Presentation on theme: "Properties of Matter Shonda Wooden Donna Polite Manjot Choudhary Natasha Derden Mary Irvin Summer Science Institute- Chemistry July 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Properties of Matter Shonda Wooden Donna Polite Manjot Choudhary Natasha Derden Mary Irvin Summer Science Institute- Chemistry July 2009
OBJECTIVE Students will identify the characteristics of a solid, liquid, and a gas in order to investigate the physical properties of matter. Students will identify physical properties and changes and chemical properties and changes in order to investigate the properties of matter. Students will explain what happens to a substance during changes from a liquid to a solid in order to investigate the properties of an “Oobleck.”
ENGAGEMENT 1.Do liquids have a shape of their own? If not, what shape do liquids take? 2. SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES a)Which is the most difficult to handle? b)Which is the easiest to handle? 3. Explain both of your answers in detail. 4. Create a KWL Chart for “Properties of Matter” and complete the “K” column for what you already know. W ARM - UP
EXPLORATION Show 100 mL of water in the 3 states of matter: a) frozen (freeze a cup of water overnight to show the freezing point of the solid) b) room temperature (water from the faucet to identify the liquid state) c) boiled (boil water over a hot plate to show the boiling point of a gas) PART I: Teacher Demo
EXPLORATION Prior to viewing the video, students will answer the following questions: 1.If you place an ice cube in the freezer, will it melt? 2.If you add salt to water before placing it in the freezer, will it freeze? 3.If you leave ice on the counter, will it melt? 4.If you put ice in hot water, will it melt? PART II: United Streaming Video
EXPLORATION Title of the Video: Real World Science: Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases Time Period for the Video: minutes Website location of the Video: PART II: United Streaming Video
EXPLANATION 2.After reading in small groups: Students will summarize the details of the text through a class discussion with the teacher. As the teacher ask questions describing the states of matter, students will identify the state by holding up the correct “matter models” (Petri dishes that contain marbles that represent the particles of either a solid, liquid, or gas). Following the questions, students will draw the models of the three Petri dishes used to identify the states of matter and choose and object or substance to sketch as an example.
Physical Properties of Matter any property that can be observed without transforming the substance into another substance States of Matter
Physical Properties What are some physical properties? color melting and boiling point odor mass, color, freezing point
Physical Changes A change that does not transform the substance into another substance Some physical changes would be: boiling melting subliming dissolving NaCl into water
Chemical Properties any property that cannot be studied without transforming the substance into a different substance iron rusts, paper burns
Chemical Changes Chemical change — change that transforms one substance into another substance Example- Burning hydrogen (H 2 ) in oxygen (O 2 ) gives H 2 O.
Sure Signs of a Chemical Change Heat Light Gas Produced (not from boiling!) Precipitate – a solid formed by mixing two liquids together Burning Oxidation of metal, ex. rusting Soft/CCA/CCA0/MOVIES/S1047.M OV
Physical or Chemical? Examples: melting point flammable density magnetic tarnishes in air physical chemical physical chemical
Physical vs. Chemical Examples: rusting iron? dissolving in water? burning a log? melting ice? grinding spices? chopping a log in half?
Most Common States (or Phases) of Matter a) solid (definite shape and volume) b) liquid (definite volume, no definite shape) c) gas (no definite shape or volume) d) plasma (found in lightening bolts & neon signs)
Solids Key Concept: The fixed, closely packed arrangement of particles causes a solid to have a definite shape and volume A solid is a kind of matter that has a fixed shape and a fixed volume. Your pencil is a solid. The shape and volume of your pencil will not change if you move the pencil from place to place.
The different elements and compounds that make up matter can be called particles. The particles of a solid are packed closely together. The particles of a solid cannot move from their spot within the solid. However, the particles can move slightly back and forth in place.
What a solid looks like at particle form
Questions!!! 1.Is the following sentence true or false? The particles that make up a solid do not move at all. ___________________ Answer: False, particles do move slightly from side to side.
2. The picture shows two containers with particles of a kind of matter in each. Circle the letter of the container that shows how the particles of a solid are arranged. A B
Liquids Key Concept: Because its particles are free to move, a liquid has no definite shape. However, a liquid does have a definite volume. A liquid is a kind of matter that has a fixed volume. However, the shape of a liquid changes with the shape of its container.
Water is a liquid. As you pour water from one cup to another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same. The particles of a liquid are packed closely together. However, these particles can move away from their spots.
What a Liquid looks like at the particle level
Questions 3. What are the characteristics of a liquid? Because its particles are free to move, a liquid has no definite shape, but it does have a definite volume.
4. volume shape particles a.A liquid changes ________________ depending on the liquid’s container. Answer: shape b. A liquid has the same _____________ no matter what container the liquid is in. Answer: volume
Gases Key Concept: As they move, gas particles spread apart, filling all the space available. Thus, a gas has neither definite shape nor definite volume. A gas is a kind of matter that easily changes volume and shape.
Air is a gas. When you blow air into a balloon, the air takes the shape of the balloon. When you let the air out of the balloon, the particles spread out into the room. Gas particles can move around freely. Gas particles can either spread apart or be squeezed together.
What a gas looks like at the particle level
Comparing States of Matter DefiniteVolumeDefiniteShape SolidYesYes LiquidYesNo GasNoNo
Question 5.Which is a gas? a. fruit juice b. air c. books Answer: b. air 6.Is the following sentence true or false? Gas particles can move around freely. Answer: TRUE
ELABORATE “Oobleck” See handout for lab objectives, materials, and procedure. Pre-LAB: complete the “What Is Oobleck?” pre-lab activity and develop a hypothesis. “What Is Oobleck?” pre-lab activity and develop a hypothesis. During the lab, complete the lab write-up in your groups. (HINT… First group to complete the lab, will receive a reward.) Following the lab, you will: a) complete Reading About Properties and Changes Handout b) summarize your Oobleck lab (give you opinion and share something that you have learned). c) complete the States of Matter graphic organizer
EVALUATION (Homework) a) complete Reading About Properties and Changes Handout b) summarize your Oobleck lab (give you opinion and sharesomething that you have learned). c) complete the States of Matter graphic organizer
EVALUATE (Homework) COMPLETE THE GRAPHIC ORGANIZER 1.Define each state of matter. 2.How are the particles packed? 3.Draw a model showing how the particles are packed. 4.Give 3 examples of each. 5.Does it have definite shape, definite volume, or both? SOLID LIQUID GAS States Of Matter