Empire Q: Who do you think Busbecq is describing here?

16 Jean Bodin (16 th cen. French Philosopher) “The King of the Turks who rules over a great part of Europe safeguards the rites of religion as well as any prince in this world. Yet he constrains no one, but on the contrary permits everyone to live as his conscience dictates.” Q: Which aspect of Ottoman rule does Bodin admire? Ways of the World p.649

17 Jews in the Ottoman Empire population/1-sephardic-diaspora-regional-trends/d- ottoman-empire/ population/1-sephardic-diaspora-regional-trends/d- ottoman-empire

18 Ottoman The subjects were divided by occupation. Besides the ruling class, there were 4 main occupational groups: peasants, artisans, merchants, and pastoral peoples. Peasants were farmers; artisans were set up by craft guilds; merchants were exempt from taxes and could amass large fortunes; and pastoral people had their own laws and regulations.

19 Women in the Ottoman Empire Patriarchal society Depending on the economic situation, women did domestic work or supervised their servants Women were restricted from leaving the home but could legally attend weddings, cemeteries, and public baths Marriages were arranged Few women were literate Women could earn a living, own industries, and practice medicine https://www.reconstructinghistory.com/rh406-ottoman-turkish-woman.php?s=&c=22&d=34&p=433&w=21

20 Ottoman Since the times of Mehmet II, Ottoman sultans ruled from the Topkaki Palace in Istanbul. It served as an administrative headquarters and chief residence of the sultan. The private domain of the sultan was called a “harem,” or “sacred place.” Here the sultan and his wives lived. Sultans often chose 4 wives as his favorites. When a son became sultan, his mother became queen mother and acted as a major adviser to the throne.

21 The Harem Private domain for the sultan Concubines and relatives of sultan lived there Women close to the sultan were powerful Slave origin, non-Muslim Trained in sewing, music, reading, Koran Read about a powerful woman in the Ottoman harem!

22 Ottoman Suleiman I may have been able to run an empire, but his personal life was different. He married a harem girl from Poland named Roxelana and had 5 children with her. He executed his eldest son, Mustafa, because Roxelana said he was planning to kill Suleiman and take power – her son Selim took power when Suleiman died in 1566.

23 Ottoman The Ottoman Empire was like most Muslim empires of the time; it was a" gunpowder empire” – the empires success largely based on the mastery of the technology of firearms.” Sultans were the head of the empire. Sultans were the supreme authorities in both political and military senses. The position of sultan was hereditary – a son always succeeded the father. Many deaths among family members took place because of this.

24 Ottoman Empire at the end of the 17 th Century What were the causes of Ottoman decline in the 17 th century?

25 Ottoman The problems of the Ottoman Empire began with Selim II. Around 1699, the problems became more visible. The training of officials declined, and senior positions were given to the sons and daughters of the elite. Members of the elite were busy trying to amass their own fortunes, so local government grew more corrupt and taxes rose. Wars depleted the imperial treasury.

26 Ottoman Other problems arose. The biggest problem was the influence of Western Europe. Western clothes, Western furniture, tobacco and coffee were introduced to the Ottomans. Some sultans tried to fight the trends of Western Europe. One outlawed tobacco and coffee. If he caught anyone taking part in immoral or illegal behavior, he had them immediately executed.

27 Key Terms: Muhgal Dynasty Muhgal Dynasty: Established by Turkic invaders in 1526; endured until the middle of the 19 th century. Babur: Turkic leader who founded Mughal dynasty; died in Humayan: Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but returned to restore the dynasty n Akbar: Son and successor of Humayan; built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty, followed policies of cooperation and toleration with the Hindu majority. Din-i-Ilahi: Religion initiated by Akbar that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism; did not survive his death.

28 Key Terms: Mughal Dynasty Sati Ritual burning of high-caste Hindu women on their husband’s funeral pyres. Taj Mahal: Mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal, built by her husband Shah Jahan; most famous architectural achievement of Muhgal India. Nur Jahan: Wife of ruler Jahangir who amassed power at the Mughal court and created a faction ruling the empire during the later years of his reign Aurangzeb: Son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire’s resources; died in 1707.

29 The Mughal Empire

30 The Mughals ( s) Babur was the founder of the Mogul Empire and united the Hindu and Muslim kingdoms of India. He was a descendant of Timur Lenk, and his mother, from the Mongol conquerors of Genghis Khan. He took the Khyber Pass in northwest India and the city of Delhi in North India. His armies were usually smaller than his opponents but had weapons, artillery, and used them with great effect.

31 Akbar the Great Akbar the Great was the grandson of Babur’ He placed most of India under Mogul control by use of artillery and negotiation. He was best known for his humane character of his rule: he adopted a policy of religious tolerance – even marrying a Hindu princess. Zamindars were low ranking officials of Hindu descent who got paid by keeping part of collected taxes. They were part of his toleration of government administration.

32 Akbar the Great Akbar abolished the jizya Encouraged intermarriage between Hindus and Muslims Established Din-i-llahi (“The religion of God”)as a universal religion- had elements of Zoroastrianism (i.e. divine kingship), and Jainism (respect for all living things) Akbar the Great

33 The Red Fort Built in Agra in1565 by Akbar the Great It is one of the most obvious symbols of the Mogul grandeur under Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Allposters.com

34 Shah Jahan- patron of the arts Blend of Islamic domes, arches, minarets, with Hindu This is the finest piece of Mogul architecture. It combines Persian, Ottoman, Indian, and Islamic styles. Built Taj Mahal (tomb for his deceased second wife, Mumtaz Mahal) Shah Jahan’s son, Aurangzeb, imprisoned him in Agra Fort for 8 years(where he died) Aurangzeb tried to rid India of Hindu influences and he brought back the jizya Other Mughal Rulers: Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb

35 Aurangzeb Aurangzeb took over from his father, Shah Jahan. He had his brother put to death. He was a devout Muslim and a man of high principle. He tried to eliminate many of the things he thought were social evils in India: suttee (a Hindu practice of cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre), levying illegal taxes, gambling, and drinking. He did not embrace religious tolerance – tried to get Hindu to convert to Islam – and this led to social unrest that made India open to attack from abroad.

36 Mughal Expansion The Mughal Empire spread from the Hindu Kush mountains east to the Bay of Bengal; from modern-day Afghanistan south to near the southern tip of India. The Mughals under Babur and Akbar were characterized by religious tolerance, toleration of political administration, and military superiority (use of artillery).

37 Mughal Decline The British helped the decline of the Mughal Empire in India. Sir Robert Clive became the chief representative of the British East India Company. He was instrumental in getting the British East India control of Indian trade by taking Bengal. The B.E.I.C. could now tax the lands surrounding the city of Calcutta. The Indians practiced guerilla warfare against the British. The British moved inland. Trade brought money to the British. The British were in India to stay.

38 Women in the Mughal Empire had a complex life. Women had played a role in Mughal tribal society – warriors and advisors in political matters. They could own land and do business. They also had restrictions of Islamic law: isolation of women was practiced in upper class Hindu families. A lot of Hindu practices went unchanged by Mughal rule Women in the Mughal Empire

39 The Mughals brought together Persian and Indian influences in art and architecture. The Taj Mahal is the greatest example of Mogul architecture. Akbar got Indian artist to use Persian and Indian motifs. The “Akbar style” included humans in action. He encouraged his artist to imitate European art forms, including perspective and lifelike portraits. He commissioned artist from Persia and Europe to come teach Indian artists. Achievements of Mughal Empire

40 Key Terms: Safavid Dynasty Safavid Dynasty: Founded by a Turkic nomad family with Shi’a Islamic beliefs; established a kingdom in Iran and ruled until Safi al-Din: Sufi mystic first ruler of the Safavid dynasty. Isma’il: Safavid leader; conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501 and was proclaimed shah. Chaldiran: Important battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the Western advance of their Shi’a state. Abbas I (the Great): Safavid’s shah ( ); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology. Imams: Shi’a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali’s successors. Mullahs: Religious leaders under the Safavids; worked to convert all subjects to Shi’ism. Isfahan: Safavids capital under Abbas the Great; planned city exemplifying Safavid architecture.

41 Safavid Dynasty The Safavid Dynasty started with Shah Ismail. He was a descendant of Safi al-Din who had been the leader of a Turkish ethnic groups in Azerbaijan near the Caspian Sea. Under Ismail, the Safavid took control of much of Iran and Iraq

42 Safavid: Religious Differences Ismail called himself “shah,” or king, of the new Persian state. Ismail was a Shiite Muslim. He sent preachers to different areas to convert members of the Ottoman Empire. This led to the massacre of Sunni Muslims when he took Baghdad. Ismail lost a major battle at Tabriz to Suleiman over religious differences.

43 Safavid: Expansion Shah Abbas, who ruled from 1588 to 1629, brought the Safavids to their highest point of glory. He usurped the throne from his father and imprisoned him. He later killed the man who helped him get the throne. He attacked the Ottoman Turks, with European help – they saw the Safavids as allies – to regain lost lands from the Ottomans. The Safavids could not keep territorial gains, but a treaty was signed in 1612 returning Azerbaijan to the Safavids.

44 Safavid: Women The Safavid Empire went from Azerbaijan on the Caspian Sea east to India; along the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea north to the southern border of Russia. When Shah Abbas died, religious orthodoxy, a pressure to conform to traditional religious beliefs, increased. Women were to give up freedom for a life of seclusion and the wearing of the veil.

45 Safavid: Decline Isfahan was the Safavid capital. While under Shah Hussein, it was taken by Afghan peoples. Persia sank into a period of anarchy – lawlessness and disorder. The role of the shah was that of a king. The social structure was Shah, bureaucracy and landed classes, then the common people. The official religion was Shia Islam because the Shiites supported the shahs at first.

46 Safavid: Cultural Achievements Isfahan was the jewel of the Safavid Empire, and it is still that for modern- day Iran. Silk weaving flourished, but carpet weaving flourished more – Persian rugs are still prized today. Riza-i-Abbasi is the most famous artist of this time. He made beautiful works about simple subjects such as oxen plowing, hunters, and lovers. They used soft colors and flowing movement in painting.

47 jbapwoh.wikispaces.com The Islamic Gunpowder Empires

48 Comparison of Sunni and Shia Islam SunniShia/Shiite NO tribe of the Prophet (Quraysh); later, any qualified ruler Imams Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem MeccaMedinaJerusalem 90% YES family of the Prophet Mujtahids Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Najaf, Karbala MeccaMedinaJerusalem NajafKarbala 10% Did Mohammad Designate a successor? Qualification for Ruler of Islam Current leaders Holy Cities Percentage of total Muslims

49 Discussion Questions: What were the similarities and differences among the three Muslim Empires? Compare and contrast the Islamic groups (Sunni, Shiite, Shia) of the Muslim Empires. Compare and contrast the social and economic organization of the Ottomans and Safavids. What weakness was common to all of the Muslim empires?

50 Chapter 20: Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade Factories El Mina Lancadoes Nzinga Mvemba Luanda Royal African Company Indies Piece Triangular Trade Asante Osei Tutu Asantehene Benin Dahomey Luo Uthman Don Fodio Great Trek Shaka Mfecane Swazi and Lesotho Middle Passage Obeah Candomble Vodun Palmares Suriname Maroons William Wilberforce

51 The Songhay Empire In 1450 Africa was a diverse continent with a blend of large civilizations, city-states, rural villages, and hunter and gatherer societies. Many people in the north, Sub-Saharan and eastern coastline areas were Muslim, but many native religions remained quite strong. The largest and most organized empire of Africa from the middle of the 15th century until the late 16th century was Songhay (Songhai) in northwest Africa in areas that had been controlled by the earlier Kingdom of Mali.

52 The Songhay Empire ( ) The empire was organized under Sunni Ali, leader who brought the important trading cities of Timbuktu and Jenne under his control. He developed a centralized government with governors to oversee provinces. He developed an army and navy to protect trade. Trans-Saharan trade brought salt, textiles, and metal in exchange for gold and slaves. Songhay was prosperous, its cities boasted beautiful public buildings, and Islam was strongly supported by the elite. Largest empire in African history But the Songhay did not have guns, and that was their downfall. In 1591 a Moroccan army opened their muskets on the Songhay forces, and they were defeated. Kaplan Wsu.edu

53 Jenne: Center of Trade “The town of Jenne (Djenne) was founded near Jenne-jeno between 800 and 1250 A.D. and grew to become an even more significant trans-Saharan trading center than its neighbor. By the fourteenth century, gold, kola, and slaves from the southern savanna, salt and manuscripts from the Sahara, and the staple foods of the Inland Niger Delta were bartered here in an extensive web of trade reaching as far as northern Africa and Europe. By the sixteenth century, Jenne had become one of the foremost market centers on the African continent.” Source: Inland Niger Delta | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of ArtInland Niger Delta | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

54 Architecture in Timbuktu Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion? Newsrescue.com

55 The Kongo Kingdom (1300s-1600s) The 16th century also saw the destruction of most of the Swahili city-states. Vasco da Gama had noticed them when he passed through on his way to India, and within a few years the Portuguese had aimed their cannons at all the cities, and either captured them or burned them to the ground. The fate of the Kingdom of Kongo was an early sign of what contact with Europe was to bring to Africa. Kongo was on the Atlantic Ocean in central Africa, that developed into a centralized state during the 14th century. The Portuguese set up a trading relationship with them in the late 15th century and converted the Kongo kings to Christianity. From the beginning, the Portuguese traded textiles, weapons, advisors, and craftsmen for gold, silver, ivory and especially slaves.

56 Kongo: King Alfonso I King Alfonso I converted to Catholicism and tried to convert all of his subjects Portuguese brought textiles and weapons Africans supplied Portuguese with gold, silver, ivory, and slaves (dealt with local leaders) King felt undermined, and was defeated in a war by the Portuguese in 1665

57 Learn more about the Christian Influences in the Kongo!

58 Discussion Questions: Discuss how the political, social, and economic organization of the Americas differed from those in Africa. Discuss how the West affected the political development of Africa and how slavery was a component in the nature of state formation in sub-Saharan Africa. What was the demographic effects of the African slave trade on the sub-Saharan region? Discuss the arguments concerning the profitability of the slave trade. How did the slave trade affect African state formation? What was the Mfecane and how did it affect southern Africa? What was the social structure of American slave-based societies? Why did the slave trade come to an end?

59 Chapter 19: Early Latin America Key Terms Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Encomiendas Hispaniola Bartolome de las Casas Hernan Cortes Moctezuma II Mexico City New Spain Francisco Pizarro Francisco Vazques de Coronado Pedro de Valdivia Mita Columbian Exchange Potosi Huancavelica Haciendas Casa de la Contratacion Consulado Galleons Treaty of Tordesillas Recopilacion Council of the Indies Letrados Viceroylaties Audiencia Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz Pedro Alvares Cabral Captaincies Paulistas Minas Gerais Rio de Janeiro Sociedad de castas Peninsulares Creoles Amigos del pais War of Spanish Succession Charles III Commercio libre Jose de Galvez Marquis of Pombal Comunero Revolt Tupac Amaru

60 Latin America Before Independence

61 The Spanish Empire voyages of Columbus Papal lines of demarcation made Spain in charge of the New World Conquistadors (i.e.Cortes, Pizarro) expanded Spanish Empire viceroyalty system started in New Spain Spread Catholicism Extracted gold and a lot of silver Instituted a system of forced labor, the encomienda system. Clergy protested. When the encomienda system was abolished in 1542, African slaves were imported

62 Portugal Brazil- major territory for the Portuguese Discovered by accident by Pedro Cabral Portuguese had superior technology and diseases Exploited natives for labor Mass conversions to Catholicism Plantations produced sugarcane African slaves imported to work on plantations Brazil was the last country in the Americas to outlaw slavery (1888)

63 Maritime Empires AP ALERT! spivey.wikispaces.com

64 Land Empires AP ALERT! https://qed.princeton.edu/index.php/User:Student/Eurasian_Land_Empires_c._1700

65 Discussion Questions: Discuss why it an be said that the Spanish and the Portuguese colonies were extensions of the global network of the West and also discuss their intermediary role. Discuss the difference in social organization between the Americas and Europe, and explain why the differences in social hierarchy contributed to a sense of self-identity in the colonies.

66 Chapter 22: Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change Key Terms Asian sea trading network Goa Ormuz Malacca Batavia Treaty of Gijanti (1757) Luzon Mindanao Francis Xavier Robert Di Nobli Hongwu Macao and Canton The Water Margin, Monkey, and The Golden Lotus Zhenghe Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall Chongzhen Manchu Nobunaga Toyotomo Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu Edo Deshima School of National Learning

67 Class Discussion Questions: What was the nature of the Asian sea-trading network? What did the Portuguese discover when they arrived at Calicut and how did they respond? How were the Dutch able to displace the Portuguese and how did their participation in the Asian trading network differ from that of the Portuguese? Where did the Europeans establish tribute systems? How successful were European Christian missionary efforts by the early 1660’s? How did the Ming restore the traditional Chinese forms of government? Why did the Chinese withdraw from commercial expansion? What steps led to the restoration o the Japanese shogunate?

68 Qing Dynasty ( ) A.k.a The Manchus- nomads from the north of China Manchus had the highest positions in government but kept the civil service exams Maintained China’s patriarchal society and footbinding Han Chinese men had to wear a queue braid Manchus could not perform manual labor Intermarriage between Chinese and Manchus forbidden Chinese could not enter the Manchu homeland Technological innovation slowed

69 Learn more about the queue! A Chinese man with a traditional Chinese queue hair design getting a pedicure

70 The Tokugawa Shogunate (A.K.A. the Edo Period) Excerpts from the Closed Country Edict of 1635 Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to leave for foreign countries. No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. If there is anyone who attempts to do so secretly, he must be executed. The ship so involved must be impounded and its owner arrested, and the matter must be reported to the higher authority. If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death. If there is any place where the teachings of the [Catholic] priests is practiced, the two of you must order a thorough investigation. All incoming ships must be carefully searched for the followers of the priests Every member of a Portuguese delegation was executed upon arrival to Japan Why did the Japanese resort to isolation as a response to European expansion?

71 Cultural Achievements during the Tokugawa Era Haiku poetry (17 syllable poem) Kabuki theater (musical drama) Woodblock art Bunraku (plays using puppets- 3 puppeteer operation)

72 Kabuki Theater Woodblock image of Kabuki Theater

73 The Japanese Feudal System Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion in this social pyramid? Code of Bushido!

74 The Code of Bushido The Tale of the 47 Ronin demonstrates the Code of Bushido. The story is about a group of samurai who were left masterless in 1701 by the execution of their master, for assaulting a court official whom he felt had insulted him. After over a year of patient waiting and plotting, they succeeded in avenging him by killing the court official. Although they had committed murder, they had done so for that most noble of reasons (to the Japanese) - in obedience to their duty. As a result, they were allowed an honorable death (seppuku). The story was turned into a series of Kabuki plays Q: What central lesson do you think the Tale of 47 Ronin is trying to convey?

75 Women during the Tokugawa Period Wives had to obey their husbands or face a death penalty Women received less education than men Women were encouraged to pursue artistic and cultural activities Sometimes girls were sold into prostitution by their families (they were less valued than boys) Some gained status as geishas who were especially talented musicians, artists, and conversationalists

76 The Western Influence on Japan Western ideas penetrated Japan via the Dutch despite the Tokugawa policy of isolationism. Except for books on Christianity, a ban on western books was removed in In 1736 the importation and translation of Dutch literature on astronomy were ordered by the shogun Yoshimune Tokugawa. There were translations of western books on physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography, navigation and military tactics.

77 Discussion Questions: Compare and Contrast the European intrusion into the African commercial system with their entry into the Asian trade network. Discuss the European effect on Asian civilization during the period of early modern Western expansion.

78 Monarchies in France and England France Estates General Divine Right Strong military, wars for expansion High taxes Organized bureaucracy England Parliamentary monarchy Glorious Revolution 1689 limited power of monarch High taxes Organized bureaucracy

79 Louis XIV (r ) The Sun King Built Versailles Revocation of Nantes 1683 Mercantilism (under finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert) Q: Why was Louis XIV known as the “Sun King?”

80 The Royal Palace Versailles, France

81 It’s not as glamorous as it seems… Versailles reservations… Yes, I have a room available. Well, we have 226 rooms Altogether. Of course, we do Have 1000 nobles and their 4000 servants occupying them… Not all rooms have windows, Sir. We do have some rooms with Windows, but the smell of the Outdoor latrines seep through them…

82 Decisions, Decisions… Sir, if you prefer we Do have the Closet-like rooms Without windows… Would you like to Come in the winter so You can freeze? Or do You prefer to stay here In the summer so you Can broil? Perspectives on the Past

83 Chapter 18: The Rise of Russia Key Terms Ivan III (The Great) Third Rome Ivan IV (The Terrible) Boyars Cossacks Time of Troubles Romanov Dynasty Alexis Romonov Old Believers Peter I (the Great) St. Petersburg Catherine the Great Partition of Poland Obrok Pugachev rebellion

84 Class Discussion Questions: How did the Mongol occupation affect Russian civilization? Why did Russia become economically dependent on the West? What is the basis for the culture of the Russian masses? What characteristics did Eastern Europe share with Russia?

85 The Rise of the Russian Empire Ivan III (aka Ivan the Great) stopped paying tribute to the Mongol Empire in 1480 Established a strong central government ruled by a czar who ruled by divine right After the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Romanov dynasty ruled Russia for 300 years What was the nature of expansion under the Ivans?

86 The Expansion of the Russian Empire

87 Peter I (Peter the Great) Reign: Strict autocrat and firm believer in military power Began the “westernization” movement in Russia Beard Tax Developed “Secret Police” who prevented dissent and supervise bureaucracy Gained territory on eastern coast of Baltic Sea Created first Russian navy Moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg Agriculture was the focus of the economy; serfdom encouraged What was the extent of Westernization under Peter the Great?

88 Catherine The Great Reign : Westernization policies (art, architecture, justice) Reduced severe punishments for crimes Advanced Russia’s borders to Black Sea & waged 2 successful wars against Ottoman Empire Founded Russia’s first college of medicine Brought ideas of the Enlightenment to Russia Strictly enforced serfdom What was the extent of Westernization under Catherine the Great?

89 Social System of the Russian Empire CZARS Assumed throne By bloodline line NOBLES Provincial governors SERFS Peasants; labor sources to support economy What was the nature of Russian serfdom?

90 Now for the Comparative Essay… 2007 AP World Exam xam_information/ html


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