How to use this slide tour: Begin the Tour Use the or at the bottom of the slide to move forward and backward. Look for the to learn additional information about family history, artifacts and more. To end the tour, simply close the window.
Four Generations of Hammonds John Shaw Billings and Frederica Wade Billings 1935-1975 Julia Hammond Richards and Henry Cumming Hammond 1916-1935 Harry Hammond and Emily Cumming Hammond 1873-1916 James Henry Hammond and Catherine Fitzsimons Hammond 1855-1873 Return to How to Use Information about the Collection Click the portraits of each family member to see more information Photo courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, USC Owners of Redcliffe 1855-1975
James Henry Hammond and Catherine Fitzsimons Hammond James Henry Hammond was a United States Senator and Governor of South Carolina. Hammond owned four plantations and enslaved over 300 African Americans. Redcliffe was built for Hammond and his wife, Catherine Fitzsimons Hammond, who moved into the house in 1859. Hammond lived at Redcliffe until his death in 1864. Return to Hammond Families Upon Hammond’s death, Catherine took over Redcliffe until she sold the plantation to her oldest son, Harry Hammond in 1873.
Harry Hammond and Emily Cumming Hammond Return to Hammond Families Harry Hammond and Emily Cumming Hammond owned Redcliffe from 1873 until 1916. Emily Cumming was from a wealthy family in Augusta, GA, and when they moved into Redcliffe, she brought along some of her family’s bigger pieces of furniture, such as two beds and a piano, to fill the house. Emily passed away in 1911 and Harry’s death followed five years later. Photo courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, USC
Julia Hammond Richards and Henry Cumming Hammond Julia Bryan Hammond and Henry Cumming Hammond, two of Harry and Emily Hammond’s children, took over ownership of Redcliffe in 1916. The siblings co- owned the house until 1935. During the Great Depression, the house fell into disrepair. After his sister’s death, Henry decided to sell the house to his nephew John Shaw Billings. Return to Hammond Families
John and Frederica Billings In 1957, Billings created an inventory of the collection at Redcliffe. The inventory includes pictures and family information about many of the artifacts and provides a very useful source for us at Redcliffe. Return to Hammond Families John Shaw Billings and Frederica Wade Billings purchased Redcliffe in 1935. While still living in New York, John and Frederica worked on renovations during vacations spent at Redcliffe. In 1954 John retired as Senior Editor from Time-Life Publications and the couple moved permanently to Redcliffe. As early as 1963 John began making provisions to donate Redcliffe to the South Carolina State Park Service, who took control of the property in 1975 upon his death.
Redcliffe’s Collection Redcliffe’s collection consists of over 4000 original artifacts including all types of artifacts from photographs and painted portraits to silver and books and many things in between! Some artifacts found their way to Redcliffe through family members who married into the Hammond family and some family members were antique collectors themselves. While it is difficult to know who owned each object the chart below provides an overview of the collection: Date Approximate % of Collection Owners of Redcliffe Prior to 187320%James and Catherine 1873 - 191620%Harry and Emily 1916 - 193515%Julia and Henry 1935 - 197540%John and Frederica Unknown5%Unknown Return to Hammond Families Proceed to Magnolia Lane
See the house Return to Collection Information Magnolia Lane was used as the original driveway leading to the east side of the mansion. Now closed to vehicular traffic, the lane is available as a short walking path for visitors.
Back to Magnolia Lane Enter the House View the Floor Plan
Back Porch Parlor Library First Floor Bedroom Main Hall Dining Room Front Porch His and Her Bathrooms Northeast Bedroom Southeast Bedroom Southwest Bedroom Second Floor Main Hall Front of House Click on a room name to see the room. Click the in each room to find out more information about the specific artifacts. After viewing each room be sure to take a look at the workyard! Second FloorFirst Floor Begin Your Tour Here Work Yard
Back Porch Parlor Library First Floor Bedroom Main Hall Dining Room Front Porch His and Her Bathrooms Northeast Bedroom Southeast Bedroom Southwest Bedroom Second Floor Main Hall Front of House Second FloorFirst Floor Work Yard View the Work Yard Click on a room name to see the room. Click the in each room to find out more information about the specific artifacts. After viewing each room be sure to take a look at the workyard!
1 st Floor Main Hall Back to Floor Plan Don’t forget to click on the in each room to find out information about the artifacts!
William and Mary of Orange Oil-on-canvas portraits of William and Mary of Orange. Though the paintings appear to have areas of repaint, the original painting may date as far back as the late 17 th century. The painter is unknown. From the inventory created by John Shaw Billings, the last Hammond descendant to own Redcliffe: “An undocumented family story; James H. Hammond accepted them for a $20,000 debt from Gov. Hamilton of S.C. only to find that they were not originals.” Return to Main Hall
Victorian Chaise Lounge Return to Main Hall This antique Victorian period chaise lounge, circa 1860, according to family tradition is the couch where James Henry Hammond died. According to Billings’ inventory, Hammond designed the couch himself. During the years Billings owned the lounge, the upholstery was changed at least three times.
Back to Floor Plan Parlor See more of the Parlor
Parlor Previous view of Parlor Back to Floor Plan
Dunham Grand Piano Antique American Square Grand Piano. Made by Dunham Piano Company of New York, c. 1840's. The piano has a Rosewood case and harp made of wood and iron. Emily Cumming Hammond received this piano for her 9 th birthday! Return to Parlor
Mourning Portrait of Annie Cumming Hall The high infant mortality rate in the 1800’s and early 1900’s popularized the practice of posthumous portraits of both children and women. This painting portrays Emily Cumming Hammond’s sister, Annie, who passed away when she was 22. We know from family records that this painting was done posthumously and given to Annie’s mother, but there are also several clues that point to this being a mourning portrait. Annie appears pale and stiff and wears a black dress and a red shawl, colors associated with death. Also, note the faint lily shown in the background to the right of Annie which is another symbol of death. Return to Parlor
The Transfiguration of Christ The Transfiguration, an oil-on- canvas painting in Redcliffe’s parlor was painted by August Temmel, an Italian artist during the 18th century. Temmel’s copy of Raphael’s original circa 1518 painting, measures 96” x 62” about half the size of the original. The painting depicts Jesus Christ ascending into Heaven. A family story explains that this painting was purchased by James Henry Hammond on an 1855 trip to Europe. Return to Parlor
Minton Tiles Minton Pottery Hearth Tiles, mid 19th century. This is one example of how wealthy planters attempted to impress their guests. Each room’s fireplace on the first floor has a different pattern of tile on the hearth. On the second floor, there are only plain hearth stones around the fireplace. It would have been uncommon for guests to spend their time on the second floor so there was only a need for tiles on the first floor. Also significant in Hammond’s time, these were the same type of tile found in the U.S. Capitol. Return to Parlor Parlor Library Dining Room 1 st Floor Bedroom Information about the Capitol’s restoration of their Minton tile can be found by following the link: http://www.aoc.gov/cc/capitol/minton.cfm
Library Back to Floor Plan See more of the Library
Library Previous view of Library Back to Floor Plan
Katherine Hammond Bust Return to Library The collection at Redcliffe includes several busts of significant figures in Classical Greek and Roman history, European literature and American politics. One bust, less familiar than the others, stands separate on a pedestal in the library among these well known characters. This marble statue is in the likeness of James Henry Hammond’s daughter, Katherine Hammond (1840-1882), also known as “Cattie”.
1904 Photograph of Three Generations of Redcliffe’s Owners Return to Library This black and white framed photograph, taken in the front of the mansion in February 1904, features three generations of Redcliffe owners. The photograph captures a young John Shaw Billings with Emily Cumming Hammond, holding a cup and saucer, and Henry Cumming Hammond, seated.
Mosaic Souvenir Return to Library While this artwork may appear to be an ordinary painting of the Coliseum of Rome, this “painting” is actually an Italian micro-mosaic plaque made of minute pieces of tile. Harry Hammond purchased this artwork as a souvenir while in Rome in 1855. The Coliseum is a popular tourist attraction and these mosaics were often produced as a memento for those vacationing on Grand Tours of Europe.
Frederica Wade Billings Return to Library Frederica, nicknamed Skeeter, was Frederica and John Shaw Billings’ only child. Shortly before her 3rd birthday, Skeeter became ill on a family vacation and died on September 28, 1929. The Billings did not purchase Redcliffe until 1935 so Skeeter never lived in the house, but these portraits were displayed in the library while Billings owned Redcliffe as reminders of her short life.
Time-Life Return to Library Included among over 2000 library books in Redcliffe’s collection, there are 60 volumes of Time and Life bound volumes dating from 1929 to 1944. John Shaw Billings worked at Time, Inc. from 1929 to 1954. He began at Time, Inc. as a National Affairs Editor and eventually became the Editorial Director of all four publications produced by Time, Inc., Time, Life, Fortune, and Architectural Forum.
1840’s Four Poster Bed Return to First Floor Bedroom Mahogany and Pine American Four Poster Bed, c. 1840. Family story suggests that the bed belonged to the mother of Emily Cumming Hammond, the second generation of Hammonds to own Redcliffe. Her mother passed away on the bed at her home in Augusta, GA. The bed was then crated and sent to Emily at Redcliffe where it stayed crated in the attic until John Shaw Billings moved into the home in 1935.
Dining Room Back to Floor Plan See more of the Dining Room
Dining Room Previous view of Dining Room Back to Floor Plan
1890’s Highchair Return to Dining Room Antique Oak Highchair. Circa 1890. John Shaw Billings notes that he used this highchair as a child on his visits to Redcliffe.
Wooden Buddha Sculpture Return to Dining Room From Billings’ inventory: A gift from the Orient to John Shaw Billings’ grandfather Billings in Washington in 1880s. Johns Shaw Billings inherited it from his father in 1928.
Tin Plate Warmer Return to Dining Room Redcliffe’s kitchen was originally a separate structure in the back work yard of the house. This antique plate warmer could be placed in front of the fire and because it is made of tin, it would heat up quickly. The food plates could be placed on the shelf to warm the food after carrying it into the house on a cold winter’s day.
James Henry Hammond Portrait Return to Dining Room This painting is a 1952 copy by Gerald Foster. Billings suggests that the original, currently on display in the main hall, was probably completed in 1832 when James Henry Hammond was commissioned to raise regiment in Barnwell for Nullification as a young man. The uniform is unorthodox and probably of his own design.
Louis XV Style Boule Center Table Return to 2 nd Floor Main Hall Antique Louis XV Style Boule Center Table, circa 1840. The table is made of mahogany and pine with bronze adornments, brass cutwork and inset tortoise shell. Due to the table’s condition, it is currently displayed in the 2nd floor hallway of Redcliffe. Originally this Hammond showpiece would have been a focal point in the 1st floor hall or in the parlor, the two areas in which guests spent the most time.
Cumming Family Tree Return to 2 nd Floor Main Hall Table of the Descendents of William Cumming of Frederick County, Maryland. Compiled and Arranged by Montgomery Cumming. Washington, DC, July 1, 1905. This framed family tree measures 30” x 48”. Emily Cumming Hammond is shown as a great-grandchild of William Cumming. Along with the Redcliffe family history shown on this chart, it is also interesting to take a look at the large family sizes. Many families listed here have over 10 children in their families!
Map of Africa Return to 2 nd Floor Main Hall Chart of the Western Coast of Africa. Extending from Sierra Leone and the Isles de Los, to the Cape of Good Hope. 1834. Created by J.W. Norie. This map measures 32” wide x 82” long. It is made of three sections and mounted on a wood panel.
Northeast Bedroom Back to Floor Plan See more of Northeast Bedroom
Northeast Bedroom Previous view of Northeast Bedroom Back to Floor Plan
1850’s Victorian Bed Return to Northeast Bedroom Circa 1850’s Victorian Mahogany Bed Frame. This bed has Emily Cumming Hammond and her aunt’s, Sarah Wallace Cumming, initials engraved in the headboard. After Sarah’s death, Emily had the bed made with the money left to her by her aunt. This bed is thought to be the bed where John Shaw Billings was born.
Wakefield Earth Closet Return to Northeast Bedroom This is an early type of indoor toilet called an earth closet. The back section held fine soil or ashes which would have been deposited to the lower compartment after each use to cover any odors that occurred. After years of using the basic chamber pot, the Wakefield Earth Closet, patented in 1870, was publicly praised for its vast improvements in hygiene.
Apothecary Box Return to Northeast Bedroom Antique Doctor's Apothecary Box, circa 1820-1830. The box is made primarily of mahogany wood with pine as a secondary wood. There are 10 glass medicine bottles in this box. Some still have labels including: Syrup of Squill- to help with coughing Potass:Iodid- used as an “antibiotic” Extract of English Valeria- for diseases of the nervous system and headaches
Southeast Bedroom Back to Floor Plan See more of Southeast Bedroom
Southeast Bedroom Previous view of Southeast Bedroom Back to Floor Plan
Seth Thomas & Sons Mantle Clock This 1967 spelter mantle clock has an enameled metal face with Roman numerals. The case is decorated with lines and scrollwork. Two cast griffins form the handles. Mounted on the case’s top is a cast covered urn form. An appraiser noted that originally the case would have had a bronze patina and also believed the top urn form to be a replacement. Return to Southeast Bedroom
1860’s Fleur di Lis Bed Return to Southeast Bedroom Antique Victorian Period Bed Frame, circa 1860. The frame is made of walnut. The high arched headboard includes an inset tri-lobed panel and carved crest. The decorative crest is carved with a modified 'Fleur di Lis' and foliage scrolls.
Children’s Rocking Chairs Return to Southeast Bedroom Antique child’s wood and wicker rocking chair, circa 1900 produced by Heywood and Wakefield. The chair was purchased for John Shaw Billings’ only child, Frederica Wade Billings, Jr. Antique Child's Rocking Chair, circa 1870. This chair is made of walnut and has a woven cane seat and back. According to Billings’ inventory of Redcliffe, this chair belonged to Julia Hammond Richards.
Tin Hat Bathtub Return to Southwest Bedroom To use this bathtub, the person being washed would sit on the flat seat, and a slave or servant would pour water over the person being washed. A hole underneath the seat leads out through the back so the tub could be tipped backwards and dirty water could be discarded. Tin hat bathtubs were used at Redcliffe until 1935 when John Shaw Billings installed modern plumbing.
Seven Piece Wash Set Return to Southwest Bedroom Circa 1900 seven piece ironstone wash stand set. The set is pink and white with gold flake highlights and includes a toothbrush holder, wash basin, cold water pitcher, hot water pitcher, soap dish, shaving mug, and chamber pot.
His and Her Bathrooms Back to Floor Plan In 1935, Billings constructed a dividing wall in the original fourth bedroom to create two bathrooms. This is an example of one of those bathrooms which was very modern at the time.
The work yard originally consisted of four slave quarters, a two- wing stables, cistern, kitchen, and wash house. Two of the original slave quarters structures remain. One slave quarters was converted into a carriage house and later became a garage for Billings. The cistern and one wing of the stables have also stayed intact. Go back inside the house Learn more about taking a tour of Redcliffe Click on a below to look inside the stables and slave quarters and to learn more information about the garage, cistern, and kitchen.
Redcliffe’s existing stables were built in 1908 for Harry Hammond, James Henry Hammond’s son. Originally the stables included two wings as seen in the photograph below. In the photograph to the left, the hay chute and the basket for the hay can be seen. Return to Stables Photo courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, USC
Cistern This cistern was probably installed at the turn of the 20 th century. The cistern collected rain water that could be used to cook, wash clothes and provide water for the animals. Return to Work Yard Overhead view of the cistern A glimpse inside the underground cistern
Exterior view of Slave Quarters See 2 nd room of slave quarters
Learn about one of Redcliffe’s African American families Back to 1 st room of Slave Quarters Directly Back to Work yard
Anthony and Lucy Henley Louis and Anthony Henley Dennis and James Henley Sophie and Kiziah Henley Joyce Ann Dunbar and Patricia Henley Click on the stars to the right to find out more information about individuals in the Henley family Back to Slave Quarters
Anthony and Lucy Henley: Enslaved Individuals Anthony Henley was purchased by James H. Hammond on October 22, 1834, along with two other individuals, for $450.00. His wife Lucy was probably purchased in the mid- 1840’s before the birth of their first child, Louis, on August 25, 1847. We know little about their life during enslavement beyond purchase dates, birth dates and a general idea of their work. In the “List of Negroes 21 Feb. 1846” from James H. Hammond’s Plantation Manuals, Anthony is listed among the general work hand population, and Lucy is listed as working in the “yard,” or as a house slave. Back to Henley Family Tree
Louis and Anthony Henley: Sharecroppers Following the Civil War, the Henley family is listed in the 1870 US Federal Census on the page before the current inhabitants of the mansion at Redcliffe, probably an indication that they lived close to or on the Redcliffe property. The names of Louis Henley and his son Anthony are mentioned throughout the account books of the second owner of Redcliffe Harry Hammond indicating members of the family were now sharecroppers and tenant famers on Hammond lands. Henley, Anthony Henley, Louis 1870 US Federal Census for Hammond Township, Edgefield County, South Carolina, USA. Featuring the Anthony Henley, Henry Hogg (wife Maggie Henley Hogg), and Louis Henley Households. Back to Henley Family Tree
Dennis and Jim Henley: Paid Employees Letter to John Shaw Billings from Harry Hammond dated November 6, 1953. Mentions both Dennis and Jim. Dennis and Jim Henley c. 1930’s. JSB Scrapbook Collection. The family of Louis’ son, Dennis, features quite prominently at Redcliffe in the 20 th century. Of Dennis’ twelve children, six are known to have worked at Redcliffe including Jim who is identified in the photograph and letter here. Back to Henley Family Tree Photo courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, USC
Sophie and Kiziah Henley: Paid Employees Two of Dennis’ daughters, Kiziah and Sophie, are known to have worked at Redcliffe along with siblings Jim, David, Lucy and Sarah. I give, devise and bequeath the sum of Two Thousand and 00/100 ($2000.00) dollars to each of my faithful employees David Henly, James Henly, Kazzie (Kate) Willis, Lucy Dunbar and Sophie Henly, if they shall survive me. ~The Last Will and Testament of John Shaw Billings, Item 4 Back to Henley Family Tree
Joyce Ann Dunbar and Patricia Henley: The Fifth Generation Great-great-grandchildren of Anthony Henley, Joyce Ann and Patricia. Joyce Ann is seen with John Shaw Billings’ wife, Frederica in a 1962 black and white photograph from Billings’ scrapbook. The 1961 color photo shows Patricia, Sophie Henley’s daughter. Back to Henley Family Tree
Redcliffe’s collection does not include any original artifacts that belonged directly to the enslaved or paid workers who lived in Redcliffe’s slave quarters. We do have records from James Henry Hammond that give us clues about the lives of enslaved individuals. James Henry Hammond’s plantation manual includes information about what kind of clothing provisions were given to the slaves. Click the arrow below to see an excerpt from Hammond’s plantation journal regarding clothing. Return to Slave QuartersView Historical Document
Return to Clothing Exhibit Excerpted from James Henry Hammond’s Plantation Manual (Hammond, James Henry. Plantation Books, 1832- 1858. Library of Congress Manuscripts Division.)
Kitchen This location is believed to be where the original kitchen structure once stood. Cooking was one of the primary tasks of the enslaved women and later paid servants at Redcliffe. John Shaw Billings, as an infant, along with a few paid servants are seen in this 1900’s photograph with the structure believed to be the kitchen. The kitchen burned down and was rebuilt several times. John Shaw Billings relocated the kitchen into the basement of Redcliffe. Return to Work Yard Photo courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, USC
Garage This building is one of the original four slave quarters. It was converted into a carriage house in the late 1800s and then used as a garage beginning in 1935 after John Shaw Billings purchased Redcliffe. Return to Garage This turn of the century photograph, circa 1900, shows the slave quarters being used as a storage shed. Billings’ 1936 Packard parked in the garage. Photo courtesy of South Caroliniana Library, USC
Redcliffe Plantation State Historic Site Open Thursday - Monday Grounds open at 9:00 am and close at 5:00 pm (6:00 pm during Daylight Savings Time) The Mansion is open to the public for house tours at 1:00, 2:00 and 3:00 pm Admission to the grounds is free. House tour admission: Adults $4.00 Students (6-16 year olds) $3.00 SC Seniors $2.50 Questions or comments: Please contact us at 803-827-1473 or email us at email@example.com To Work YardStart the tour over!
Redcliffe Plantation State Historic Site Open Thursday - Monday Grounds open at 9:00 am and close at 5:00 pm (6:00 pm during Daylight Savings Time) The Mansion is open to the public for house tours at 1:00, 2:00 and 3:00 pm. Admission to the grounds is free. House tour admission: Adults $4.00 Students (6-16 year olds) $3.00 SC Seniors $2.50 Questions or comments: Please contact us at 803-827-1473 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org Start the tour!