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Solid State Chemistry via Glass and Ceramics John Tanaka and Edward J. Neth Chemistry Department University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06269.

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Presentation on theme: "Solid State Chemistry via Glass and Ceramics John Tanaka and Edward J. Neth Chemistry Department University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06269."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solid State Chemistry via Glass and Ceramics John Tanaka and Edward J. Neth Chemistry Department University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06269

2 Glass, Ceramics and Mankind History –Discovered in prehistory by unknown inventor –Reconstructions of old civilizations –Food and beverage storage

3 Current technology Fiber Optics LC, electroluminescent, and plasma displays Chemistry Electric insulators Superconductors Electronic components Household goods

4 Glass GLASS Quartz Coefficient of expansion 8 x 10 −7 cm/cm/oC Softening point 1500 o C 7740 Pyrex 80.5%SiO %B 2 O 3 3.8%Na 2 O 0.4%K 2 O 2.2%Al 2 O 3 Coefficient of expansion33 x 10 −7 cm/cm/ o C Softening point 820 o C Working point 1200 o C Container Glass 74.1% SiO 2 1.8% Al 2 O 3 8.8% CaO 1.4% MgO 13.0% Na 2 O 0.4% K 2 O Coefficient of expansion92 x 10 −7 cm/cm/ o C Softening point696 o C Working point1000 o C

5 Quartz STRUCTURES OF SiO 2 Quartz, α and β (to 870 o C) Tridymite ( 870 o C to 1470 o C) Cristobalite (1470 o C to 1710 o C)

6 Beta quartz

7 Tridymite, cristobalite

8 Silicates SILICATE “ISLAND” STRUCTURES Orthosilicates –Be 2 SiO 4 phenacite –(Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 olivine –ZrSiO 4 zircon –R 3 IIR 2 III(SiO 4 ) 3 garnet Pyrosilicates –Sc 2 Si 2 O 7 Si-O-Si = 180 o –Gd 2 Si 2 O 7 Si-O-Si = 159 o –Nd 2 Si 2 O 7 Si-O-Si = 133 o Nets –1 connectiondimer as above –2 connectionchain or ring –3-connection 2 dimensional “infinite” structure or 3 dimensional “infinite” structure –4-connection2 dimensional “infinite” structure or 3-dimensional “infinite” structure

9 Representations To understand the structure of a three dimensional solid, more than one representation is needed It is not possible to display all structural elements using a single model

10 Three Views 1. Classical Molecular view of P 4 O 10

11 Ball and stick

12 2. Polyhedral View

13 3. Sphere Packing View

14 More Examples REPRESENTATIONS OF SOLID STATE STRUCTURES Ball and Stick P 4 O 10 Picture NaClPicture Zinc BlendePicture Polyhedral P 4 O 10 Picture NaClPicture Zinc BlendePicture Close Packed P 4 O 10 Picture NaClPicture Zinc BlendePicture

15 Diamond (Zincblende)

16 ZnS, polyhedral

17 ZnS, close packed

18 NaCl, ball and stick

19 NaCl, polyhedral

20 Ceramics Quartz –Shown earlier Feldspar Kaolin

21 Ceramics FELDSPAR Plagioclase feldspars –NaAlSi 3 O 8 albite –CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 anorthite Paracelsian –Ba(Al 2 Si 2 O 8 )

22 Feldspars

23 Kaolin and asbestos

24 Kaolin, 2D view

25 2-connected

26 3-connected

27 4-connected

28 Nets 4-connected, two dimensional net –HgI 4-connected, three dimensional net –Diamond, zincblende shown earlier

29 HgI

30 Li 2 Si 2 O 5

31 Thorium disilicide


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