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States of Matter: Liquids and Solids 11.1 Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 11.2 Phase Transitions 11.3 Phase Diagrams 11.4 Properties of Liquids:

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Presentation on theme: "States of Matter: Liquids and Solids 11.1 Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 11.2 Phase Transitions 11.3 Phase Diagrams 11.4 Properties of Liquids:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 States of Matter: Liquids and Solids 11.1 Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 11.2 Phase Transitions 11.3 Phase Diagrams 11.4 Properties of Liquids: Surface Tension and Viscosity 11.5 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–2 States of Matter Comparison of gases, liquids, and solids.gasesliquids solids –Gases are compressible fluids. Their molecules are widely separated. –Liquids are relatively incompressible fluids. Their molecules are more tightly packed. –Solids are nearly incompressible and rigid. Their molecules or ions are in close contact and do not move.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–3 Changes of State A change of state or phase transition is a change of a substance from one state to another. solid liquid gas melting freezing condensationboiling sublimation (see Figure 11.3) condensation or deposition

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–4 Vapor Pressure Liquids are continuously vaporizing. –If a liquid is in a closed vessel with space above it, a partial pressure of the vapor state builds up in this space. –The vapor pressure of a liquid is the partial pressure of the vapor over the liquid, measured at equilibrium at a given temperature. (See Figure 11.4)

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–5 Vapor Pressure The vapor pressure of a liquid depends on its temperature. (See Figure 11.7)(See Figure 11.7) –As the temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the molecular motion becomes greater, and vapor pressure increases. –Liquids and solids with relatively high vapor pressures at normal temperatures are said to be volatile.

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–6 Ilustration of Vapor Pressure Budda Water Budda (air pressure) will keep the liquid water down while the heat vaporizes the surface water. Who’s this?

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–7 Ilustration of Vapor Pressure Water When the vapor pressure exceeds the air pressure, Budda cannot keep the liquid water down. Then Budda rises and vapor bubbles form throughout the liquid. And it boils!

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–8 Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure exerted on the liquid is called the boiling point. –As the temperature of a liquid increases, the vapor pressure increases until it reaches atmospheric pressure. –At this point, stable bubbles of vapor form within the liquid. This is called boiling. –The normal boiling point is the boiling point at 1 atm.

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–9 Freezing Point The temperature at which a pure liquid changes to a crystalline solid, or freezes, is called the freezing point. –The melting point is identical to the freezing point and is defined as the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid. –Unlike boiling points, melting points are affected significantly by only large pressure changes.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–10 Heat of Phase Transition To melt a pure substance at its melting point requires an extra boost of energy to overcome lattice energies. –The heat needed to melt 1 mol of a pure substance is called the heat of fusion and denoted  H fus. –For ice, the heat of fusion is 6.01 kJ/mol.

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–11 Heat of Phase Transition To boil a pure substance at its boiling point requires an extra boost of energy to overcome intermolecular forces. –The heat needed to boil 1 mol of a pure substance is called the heat of vaporization and denoted  H vap. (see Figure 11.9) (see Figure 11.9) –For water, the heat of vaporization is 40.66 kJ/mol.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–12 A Problem to Consider The heat of vaporization of ammonia is 23.4 kJ/mol. How much heat is required to vaporize 1.00 kg of ammonia? –First, we must determine the number of moles of ammonia in 1.00 kg (1000 g).

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–13 A Problem to Consider The heat of vaporization of ammonia is 23.4 kJ/mol. How much heat is required to vaporize 1.00 kg of ammonia? –Then we can determine the heat required for vaporization.

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–14 Clausius-Clapeyron Equation We noted earlier that vapor pressure was a function of temperature. –It has been demonstrated that the logarithm of the vapor pressure of a liquid varies linearly with absolute temperature. –Consequently, the vapor pressure of a liquid at two different temperatures is described by:

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–15 A Problem to Consider Carbon disulfide, CS 2, has a normal boiling point of 46 ° C (vapor pressure = 760 mmHg) and a heat of vaporization of 26.8 kJ/mol. What is the vapor pressure of carbon disulfide at 35 ° C? –Substituting into the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, we obtain:

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–16 A Problem to Consider Carbon disulfide, CS 2, has a normal boiling point of 46 ° C (vapor pressure = 760 mmHg) and a heat of vaporization of 26.8 kJ/mol. What is the vapor pressure of carbon disulfide at 35 ° C? – Taking the antiln we obtain:

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–17 Phase Diagrams A phase diagram is a graphical way to summarize the conditions under which the different states of a substance are stable. –The diagram is divided into three areas representing each state of the substance. –The curves separating each area represent the boundaries of phase changes.

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–18 Phase Diagrams Below is a typical phase diagram. It consists of three curves that divide the diagram into regions labeled “solid, liquid, and gas”. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–19 Phase Diagrams Curve AB, dividing the solid region from the liquid region, represents the conditions under which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–20 Phase Diagrams Usually, the melting point is only slightly affected by pressure. For this reason, the melting point curve, AB, is nearly vertical. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–21 Phase Diagrams If a liquid is more dense than its solid, the curve leans slightly to the left, causing the melting point to decrease with pressure. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–22 Phase Diagrams If a liquid is less dense than its solid, the curve leans slightly to the right, causing the melting point to increase with pressure. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–23 Phase Diagrams Curve AC, which divides the liquid region from the gaseous region, represents the boiling points of the liquid for various pressures. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–24 Phase Diagrams Curve AD, which divides the solid region from the gaseous region, represents the vapor pressures of the solid at various temperatures. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–25 Phase Diagrams The curves intersect at A, the triple point, which is the temperature and pressure where three phases of a substance exist in equilibrium. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas..

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–26 Phase Diagrams The curves intersect at A, the triple point, which is the temperature and pressure where three phases of a substance exist in equilibrium. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas.. (see Figures 11.11 and 11.12)

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–27 Phase Diagrams The temperature above which the liquid state of a substance no longer exists regardless of pressure is called the critical temperature. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas.. T crit

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–28 Phase Diagrams The vapor pressure at the critical temperature is called the critical pressure. Note that curve AC ends at the critical point, C. B temperature pressure A C D solidliquid gas.. T crit P crit (see Figure 11.13) caffeine

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–29 Properties of Liquids; Surface Tension and Viscosity The molecular structure of a substance defines the intermolecular forces holding it together. –Many physical properties of substances are attributed to their intermolecular forces. –These properties include vapor pressure and boiling point. –Two additional properties shown in Table 11.2 are surface tension and viscosity.Table 11.2

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–30 Properties of Liquids; Surface Tension and Viscosity Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount. –A molecule within a liquid is pulled in all directions, whereas a molecule on the surface is only pulled to the interior. (See Figure 11.16).(See Figure 11.16). –As a result, there is a tendency for the surface area of the liquid to be minimized (See Figure 11.18 ).

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–31 Properties of Liquids; Surface Tension and Viscosity Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount. –This explains why falling raindrops are nearly spherical, minimizing surface area. –In comparisons of substances, as intermolecular forces between molecules increase, the apparent surface tension also increases.

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–32 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties Viscosity is the resistance to flow exhibited by all liquids and gases. –Viscosity can be illustrated by measuring the time required for a steel ball to fall through a column of the liquid. (see Figure 11.20)(see Figure 11.20) –Even without such measurements, you know that syrup has a greater viscosity than water. –In comparisons of substances, as intermolecular forces increase, viscosity usually increases.

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–33 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties Many of the physical properties of liquids (and certain solids) can be explained in terms of intermolecular forces, the forces of attraction between molecules. –Three types of forces are known to exist between neutral molecules. 1.Dipole-dipole forces 2.London (or dispersion) forces 3.Hydrogen bonding

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–34 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties The term van der Waals forces is a general term including dipole-dipole and London forces. –Van der Waals forces are the weak attractive forces in a large number of substances. –Hydrogen bonding occurs in substances containing hydrogen atoms bonded to certain very electronegative atoms. –Approximate energies of intermolecular attractions are listed in Table 11.3.Table 11.3

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–35 Dipole-Dipole Forces Polar molecules can attract one another through dipole-dipole forces. –The dipole-dipole force is an attractive intermolecular force resulting from the tendency of polar molecules to align themselves positive end to negative end. H Cl   H   Figure 11.21 shows the alignment of polar molecules.Figure 11.21

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–36 London Forces London forces are the weak attractive forces resulting from instantaneous dipoles that occur due to the distortion of the electron cloud surrounding a molecule. –London forces increase with molecular weight. The larger a molecule, the more easily it can be distorted to give an instantaneous dipole. –All covalent molecules exhibit some London force. –Figure 11.22 illustrates the effect of London forces.

38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–37 Van der Waals Forces and the Properties of Liquids In summary, intermolecular forces play a large role in many of the physical properties of liquids and gases. These include: –vapor pressure –boiling point –surface tension –viscosity

39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–38 Van der Waals Forces and the Properties of Liquids The vapor pressure of a liquid depends on intermolecular forces. When the intermolecular forces in a liquid are strong, you expect the vapor pressure to be low. –Table 11.2 illustrates this concept. As intermolecular forces increase, vapor pressures decrease.Table 11.2

40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–39 Van der Waals Forces and the Properties of Liquids The normal boiling point is related to vapor pressure and is lowest for liquids with the weakest intermolecular forces. –When intermolecular forces are weak, little energy is required to overcome them. Consequently, boiling points are low for such compounds.

41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–40 Van der Waals Forces and the Properties of Liquids Surface tension increases with increasing intermolecular forces. –Surface tension is the energy needed to reduce the surface area of a liquid. –To increase surface area, it is necessary to pull molecules apart against the intermolecular forces of attraction.

42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–41 Van der Waals Forces and the Properties of Liquids Viscosity increases with increasing intermolecular forces because increasing these forces increases the resistance to flow. –Other factors, such as the possibility of molecules tangling together, affect viscosity. –Liquids with long molecules that tangle together are expected to have high viscosities.

43 States of Matter: Liquids and Solids 11.5 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties 11.6 Classification of Solids by Type and Attraction of Units 11.7 Crystalline Solids; Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells 11.8 Structures of Some Crystalline Solids 11.9 Calculations involving Unit- Cell Dimensions 11.10 Determining Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction

44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–43 Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding is a force that exists between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom, X, and a lone pair of electrons on a very electronegative atom, Y. –To exhibit hydrogen bonding, one of the following three structures must be present. H NOHFH : : : –Only N, O, and F are electronegative enough to leave the hydrogen nucleus exposed.

45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–44 Hydrogen Bonding H H O : : H H O : : H H O : : H H O : :

46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–45 Hydrogen Bonds O δ- H δ+ H δ+ Solid LiquidGas + -

47 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–46 Hydrogen Bonding Molecules exhibiting hydrogen bonding have abnormally high boiling points compared to molecules with similar van der Waals forces. –For example, water has the highest boiling point of the Group VI hydrides. (see Figure 11.24)(see Figure 11.24) –Similar trends are seen in the Group V and VII hydrides.

48 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–47 Hydrogen Bonding A hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom appears to be special. –The electrons in the O-H bond are drawn to the O atom, leaving the dense positive charge of the hydrogen nucleus exposed. –It’s the strong attraction of this exposed nucleus for the lone pair on an adjacent molecule that accounts for the strong attraction. –A similar mechanism explains the attractions in HF and NH 3.

49 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–48 Zigzag Arrangement of Hydrogen Bonding in Solid Hydrogen Fluoride

50 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–49 Figure 11.26: Hydrogen Bonding Between Two Biologically Important Molecules Source: Used with permission from the JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION, Vol. 74, No. 7, 1997, cover; copyright ©1997, Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

51 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–50 Solid State A solid is a nearly incompressible state of matter with a well-defined shape. The units making up the solid are in close contact and in fixed positions. –Solids are characterized by the type of force holding the structural units together. –In some cases, these forces are intermolecular, but in others they are chemical bonds (metallic, ionic, or covalent).

52 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–51 From this point of view, there are four types of solids. Molecular (Van der Waals forces) Metallic (Metallic bond) Ionic (Ionic bond) Covalent (Covalent bond)

53 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–52

54 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–53 Types of Solids A molecular solid is a solid that consists of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular forces. –Many solids are of this type. –Examples include solid neon, solid water (ice), and solid carbon dioxide (dry ice).

55 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–54 Types of Solids A metallic solid is a solid that consists of positive cores of atoms held together by a surrounding “sea” of electrons (metallic bonding). –In this kind of bonding, positively charged atomic cores are surrounded by delocalized electrons. –Examples include iron, copper, and silver.

56 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–55 Types of Solids An ionic solid is a solid that consists of cations and anions held together by electrical attraction of opposite charges (ionic bond). –Examples include cesium chloride, sodium chloride, and zinc sulfide (but ZnS has considerable covalent character).

57 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–56 Types of Solids A covalent network solid is a solid that consists of atoms held together in large networks or chains by covalent bonds. –Examples include carbon, in its forms as diamond or graphite (see Figure 11.27), asbestos, and silicon carbide.(see Figure 11.27) –Table 11.5 summarizes these four types of solids.

58 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–57 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –For a solid to melt, the forces holding the structural units together must be overcome. –For a molecular solid, these are weak intermolecular attractions. –Thus, molecular solids tend to have low melting points (below 300 o C). Melting Point and Structure

59 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–58 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –For ionic solids and covalent network solids to melt, chemical bonds must be broken. –For that reason, their melting points are relatively high. Melting Point and Structure

60 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–59

61 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–60 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –Note that for ionic solids, melting points increase with the strength of the ionic bond. –Ionic bonds are stronger when: 1.The magnitude of charge is high. 2.The ions are small (higher charge density). Melting Point and Structure

62 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–61 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –Metals often have high melting points, but there is considerable variability. –Melting points are low for Groups IA and IIA but increase as you move into the transition metals. –The elements in the middle of the transition metals have the highest melting points. Melting Point and Structure

63 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–62 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –Hardness depends on how easily structural units can be moved relative to one another. –Molecular solids with weak intermolecular attractions are rather soft compared with ionic compounds, where forces are much stronger. Hardness and Structure

64 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–63 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –Covalent network solids are quite hard because of the rigidity of the covalent network structure. –Diamond and silicon carbide (SiC), three- dimensional covalent network solids, are among the hardest substances known. Hardness and Structure

65 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–64 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –Molecular and ionic crystals are generally brittle because they fracture easily along crystal planes. –Metallic solids, by contrast, are malleable. Hardness and Structure

66 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–65 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –Molecular and ionic solids are generally considered nonconductors. –Ionic compounds conduct in their molten state, as ions are then free to move. –Metals are all considered conductors. (How a liquid crystal works) Electrical Conductivity and Structure

67 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–66 Physical Properties Many physical properties of a solid can be attributed to its structure. –Of the covalent network solids, only graphite conducts electricity. –This is due to the delocalization of the resonant  electrons in graphite’s sp 2 hybridization. Electrical Conductivity and Structure

68 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–67 Crystalline Solids; Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells Solids can be crystalline or amorphous. –A crystalline solid is composed of one or more crystals; each crystal has a well-defined, ordered structure in three dimensions. Examples include sodium chloride and sucrose. –An amorphous solid has a disordered structure. It lacks the well-defined arrangement of basic units found in a crystal. Glass is an amorphous solid.

69 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–68 Crystal Lattices A crystal lattice is the geometric arrangement of lattice points in a crystal. –A unit cell is the smallest boxlike unit from which you can construct a crystal by stacking the units in three dimensions (see Figure 11.29).(see Figure 11.29). –There are seven basic shapes possible for unit cells, which give rise to seven crystal systems used to classify crystals (see Figure 11.31 and Table 11.6).(see Figure 11.31 Table 11.6).

70 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–69 Crystal Lattices A crystal lattice is the geometric arrangement of lattice points in a crystal. –These seven systems can have more than one possible crystal lattice. –A “primitive” lattice has lattice points only at the corners of each cell.

71 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–70 Crystal Lattices A crystal lattice is the geometric arrangement of lattice points in a crystal. –Other lattices in the same crystal may have lattice points on the “faces” of the unit cell. –Following is a description of the cubic crystal system.

72 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–71 Cubic Unit Cells –A simple cubic unit cell is a cubic cell in which the lattice points are situated only at the corners (see Figure 11.30).(see Figure 11.30). –A body-centered cubic unit cell is one in which there is a lattice point in the center of the cell as well as at the corners. –A face-centered cubic unit cell is one in which there are lattice points at the center of each face of the cell as well as at the corners, (see Figures 11.32 and 11.33).(see Figures 11.3211.33).

73 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–72 Crystal Defects There are principally two kinds of defects that occur in crystalline substances. –Chemical impurities, such as in rubies, where the crystal is mainly aluminum oxide with an occasional Al 3+ ion replaced with Cr 3+, which gives a red color. –Defects in the formation of the lattice. Crystal planes may be misaligned, or sites in the crystal lattice may remain vacant.

74 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–73 Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions X-ray diffraction is a method for determining the structure and dimensions of a unit cell in a crystalline compound. –Once the dimensions and structure are known, the volume and mass of a single atom in the crystal can be calculated. –The determination of the mass of a single atom gave us one of the first accurate determinations of Avogadro’s number.

75 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–74 Determination of Crystal Lattice by X-Ray Diffraction When x-rays are reflected from the planes of a crystal, they show a diffraction pattern that can be recorded on photographic film. –Analysis of these diffraction patterns allows the determination of the positions of the atoms in the unit cell of the solid. –The following figures illustrate how the diffraction of the x-rays occurs.

76 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–75 Figure 11.50: Automated X-ray Diffractomet er (cont'd) Source: Courtesy of Bruker Analytical X-Ray Systems, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA

77 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–76 Figure 11.48: Wave Interference

78 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–77 Figure 11.49: Diffraction of X-rays From Crystal Planes

79 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–78 Figure 11.50: Automated X- ray Diffractometer

80 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–79 Figure 11.47: A Crystal Diffraction Pattern Source: From Preston, Proceedings of the Royal Society, A, Volume 172, plate 4, figure 5A.

81 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–80

82 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–81 Figure 11.4: Measurement of the vapor pressure of water.

83 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–82 Figure 11.7: Variation of vapor pressure with temperature.

84 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–83 Figure 11.9: Heating curve for water.

85 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–84 Figure 11.11: Phase diagram for water (not to scale).

86 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–85 Figure 11.12: Phase diagrams for carbon dioxide and sulfur (not to scale).

87 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–86 Figure 11.13: Observing the critical phenomenon.

88 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–87 Figure 11.16: Explaining Surface Tension

89 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–88 Figure 11.18: Demonstration of Surface Tension of Water

90 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–89 Figure 11.20: Comparison of the viscosities of two liquids. Photo courtesy of James Scherer.

91 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–90 Figure 11.24: Boiling point versus molecular weight for hydrides.

92 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–91 Figure 11.27: Structures of diamond and graphite.

93 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–92 Figure 11.29: A two-dimensional pattern.

94 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–93 Figure 11.31: Unit-cell shapes of the different crystal systems.

95 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–94

96 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–95 Figure 11.30: Crystal structure and crystal lattice of copper.

97 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–96 Figure 11.32: Cubic unit cells.

98 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–97 Figure 11.33: Space-filling representation of cubic unit cells.

99 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–98 Figure 11.47: A crystal diffraction pattern. From Preston, Proceedings of the Royal Society, A, Volume 172, plate 4, figure 5A

100 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–99

101 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–100 Figure 11.3: Sublimation of Iodine Source: Photo by James Scherer. ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

102 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–101 Figure 11.3: Sublimation of Iodine (cont'd) Source: Photo by James Scherer. ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

103 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–102 Figure 11.3: Sublimation of Iodine (cont'd)

104 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–103 Figure 11.21: Alignment of Polar Molecules of HCl

105 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–104

106 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–105 Figure 11.36: A Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD)

107 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–106 Figure 11.37: How the Liquid-Crystal Display Works

108 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–107 Figure 11.38: Closest Packing of Spheres

109 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–108 Figure 11.39: The Cubic Close-Packed Structure Has a Face-Centered Cubic Lattice

110 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation of Lecture Outlines, 11–109 Figure 11.40: Crystal Structure of Metals


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