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U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P.- 2006 1 CHILDREN UNDER PROTECTION: GUIDELINES TO A NEW CITIZENSHIP.

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Presentation on theme: "U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P.- 2006 1 CHILDREN UNDER PROTECTION: GUIDELINES TO A NEW CITIZENSHIP."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P CHILDREN UNDER PROTECTION: GUIDELINES TO A NEW CITIZENSHIP

2 2 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P CITIZENSHIP CONCEPT It makes sense to talk about a “ new citizenship”? It makes sense to talk about a “ new citizenship”? Citizenship is an old concept: Citizenship is an old concept: - The juridical condition that allow each person to exercise his rights, accomplish his obligations and participate at public tasks of the country - The juridical condition that allow each person to exercise his rights, accomplish his obligations and participate at public tasks of the country ( Derechos Humanos, H. Valencia Villa, 2003) ( Derechos Humanos, H. Valencia Villa, 2003) Citizenship is a new concept - looking at the concept at the point of view of the child: Citizenship is a new concept - looking at the concept at the point of view of the child: – To be active and participant, to have place and voice – To be active and participant, to have place and voice

3 3 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P CHILDREN CITIZENSHIP REINFORCED LEGAL SUPPORTS (I) United Nations Bill (1945) United Nations Bill (1945) UN Universal Human Rights Declaration ( 1948) UN Universal Human Rights Declaration ( 1948) Declaration on Protection at Emergency Situations and Armed Conflicts of the Women and Children (1974) Declaration on Protection at Emergency Situations and Armed Conflicts of the Women and Children (1974) Minimal UN Rules to Youngsters Justice Administration (1985)- Beijing Rules Minimal UN Rules to Youngsters Justice Administration (1985)- Beijing Rules Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

4 4 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P LEGAL SUPPORTS (II) Regional : - European Council Resolution (R) (1987) - UE Bill Fundamental Rights (2000) Outside United Nations : - Den Haag Conference of International Private Rights Civil Dimensions of International Abduction Children ( 1980) Civil Dimensions of International Abduction Children ( 1980) - Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation on International Adoption (1993)

5 5 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDREN Characteristics: Characteristics: - Reinforce the United Nations principles; - Improve specifically those treaties and proclamations that accomplish relevant human rights; - Remember the need to specific protection and care because the child's own vulnerability; - Improve primary care and family responsibility; - Reinforce the legal protection before and after the birth of the child; - Increase the values of child's cultural community; - Push international cooperation concerning the children rights accomplishment

6 6 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDREN Protection of Specific Situations: Protection of Specific Situations: - Armed conflicts. - Struggled family situations. - Abandonment. - Disappearance. - National and international adoption. - Abused children. - Youngsters delinquency. - Child work. - Sexual exploitation.

7 7 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P WHAT RIGHTS TO RESPECT ? * Civil and Political Rights - Name and nationality /Freedom to speak and to associate/Protection against torture and abuse/Do not be separated from their parents against their will. * Economical Rights - Social Security benefits/ Compatibility with life patterns for a balanced development. * Social Rights - Access to the highest standards of health and medical services/ Specific resources adequate to handicapped children/ Protection against sexual exploitation/ Adoption rules. * Cultural Rights - Education/Access to adequate information/ Access to leisure and recreation/ Participation in artistic and cultural activities

8 8 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P REBUILDING THE PROTECTION CONCEPT, which adopts an integrated rapprochement to children human rights by recognizing that their full fulfillment, implies the carrying out, social, cultural, economical and civil rights and the establishment of a balance between children rights and those of their educators, allowing the children to participate in their own decisions, following a global perspective of responsibility and solidarity, it means, consider young persons as social actors. Convention on the Rights of the Children, which adopts an integrated rapprochement to children human rights by recognizing that their full fulfillment, implies the carrying out, social, cultural, economical and civil rights and the establishment of a balance between children rights and those of their educators, allowing the children to participate in their own decisions, following a global perspective of responsibility and solidarity, it means, consider young persons as social actors. ( Portuguese Protection Children and Youngsters Law 265/VII – 04/99) ( Portuguese Protection Children and Youngsters Law 265/VII – 04/99)

9 9 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P CHILDREN HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION - PORTUGAL - Adversity and social risk ( negligence and abuse) - Lack of affective links (low responsibility by the parents or educators concerning normal models and educational expectations) - Parental models (authoritarian and permissive)

10 10 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P PORTUGUESE DATA children in danger/risk. Situations are identified at urgency hospital services/schools/among the local community. Lack of coordination at official services. Situations are silenced. (family secrets, medical ethics, fear of law punishment) Families of risk are also families in risk. ( generational cycle) Violence in the Institutions.

11 11 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P WHY ARE THE FAMILIES IN RISK ? Social exclusion and poverty. Social exclusion and poverty. 28% persons live under 50% of medium national Portuguese income 28% persons live under 50% of medium national Portuguese income ( poverty rate to UE 17%). ( poverty rate to UE 17%). Poverty families concentrated at rural areas and urban towns surroundings. Poverty families concentrated at rural areas and urban towns surroundings beneficiaries of minimal income (1999) therefore 50% in active age beneficiaries of minimal income (1999) therefore 50% in active age ( unemployment rate at % ) ( unemployment rate at % )

12 12 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P SOCIAL EXCLUSION VULNERABILIZATION PROCESSES Lacunar and sub-financed welfare state Lacunar and sub-financed welfare state “ Providence Society” – in a destructing process “ Providence Society” – in a destructing process DEVELOPMENT MODEL - Patterns of national economy in internationl economic relationships. - Competitive strategies of the firms (eventually based n low wages). - Extension and perverseness of informal economy ( even at the core of formal economic activities). - Regressive metamorphosis and deregulation of capital-labour relations. - Technical change without organization innovation. - Union movement decline. Context: Crisis of the social integration mechanisms with work Context: Crisis of the social integration mechanisms with work

13 13 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P SOCIAL EXCLUSION VULNERABILIZATION PROCESSES (cont.) DEVELOPMENT MODEL (cont.) - Uneven spatial – demographic movements. - Urban and suburban congestion. - Rural depopulation. - Non integrated massive immigration. - Demographic recomposition (ageing, single parents families, unipersonal - households…) - Mal – adjustments in sexual roles. Context: crisis of the social integration mechanisms associated with family and local communities - Dysfunctions and contradictions in the triangle school system/professional training/employment system (premature exit from the school, “occupational” training, diploma disease, qualified underemployment and unemployment). Context : crisis of the social integration mechanisms with the Context : crisis of the social integration mechanisms with the school system. school system.

14 14 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P SOCIAL EXCLUSION VULNERABILIZATION PROCESSES POLITICAL – IDEOLOGICAL CONTEXT - Individualism ” success” mythologies. - Individualism ” success” mythologies. - Loss of collective responsibility, sensitivity. - Loss of collective responsibility, sensitivity. - Blazed construction of social exclusion by the media (stigmatization of social groups and places; silent and silenced exclusions). - Blazed construction of social exclusion by the media (stigmatization of social groups and places; silent and silenced exclusions). ideological critics and evaluation of suffering. Context : ideological critics and evaluation of suffering. - Confidence crisis on political parties and democracy civic energies “ cooling off ”. - Confidence crisis on political parties and democracy civic energies “ cooling off ”. Context : effective regression of counter powers. Context : effective regression of counter powers. - Economic policies centered in short - term financial targets. - Economic policies centered in short - term financial targets. - Political indifference with regard to long run social – economic costs. - Political indifference with regard to long run social – economic costs. Context: privilege of market logics over other social logics. Context: privilege of market logics over other social logics. (Pinto, J. Madureira, 1999) (Pinto, J. Madureira, 1999)

15 15 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P SOCIAL ACTION – ANSWERS TO CHILDREN AT RISK ( Ministry for Labour and Social Solidarity) ( Ministry for Labour and Social Solidarity) * Social Services - Emergency Telephone Lines - Emergency Foster Care - Temporary Foster Care Center - Adoption - Foster Care - Early Technical Support - Home for Children and Youngsters ( Foster Homes - Project L-A-R-) * Support Programmes - Program TO BE A CHILD - Commissions for the Protection of Children and Youngsters - District Attorney's Office - The National Commission for the Protection of Children and Youngsters (POEFDS 2006) (POEFDS 2006)

16 16 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P A PROJECT AT FOSTER HOMES Sheltering and Inclusion Spaces (L.A.R.) The Large Institution – CASA PIA de LISBOA The Large Institution – CASA PIA de LISBOA * Historical dimensions ( sec XVIII– sec XX) Laboratory of innovator pedagogies. Laboratory of innovator pedagogies. Delinquency rehabilitation through education. Delinquency rehabilitation through education. Professional training. Professional training. Social inclusion methodologies. Social inclusion methodologies. * A Services and Benefits Network (sec XXI) Improving alternative answers after identification of abused cases near institution users – prevention strategies. Improving alternative answers after identification of abused cases near institution users – prevention strategies.

17 17 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P SHELTERING AND SOCIAL INTERVENTION MEANS AT CASA PIA DE LISBOA USERS ( Us) : USERS ( Us) : Total 4271 (children, youngsters, adults/ migrant families) Total 4271 (children, youngsters, adults/ migrant families) In Foster Homes – 454 (Us) In Foster Homes – 454 (Us) In Social Sheltering (at basic school/professional training/leisure/arts- ateliers) In Social Sheltering (at basic school/professional training/leisure/arts- ateliers) In Specific Social Intervention – 234 (migrant families, scholarships users; blind-deaf children/ adults; In Specific Social Intervention – 234 (migrant families, scholarships users; blind-deaf children/ adults;

18 18 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P PROJECT L.A.R. USERS : (about 160 children at 10 foster homes) USERS : (about 160 children at 10 foster homes) Children and Youngsters between 5 and 20 years old without competent families Children and Youngsters between 5 and 20 years old without competent families Living at foster – homes at Lisboa or surroundings ( flats or homes ) Living at foster – homes at Lisboa or surroundings ( flats or homes ) Studying at Casa Pia de Lisboa schools or at local schools Studying at Casa Pia de Lisboa schools or at local schools Integration in active life (getting a job) Integration in active life (getting a job) HUMAN RESSOURCES: HUMAN RESSOURCES: 3-5 Educators (to each foster home) 3-5 Educators (to each foster home) 1 Housekeeper ( to each foster home) 1 Housekeeper ( to each foster home) 1 Psychologist ( to 3 foster homes) 1 Psychologist ( to 3 foster homes) 1 Social Worker ( to 3 foster homes) 1 Social Worker ( to 3 foster homes) ADMINISTRATION: ( Dependent on CASA PIA de LISBOA Director) ADMINISTRATION: ( Dependent on CASA PIA de LISBOA Director) 1 Director of the Responsible Service of 10 foster homes 1 Director of the Responsible Service of 10 foster homes 2 Director Assessors 2 Director Assessors 1 Project Technical Coordinator 1 Project Technical Coordinator

19 19 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT L.A.R. Following the Portuguese Children Protection Laws principles: - Families engagement; - Community engagement; - Parental responsibility; - Family prevalence; - Subsidiary principle near the families. Priority to family-children links, exploring the family capacities concerning their rehabilitation and bringing dynamics to community responsibility - Looking for consensus. Priority to family-children links, exploring the family capacities concerning their rehabilitation and bringing dynamics to community responsibility - Looking for consensus.

20 20 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P LEGAL SUPPORTS OF PROJECT L.A.R. Portuguese Laws: - Tutelary Educational Law (166/ September) - Protection Children and Youngsters Law (147/ September) UN Document: - Convention on the Rights of the Child (ratified in Portugal in 1999 with positive impact near the child protection system) Main articles adopted on the Project L.A.R. : Main articles adopted on the Project L.A.R. : Do not be separated from their parents against their will (art. 9); Do not be separated from their parents against their will (art. 9); To express their own views and have them heard (art 12); To express their own views and have them heard (art 12); To be protected so no one can interfere with their privacy, family or home (art 16); To be protected so no one can interfere with their privacy, family or home (art 16); To have benefit from social security (art 26); To have benefit from social security (art 26); Do not be subjected to torture, capital punishment or deprivation of liberty (art 37); Do not be subjected to torture, capital punishment or deprivation of liberty (art 37); To use the numerous rights in regard to the administration of justice and the criminal procedure (art 40). To use the numerous rights in regard to the administration of justice and the criminal procedure (art 40).

21 21 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P PROJECT L.A.R. STRATEGIES - Stimulating channels of communication with children/families; - Engagement and responsibility of families in personal projects of their children; - Engagement of the residential community in the children development in a responsible and compromising way near local authorities; - Bring foster homes to accessible districts and in adequate buildings; - To reduce the number of residents per foster home (10 -12); - To reduce the time of permanence at foster homes; - Priority to a psychosocial model of intervention.

22 22 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P INTERVENTION METHODOLOGY MODEL : Individual rapprochement Individual rapprochement Systemic intervention Systemic interventionSTEPS: Detailed diagnosis ( risk factors, type of maltreatment, damages, competences) Detailed diagnosis ( risk factors, type of maltreatment, damages, competences) Prognostic (further deadline to leave foster home) Prognostic (further deadline to leave foster home) Definition of intervention aims Definition of intervention aims Identification and formal compromise with the partners at process child education Identification and formal compromise with the partners at process child education Design of the main steps of educational process ( sheltering, personal projects development, family rapprochement and return to local community) Design of the main steps of educational process ( sheltering, personal projects development, family rapprochement and return to local community)SKILLS: Promotion and Protection Project ( as Portuguese Child Law requests) Promotion and Protection Project ( as Portuguese Child Law requests) Personal Life Project Personal Life Project

23 23 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P FINAL RECOMMENDATION * Flexibility at the Intervention - It means to create conditions to identify and to apply adequate strategies concerning each family characteristics, often troubled families, therefore loving and being loved by the children. - It means to create conditions to identify and to apply adequate strategies concerning each family characteristics, often troubled families, therefore loving and being loved by the children. * Identifying needs before rights - The needs belong to each person and rights to all people (J.Galtung,1998). - The needs belong to each person and rights to all people (J.Galtung,1998). - It means that the first step must be to identify the needs because only each person is the agent and the object of his own needs and satisfaction - concerning either families or children. - It means that the first step must be to identify the needs because only each person is the agent and the object of his own needs and satisfaction - concerning either families or children.

24 24 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P QUESTIONS 1. What do you think about the improvements that the Portuguese innovating project, can bring to the children human rights that are living at foster homes? 1. What do you think about the improvements that the Portuguese innovating project, can bring to the children human rights that are living at foster homes? 2. Can you imagine any risks of such methodology, concerning the further social inclusion of children at their families and local community ? 2. Can you imagine any risks of such methodology, concerning the further social inclusion of children at their families and local community ? 3. Tell us about your countries alternative experiences, with the families of children at foster homes, in view to improve the educational role of those families. 3. Tell us about your countries alternative experiences, with the families of children at foster homes, in view to improve the educational role of those families. 4. Can you imagine some indicators / evaluation, to this project, that could challenge families and children new national policies? 4. Can you imagine some indicators / evaluation, to this project, that could challenge families and children new national policies?

25 25 U.C.P. - Lisboa SOCRATES I.P References - Casa Pia de Lisboa (2005), Concretizar um Projecto de Esperança, Lisboa: Casa Pia de Lisboa. - Casa Pia de Lisboa (2005), Equipa de Admissões em Internato – Recolha de Dados – ano 2004, Lisboa: DSEEAS. - Casa Pia de Lisboa (Nov. 2005), População e Utentes da Casa Pia de Lisboa – Ano Lectivo 2005/2006, Lisboa: DSEEAS – NEP. - Casa Pia de Lisboa (2005), Um Lugar para Acolher e Reintegrar – Projecto L.A.R., Lisboa: Colégio de Santa Catarina – Casa Pia de Lisboa. - Castel, R. et al. (1996), Desigualdade e a Questão Social, S. Paulo : EDUC. - Chambon, A.S. and Irving, A. – org.(1994), Essays on Postmodernism and Social Work; Toronto: Canadian Scholar`s Press. - Conselho Técnico Científico da Casa Pia de Lisboa (2005), Casa Pia de Lisboa. Um Projecto de Esperança, Cascais: Principia. - Del Valle, J.F. (1998),Manual de Programación y Evaluación para los Centrosde Protección de la Infancia, Salamanca: Junta de Castilla Y Léon. - Galtung, J. (1998), Direitos Humanos. Uma Nova Perspectiva, Lisboa: Piaget. - Guiddens, A. (1998), As Consequências da Modernidade, Oeiras: Celta. - Habermas, J. (1987), The philosophical discourse of modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press. - Lei de Protecção de Crianças e Jovens (Lei nº 147/99 de 1 Setembro). - Lei Tutelar Educativa (Lei nº 166/99 de 14 Setembro). - Pinto, J. M. (1999), Indicadores de Vulnerabilidade Social – Seminário 10 Maio, Porto: CCRN. - Powell. F. (2001),The Politics of Social Work, London: Sage. - União Europeia (2005), O Parlamento Europeu e Constituição Europeia, Luxemburgo: Parlamento Europeu - United Nations (1989), Convention on the Rights of the Child. - Villa, H. V.(2003), Derechos Humanos; Madrid: Espasa. - Wall, K. 2005),.Famílias em Portugal, Lisboa: ICS.

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