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**Finite-State Machines with No Output Ying Lu**

Based on Slides by Elsa L Gunter, NJIT, Costas Busch, and Longin Jan Latecki, Temple University

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Kleene closure A and B are two sets of strings. The concatenation of A and B is AB={xy: x string in A and y string in B} Example: A={0, 11} and B={1, 10, 110} AB={01,010,0110,111,1110,11110} A0={λ}, where λ represents the empty string An+1=AnA for n=0,1,2,…

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**Let A be any set of strings formed of characters in V.**

Kleene closure of A, denoted by A*, is Examples: If C={11}, then C*={12n: n=0,1,2,…} If B={0,1}, then B*={all binary strings}.

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**Finite State Automata A FSA is similar to a compiler in that:**

A compiler recognizes legal programs in some (source) language. A finite-state machine recognizes legal strings in some language. Example: Pascal Identifiers sequences of one or more letters or digits, starting with a letter: letter | digit letter S A

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**Finite Automaton Input String Output “Accept” or Finite “Reject”**

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Finite State Automata A finite state automaton over an alphabet is illustrated by a state diagram: a directed graph edges are labeled with elements of alphabet, some nodes (or states), marked as final one node marked as start state

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Transition Graph initial state accepting state transition state

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**Initial Configuration**

Input String

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Reading the Input

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Input finished accept

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Rejection

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Input finished reject

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Another Rejection

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reject

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Another Example

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Input finished accept

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Rejection Example

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Input finished reject

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Finite State Automata A finite state automaton M=(S,Σ,δ,s0,F) consists of a finite set S of states, a finite input alphabet Σ, a state transition function δ: S x Σ S, an initial state s0, F subset of S that represent the final states.

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**Finite Automata Transition**

Is read ‘In state s1 on input “a” go to state s2’ At the end of input If in accepting state => accept Otherwise => reject If no transition possible (got stuck) => reject FSA = Finite State Automata

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Input Alphabet

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Set of States

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Initial State

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**Set of Accepting States**

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Transition Function

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Transition Function

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**Language accepted by FSA**

The language accepted by a FSA is the set of strings accepted by the FSA. in the language of the FSM shown below: x, tmp2, XyZzy, position27. not in the language of the FSM shown below: 123, a?, 13apples. letter | digit letter S A

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Example accept

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Example accept accept accept

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Example trap state accept

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**Extended Transition Function**

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**Observation: if there is a walk from to**

with label then

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**Example: There is a walk from to**

with label

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Recursive Definition

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**Language Accepted by FSAs**

For a FSA Language accepted by :

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Observation Language rejected by :

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Example = { all strings with prefix } accept

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Example = { all strings without substring }

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Example

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Deterministic FSAs If a FSA has for every state exactly one edge for each letter in alphabet then FSA is deterministic In general a FSA is non-deterministic. Deterministic FSA special kind of non-deterministic FSA

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Example FSA Deterministic FSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 1

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Example DFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1

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**Example DFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1 1**

1

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**Example DFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1 1**

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**Example DFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1 1**

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**Example DFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1 1**

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**Example DFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1 1**

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**Example DFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1 1**

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Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Non-deterministic FSA 1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

Guess Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

Backtrack Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

Guess again Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

Guess Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

Backtrack Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

Guess again Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

1 1

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**Example NFSA Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 0 1 1 0 1**

Guess (Hurray!!) Regular expression: (0 1)* 1 Accepts string 1 1

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**If a language L is recognized by**

a nondeterministic FSA, then L is recognized by a deterministic FSA NFSA FSA

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**How to Implement an FSA A table-driven approach: table: Table[j][k]**

one row for each state in the machine, and one column for each possible character. Table[j][k] which state to go to from state j on character k, an empty entry corresponds to the machine getting stuck.

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**The table-driven program for a Deterministic FSA**

state = S // S is the start state repeat { k = next character from the input if (k == EOF) // the end of input if state is a final state then accept else reject state = T[state,k] if state = empty then reject // got stuck }

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In-Class Exercise Construct a finite-state automaton that recognizes the set of bit strings consisting of a 0 followed by a string with an odd number of 1s.

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Appendix

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**Regular Expressions Regular expressions describe regular languages**

Example: describes the language

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**Recursive Definition Primitive regular expressions:**

Given regular expressions and Are regular expressions

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Examples A regular expression: Not a regular expression:

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**Languages of Regular Expressions**

: language of regular expression Example

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Definition For primitive regular expressions:

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**Definition (continued)**

For regular expressions and

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Example Regular expression:

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Example Regular expression

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Example Regular expression

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**Example Regular expression = { all strings with at least**

two consecutive 0 }

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Example Regular expression = { all strings without two consecutive 0 }

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**Equivalent Regular Expressions**

Definition: Regular expressions and are equivalent if

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**Example = { all strings without two consecutive 0 } and are equivalent**

regular expr.

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Example: Lexing Regular expressions good for describing lexemes (words) in a programming language Identifier = (a b … z A B … Z) (a b … z A B … Z 0 1 … 9 _ ‘ )* Digit = (0 1 … 9)

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**Implementing Regular Expressions**

Regular expressions, regular grammars reasonable way to generates strings in language Not so good for recognizing when a string is in language Regular expressions: which option to choose, how many repetitions to make Answer: finite state automata

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