Presentation on theme: "Household registration status and disadvantaged migrant children in the big city Hoang Kim Dzung Center for Community Health and Ecology Environment"— Presentation transcript:
Household registration status and disadvantaged migrant children in the big city Hoang Kim Dzung Center for Community Health and Ecology Environment Nguyen Dinh Thiet Commissions for Population Family and Children in Vietnam
Contents 1.Introduction 2.Research questions 3.Aims of study 4.Definition 5.Methodology 6.Findings 7.Conclusions 8.Recommendations
1. Introduction Actually urbanization involves a flows of migration to the big cities and newly industrial zones. A lot of children accompany their parents to migrate to the cities. Some of these children became street children (VCPFC 2002). If these children are not educated and managed, they may cause a lot of problems for society or probably get risks to be vulnerable. No research studies on the children who follow their parents to migrate the cities at begining of 2005.
2. Research questions 1.What are the living condition of these children in the cities? 2.Do family and society meet needs and rights of these children? Children to day, the world tomorrow
3. Aim of research study To understand the living conditions of the children in free migrant families to the big cities, and then recommend solutions to protect the rights of this children group
4. Definitions Household registration: “formal residents” (every person in a household has to be informed their name, age, gender, occupation, relations with head of household in a household book, including new born children) Temporary residents: only for people over ages 15 Long term registration Short term registration
5.1 Indicators Based on the basic principles of Convention on the Rights of the Child: Informal and formal education enrolment Health services utilization The responsibilities of parents Rest and relaxation, and play Violence, exploitation and abuse Voluntary or non voluntary working Economic well-being
5.2 Quantitative method Individual questionnaire: 360 children aged 10 to 15 years old who follow their parents to migrate to the city during 1995 and Select participants by snow ball technique
5.3 Qualitative method In depth interview: The parents of children under 10 year old, Local teachers, Community officials. Observed accommodation 2 focus group discussions of the community leaders and officials. A seminar disseminated primary findings with the officials who relate population management in Ho Chi Minh City.
5.4 Investigated places Selected two wards in two districts where population is the most mobile in Ho Chi Minh City. (2005) Ward No 12 of Govap district: –Formal registered population: persons –In fact population: about persons Binh Tri Dong ward of Binh Tan district: –Formal registered population: persona –In fact population: persons
6.2 Registration status of child families Status of registration % No registration6.7 Temporary registration62.5 Household registration3.9 Others0.8 Do not know26.1 Total respondents100.0
6.3 Conditions for household registry In the past it was difficult to get household registration in the cities. But it is easier now. One of the main conditions: (for long term residents) Be a formal owner of house/flat (Legal approval ), or The owners/landlords have to guarantee for his/her residents to rent house in long term. In fact, poor and temporary migrants are not able to own house (expensive), and no owners/landlords guarantee for their long term rents (security reasons)
6.4 Education status
6.5 Reasons of school dropping out Public school enrolment was a priority for children who are household registration status, then those in long term temporary registration, after short term migrants. Normaly children in short term migrants family had to attend private school or stay at home, there is very limited place in public school. Children older than enrolment ages can not enrol public school (it is results from moving their families). (For example enrolment age is 5, but chid age at 8 can not attend public school). Lost birth certificates when family moving. Lack of pre-school lead older child have to look after the younger child at home.
6.6 Access to health services Half of children reported that their parents have to buy drug for their self treatment when they got sick, because their parents could not afford doctor Parents were reluctant to access community health services, because they thought that they had not any right to use public services.
6.7 Using public health services Free health insurance for children under 5 year old from government were delivered by household registration, it is available in the original home of registration. But they can not use it in new residences. There were a health examination ward with free of charge for poor families in the city, but none of these parents knew about this ward.
6.8 Working by children
6.9 Self isolation by parents Most of parents are temporary workers, feeling inferiority complex They live in small groups which they were the same situation, living condition and jobs Do not take part in the community activities. They think they have no right, due to their temporary registration status
6.10 Public policies and services Infrastructure, housing, public services, transportation were overloading. But access social services and welfare policies are based on household registration status. Migrant management focused on the adult population only, unknown numbers of children under15 year old.
6.11 Desire of the children
7 Conclusions Since population is managed by household and temporary registration, a huge number of children from free and poor migrants under 15 years old are not managed and protected their rights and their benefits in the new residents. Household registration status creates a big gap between the local and migrant children in being able to access public services such as school and health care services.
8. Recommendation –Find other ways to manage population rather than household registration –Do not rely on household registration to solve the social welfare policies. –Set up migrant services and networks to provide information, legal support, administrative assistance with school enrolment, health care, and other related child rights issues for parents. –Needs more research studies on this target –(Resident law is changed from 1 July 2007)