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STATES OF MATTER

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Presentation on theme: "STATES OF MATTER"— Presentation transcript:

1 STATES OF MATTER

2 MATTER Affected by temperature and pressure A change in temperature and or pressure can change the state of matter of a substance

3 Kinetic Theory – Energy in Motion Three assumptions of how particles in matter behave 1. All matter is made of small particles - atoms, molecules and ions 2. These particles are in constant motion. The motion has no pattern. 3. These particles are colliding or crashing into each other and into the walls of their container.

4 Temperature Measure of the average kinetic energy of the vibrating or moving atoms or molecules of a substance Absolute zero= no movement Heat= the total kinetic energy of a substance

5 Pressure Definition= the force per unit area applied on a surface in a perpendicular direction

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7 Solid Low temperature and/or high pressure Low kinetic energy Can be an atom, ion or molecule Usually in crystalline form, although some are glass Definite pattern resulting in definite shape and definite volume

8 Amorphous solids A solid that doesn’t form crystals Doesn’t have a long-range repeating pattern in the positions of its atoms or molecules.

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10 Liquid Less pressure, more kinetic energy Definite volume, no definite shape Melting point= the vibrations of the particles cause the forces holding the solid together to break

11 Gas Less pressure, more kinetic energy No definite shape, no definite volume Evaporation= boiling point= gas Would escape to space if not for the Earth’s gravity

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14 Plasma At temperatures above 5000°C, violent collisions cause electrons to be knocked off Stars, lightning, neon signs

15 Earth’s Plasma Fountain

16 Condensation Change in matter to a denser stage through colder temperatures or more pressure

17 Sublimation Solid-->Gas Carbon dioxide (dry ice), Naphthelene (moth balls) and snow sublime

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19 Conservation of Matter and Energy During an ordinary chemical change, there is no detectable increase or decrease in the quantity of matter. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change its form. E = [ mo2c4 + p2c2 ] ½

20 BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATE A DILUTE GAS OF WEAKLY INTERACTING BOSONS (SUBATOMIC PARTICLES THAT OBEY BOSE- EINSTEIN STATISTICS) COOLED CLOSE TO ABSOLUTE ZERO OCCUPY THE LOWEST QUANTUM STATE ALL ATOMS BECOME IDENTICAL

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22 Predicted Created 1995 A. Einstein S. Bose Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman

23 OTHERS GLASS DIFFERENT CRYSTALLINE FORMS –LIQUID CRYSTAL –DISORDERED CRYSTALS (PLASTIC CRYSTALS) –MAGNETICALLY ORDERED LOW TEMPERATURE STATES: –SUPERFLUIDS –BOSE EINSTEIN –FERMIONIC CONDENSATES –RYDBERG MOLECULES –QUANTUM HALL STATES –STRANGE MATTER


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