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Solid State Chemistry via Glass and Ceramics

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Presentation on theme: "Solid State Chemistry via Glass and Ceramics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Solid State Chemistry via Glass and Ceramics
John Tanaka and Edward J. Neth Chemistry Department University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06269

2 Glass, Ceramics and Mankind History
Discovered in prehistory by unknown inventor Reconstructions of old civilizations Food and beverage storage

3 Current technology Fiber Optics
LC, electroluminescent, and plasma displays Chemistry Electric insulators Superconductors Electronic components Household goods

4 Glass GLASS Quartz Coefficient of expansion 8 x 10−7 cm/cm/oC
Softening point oC 7740 Pyrex 80.5% SiO2 12.9% B2O3 3.8% Na2O 0.4% K2O 2.2% Al2O3 Coefficient of expansion 33 x 10−7 cm/cm/oC Softening point 820oC Working point oC Container Glass 74.1% SiO2 1.8% Al2O3 8.8% CaO 1.4% MgO 13.0% Na2O 0.4% K2O Coefficient of expansion 92 x 10−7 cm/cm/oC Softening point 696 oC Working point oC

5 Quartz STRUCTURES OF SiO2 Quartz, α and β (to 870oC)
Tridymite ( 870oC to 1470oC) Cristobalite (1470oC to 1710oC)

6 Beta quartz

7 Tridymite, cristobalite

8 Silicates SILICATE “ISLAND” STRUCTURES Orthosilicates Pyrosilicates
Be2SiO4 phenacite (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 olivine ZrSiO4 zircon R3IIR2III(SiO4)3 garnet Pyrosilicates Sc2Si2O7 Si-O-Si = 180o Gd2Si2O7 Si-O-Si = 159o Nd2Si2O7 Si-O-Si = 133o Nets 1 connection dimer as above 2 connection chain or ring 3-connection 2 dimensional “infinite” structure or dimensional “infinite” structure 4-connection 2 dimensional “infinite” structure or dimensional “infinite” structure

9 Representations To understand the structure of a three dimensional solid, more than one representation is needed It is not possible to display all structural elements using a single model

10 Three Views 1. Classical Molecular view of P4O10

11 Ball and stick

12 2. Polyhedral View

13 3. Sphere Packing View

14 More Examples REPRESENTATIONS OF SOLID STATE STRUCTURES Ball and Stick
P4O10 Picture NaCl Picture Zinc Blende Picture Polyhedral P4O10 Picture NaCl Picture Zinc Blende Picture Close Packed

15 Diamond (Zincblende)

16 ZnS, polyhedral

17 ZnS, close packed

18 NaCl, ball and stick

19 NaCl, polyhedral

20 Ceramics Quartz Shown earlier Feldspar Kaolin

21 Ceramics FELDSPAR Plagioclase feldspars Paracelsian NaAlSi3O8 albite
CaAl2Si2O8 anorthite Paracelsian Ba(Al2Si2O8)

22 Feldspars

23 Kaolin and asbestos

24 Kaolin, 2D view

25 2-connected

26 3-connected

27 4-connected

28 Nets 4-connected, two dimensional net
HgI 4-connected, three dimensional net Diamond, zincblende shown earlier

29 HgI

30 Li2Si2O5

31 Thorium disilicide


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