Presentation on theme: "Parenting and Self-Regulation: Keys To Understanding Children’s Emotionality Kimberly L. Day, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
Parenting and Self-Regulation: Keys To Understanding Children’s Emotionality Kimberly L. Day, Ph.D.
Importance of Self-Regulation Includes motivational, cognitive, affective, and behavioral components Two types of self-regulation Emotion regulation Private speech
Emotion Regulation Strategies and emotionality Distraction and self-comforting Conflicting findings Shift from external to internal regulation cuddlebugs.onslow.org
Private Speech More common in cognitively-taxing tasks Improved cognitive abilities Aid in task completion Encourage in classrooms www.hlntv.com
Negative Emotionality At risk for negative outcomes Externalizing behaviors Poorer social skills Lower peer status blog.southeastpsych.com www.piz18.com
Theoretical Basis Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Modelling Reinforcement Observational learning Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Developmental level Scaffolding Private speech Internalization
Overview Studies 1. Relation of private speech to emotion regulation and emotionality 2. Parenting related to children’s private speech 3. Self-regulation predicting parenting and children’s emotionality Future directions
Private speech – Speech directed to the self Typically investigated during cognitive tasks Language One of the most important cognitive components of emotion regulation Gives children the ability to describe their feelings Therefore, children’s private speech should be related to their emotion regulation
Research Questions 1. Does children’s private speech predict children’s negative emotionality above and beyond children’s emotion regulation strategies? Hypothesis 1: Children’s private speech would be a unique predictor of their negative emotionality above and beyond their regulation strategies. Hypothesis 2: Children who used more beneficial private speech were expected to display less anger and sadness. Hypothesis 3: Children who used more non-beneficial private speech and social speech were expected to display more anger and sadness.
Research Questions 2. Does children’s private speech moderate the association between children’s emotion regulation strategies and their negative emotionality? Hypothesis: Expected that children with more beneficial private speech and more emotion regulation strategies would have less negative emotion.
Sample 116 preschoolers 4.5 to 6 years old 62 boys, 54 girls Predominately white, middle-class
Measures Beneficial private speech Inaudible muttering (27%) Facilitative task-relevant (86%) “First I’m gonna start off with this one.” “This must be the key.” “Does that fit?” “I get to play with the toys after I find the key.”
Measures Non-beneficial private speech Vocalizations (98%) “Uhh,” “Bo do do,” Ohumph” Task-irrelevant (3%) “We need to get to the bowling alley” Negatively valenced task-relevant (48%) “I can’t do this,” “I’m never going to get this,” “I can’t get it”
Measures Social speech (95%) “Mommy, how do you work it, I don’t know.” “Mommy, can you help me put it in?” “Will somebody help me?”
Regression Analyses Predicting Anger from Regulation Strategies and Speech Anger βR2R2 ∆R2∆R2 1. Age-.09.00 2. Distraction-.38**.20.20** Self-Comforting-.11 3. Social speech.13.32.12* Vocalizations.30** Inaudible muttering-.04 Negatively valenced task-relevant.25* Facilitative task-relevant-.19* 4. Negatively valenced x Distraction.18*.35.03* F for model6.29** *p <.05, **p ≤.001
Relation of Distraction to Child Anger at Three Levels of Negatively Valenced Task-Relevant Private Speech *p <.01
Regression Analyses Predicting Sadness from Regulation Strategies and Speech Sadness βR2R2 ∆R2∆R2 1. Age.23*.04.04* 2. Distraction.03.05.01 Self-Comforting.15 3. Social speech.25*.19.14* Vocalizations.16 Inaudible muttering-.10 Negatively valenced task-relevant.29* Facilitative task-relevant-.16 4. Vocalizations x Self-Comforting-.22*.23.04* F for model 3.57** *p <.05, **p ≤.001
Relation of Distraction to Child Sadness at Three Levels of Vocalizations
Conclusions from Study 1 Private speech occurred during an emotion- eliciting task Private speech predicted negative emotions above and beyond emotion regulation strategies Implications for caregivers and educators: Cognitive tasks can be frustrating Private speech should be encouraged because it aids cognitive and emotional self-regulation Can re-direct children when they are using less beneficial private speech
Limited research on how parenting behaviors relate to children’s private speech Importance of parenting for children learning to self-regulate Need to incorporate positive and negative parenting behaviors
Research Question 1. How do maternal behaviors in toddlerhood predict children’s beneficial private speech in preschool? Hypothesis: Maternal supportive and directive behaviors would interact to predict children’s beneficial private speech.
Sample Longitudinal mother-child study Toddlerhood (T1) Visit 140 toddlers 30 to 36 months old 88 boys, 52 girls Preschool (T2) Visit 116 preschoolers 4.5 to 6 years old 62 boys, 54 girls
Regression Analysis Predicting Preschoolers’ Beneficial Private Speech from Maternal Behaviors in Toddlerhood T2 Beneficial Private Speech βR2R2 ∆R2∆R2 1.Age.19*.05.05* 2. T1 Maternal directiveness-.15.06.01 T1 Maternal suppportiveness.00 3. T1 Maternal directiveness x supportiveness -.22*.10.04* F for model 3.21* *p <.05
Relation of Directiveness to Beneficial Private Speech at Three Levels of Support *p <.05
Conclusions from Study 2 Maternal behavior in toddlerhood predicted preschoolers’ later self-regulation Important to take both sensitive and directive parenting into consideration Implications for caregivers and educators: Being overly involved can inhibit children’s future regulatory skills Need to scaffold children’s regulatory abilities Balance of moderate supportive and directive behaviors may be best
Relation of Effortful Control on Negative Emotionality at Three Levels of Non-Beneficial Private Speech
Conclusions from Study 3 Effortful control mediated the relation of parental emotion coaching to negative emotionality Significance of non-beneficial private speech Replicated finding that children’s private speech moderates the relations of emotion regulation to negative emotion Implications for caregivers and educators: Cognitive and emotional abilities work together Important to support children’s negative emotions Assist children using non-beneficial forms of private speech