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1 This ppt is complementary from the Author from his new text book
FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL, SOCIAL, AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN, SIXTH EDITION, © 2014 AND RESOURCE GUIDE TO ACCOMPANY ABOVE –Guide includes detailed interview protocols, questionnaires, checklists, support strategies, etc. ISBN: Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

2 ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOURAL, SOCIAL, AND CLINICAL FUNCTIONING
The Psychological Society Of Ireland & School of Psychology Trinity College Dublin May 9, 2014 JEROME M. SATTLER Copyright © 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

3 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

4 How Am I Going to Score These?
Question: Before we start, what is your name and address? Answer: Question: What is your date of birth? Answer: July fifteenth Question (follow up): What year? Answer: Every year. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

5 How Am I Going to Score These?
Question: What are 12, 14, and 16? Answer: That’s easy; MTV, Fox, and Cartoon network. Question: What is celebrated on Thanksgiving Day? Answer: My cousin’s birthday. Question: What is the capital of Greece? Answer: G. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

6 How Am I Going to Score These?
Question: What are the four seasons? Answer: Baseball, football, basketball, and hockey. Question: What are four other seasons? Answer: Mustard, ketchup, salt, and pepper. Question: In what way are an orange and a pear alike? Answer: Both give me hives. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

7 How Am I Going to Score These?
Question: If I cut a pear in thirds, how many pieces will I have? Answer: One. Question: (Testing-of-limits) Are you sure I will have only one piece? Answer: Yes, and I will have the other two pieces. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

8 How Am I Going to Score These?
Question: What does imitate mean? Answer: What does imitate mean? Question: What would you do if you were lost in the woods? Answer: I’d use my cell phone, pager, or my global positioning satellite device. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

9 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
INTERVIEW [1] Q: Give the meaning of term “Caesarian Section.” A: The caesarian section is a district in Rome. Q: What is a terminal illness? A: When you are sick at the airport.  Q: What does the word “benign” mean? A: Benign is what you will be after you be eight. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

10 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
INTERVIEW [2] Q: Give three geological names for rocks. A: Classic rock, hard rock, and acid rock, and I also know fourth one, soft rock. Q: What does “varicose” mean? A: Nearby Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

11 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
INTERVIEW [3] Q: What is water composed of” A: Two gins—Oxygin and hydrogin. Oxygin is pure gin, while hydrogen is gin and water. Q: What does “centimeter” mean? A: A long insect with 100 feet. Q: Complete this proverb: “Where there is smoke, there is ” A: Pollution Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

12 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Video Link Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevention PSA Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

13 Special Education in Ireland [1]
“Special educational needs” means a restriction in the capacity of a person to participate in and benefit from education on account of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health or learning disability, or any other condition which results in a person learning differently from a person without that condition. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

14 Special Education in Ireland [2]
Source: Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs Act 2004 (http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/pdf/2004/en.act pdf) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

15 Stability of Personality Traits [1]
Design of Study 2,404 elementary school students were rated by their teachers 40 years later 144 of the original group were rated again as adults Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

16 Stability of Personality Traits [2]
Findings High Verbal Fluency As children rated as verbally fluent (talkative) As adults were interested in intellectual matters spoke fluently tried to control situations exhibited a high degree of intelligence Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

17 Stability of Personality Traits [3]
Findings Low Verbal Fluency As children rated low in verbal fluency As adults sought advice gave up when faced with obstacles exhibited an awkward interpersonal style Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

18 Stability of Personality Traits [4]
Findings High Adaptability As children rated as highly adaptable As adults behaved cheerfully spoke fluently showed interest in intellectual matters Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

19 Stability of Personality Traits [5]
Findings Low Adaptability As children rated low in adaptability As adults said negative things about themselves sought advice exhibited an awkward interpersonal style Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

20 Stability of Personality Traits [6]
Findings High Impulsivity Children rated as impulsive spoke loudly displayed a wide range of interests were talkative as adults  Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

21 Stability of Personality Traits [7]
Findings Low Impulsivity As children rated as less impulsive As adults were fearful or timid kept others at a distance expressed insecurity Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

22 Stability of Personality Traits [8]
Findings High Self-Minimizing As children rated as self-minimizing As adults expressed guilt sought reassurance said negative things about themselves expressed insecurity Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

23 Stability of Personality Traits [9]
Findings Low Self-Minimizing As children rated low on self-minimizing As adults spoke loudly showed interest in intellectual matters exhibited condescending behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

24 Stability of Personality Traits [10]
Comment by Investigators “. . . it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that these results, along with others already in the literature, show that personality resides within people and is manifest through behavior in diverse ways across the varied settings of life. As a result, the same Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

25 Stability of Personality Traits [11]
Comment by Investigators (Cont.) individual even in two vastly different contexts separated by many years—such as his or her classroom as an elementary school student and a clinic interview room as a middle-aged adult—remains recognizably the same person” (p. 7). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

26 Stability of Personality Traits [12]
Source: Nave, C. S., Sherman, R. A., Funder, D. C., Hampson, S. E., & Goldberg, L. R. (2010). On the contextual independence of personality: Teachers’ assessments predict directly observed behavior after four decades. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(4), 327–334. doi: / Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

27 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) California Study [1]
Year 2008 Representative sample of 9,500 adults Aim of study: Effects of childhood trauma on later health problems Childhood trauma defined as experiencing Physical abuse Sexual abuse Emotional abuse Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

28 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) California Study [2]
Living in a household with mental illness substance abuse domestic violence Having separated or divorced parents Having an incarcerated parent Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

29 Findings of ACE Study [1]
61% suffered at least one ACE 25% experienced three or more ACEs Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

30 Findings of ACE Study [2]
Adults who suffered from childhood trauma (compared to those who did not suffer) were 500% more likely to suffer from depression 350% more likely to smoke tobacco 90% more likely to engage in binge drinking 63% more likely to have a heart attack 60% more likely to be obese Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

31 Findings of ACE Study [3]
Negative effects associated with income level 52% of low-income adults exposed to four or more ACEs had serious psychological distress Fewer than 25% of high-income adults with same exposure levels had similar levels of psychological distress Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

32 Findings of ACE Study [4]
Source: Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

33 Life Expectancy Tied To Education [1]
Life expectancy is 82 for individuals with more than 12 years of education Life expectancy is 75 for individuals with 12 or fewer years of education. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

34 Life Expectancy Tied To Education [2]
Possible Reasons Those with less education: Are likely to have more smoking‑related diseases, such as lung cancer and emphysema—35% of Americans with an 9th to 11th grade education smoke, while only 7% with a graduate degree smoke Are likely to have lower incomes Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

35 Life Expectancy Tied To Education [3]
Possible Reasons (Continued) Are likely to live in areas that have their own health threats, either through crime or poor housing conditions Are likely to have limited health insurance and limited access to health services Are more likely to agree with the statement: “It doesn't matter if I wear a seat belt, because if it’s my time to die, I'll die.” Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

36 Life Expectancy Tied To Education [4]
Summary and Recommendations The less affluent and less educated are also, invariably, less healthy. Disparities in health are a major challenge in the United States. Health is not a product of health care per se, but of one's life course and opportunities. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

37 Life Expectancy Tied To Education [5]
Summary and Recommendations (Cont.) The less educated must learn the following: “It does matter. Life is uncertain, but that's no reason to surrender to fate.” Fighting poverty and improving education are keys to increasing life expectancy among less‑advantaged Americans. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

38 Life Expectancy Tied To Education [6]
Summary and Recommendations (Cont.) Source: Meara, E. R., Richards, S., & Cutler, D. M. (2008). The gap gets bigger: Changes in mortality and life expectancy, by education, 1981–2000. Health Affairs, 27, 350–360. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

39 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

40 Bullying and Cyberbullying (Appendix N in Resource Guide)

41 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Video Link President Obama speaking at White House conference on bullying: Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

42 Definition of Bullying
Repeated harmful physical acts verbal acts sexual acts that threaten insult dehumanize or intimidate another individual who cannot properly defend himself or herself Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

43 Definition of Cyberbullying
Carried out by means of an electronic device Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

44 Examples of Bullying [1]
See Table N-1 (p. 264 in RG) for examples of types of bullying Physical acts such as tripping, shoving, punching, theft, defacing property, and hazing Verbal acts such as name calling, teasing, extortion, and writing insulting graffiti Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

45 Examples of Bullying [2]
Psychological acts such as rumor spreading, humiliation, and threats of retaliation Sexual acts such as exhibitionism, voyeurism, sexual propositioning, and unwanted physical contact Electronic media acts such as cyberbullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

46 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Overview Bullying and cyberbulling are insidious problems Occur on Playgrounds Schools Neighborhoods Parks Homes Workplaces Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

47 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Effects of Bullying [1] Physical and mental health of victim of victim’s peers, family, schools, community, and society Short- and long-term psychological, academic, and physical consequences for victim perpetrator bystanders Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

48 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Effects of Bullying [2] Short-Term Effects Physical effects Behavioral effects Emotional effects See Table N-4 on p. 269 in RG Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

49 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Effects of Bullying [3] Long-Term Effects For Victims agoraphobia (the need to avoid situations that may cause panic, such as being in a public place) generalized anxiety panic disorder Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

50 Long-Term Effects (Cont.)
Effects of Bullying [4] Long-Term Effects (Cont.) For Bullies antisocial personality disorder For Bully-Victims (worst long-term effects) depression panic disorder agoraphobia (females only) suicidality (males only) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

51 Dear Colleague Letter Aug. 20, 2013 [1]
US Dept of Education Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services Melody Musgrove, Ed. D., Director, Office of Special Education Programs Michael K. Yudin, Acting Assistant Secretary Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

52 Dear Colleague Letter Aug. 20, 2013 [2]
Students with disabilities are disproportionately affected by bullying Bullying may prevent students from receiving free and appropriate education under IDEA IEP Team needs to determine whether students’ needs have changed as a result of bullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

53 Dear Colleague Letter Aug. 20, 2013 [3]
If so, what extent additional or different special education or related services are needed If students with a disability engaged in the bullying, IEP Team needs to address the inappropriate behavior IEP Team needs to study environment where bullying occurred to see if changes are warranted Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

54 Rate of Victimization Students with Disabilities in US [1]
Rate for all students between 15% to 28% Rate for students with disabilities 25% to 34% Elementary school 25% Middle school 34% High school 27% Rate is 1 to 1½ times higher than for all students Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

55 Rate of Victimization Students with Disabilities in US [2]
Highest rates for students with Emotional disturbance 39% to 52% Other health impaired 29% to 40% Highest rates for repeated victimization Autism spectrum disorder (in elementary and middle school) Orthopedic impairments (in high school) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

56 Rate of Victimization Students with Disabilities in US [3]
Source: Blake, J. J., Lund, E. M., Zhou, Q., Kwok, O., & Benz, M. R. (2012). National prevalence rates of bully victimization among students with disabilities in the United States. School Psychology Quarterly, 27(4), 210–222. doi: /spq Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

57 Cyberbullying in Ireland [1]
In 2011, survey of 18,000 students 26% of secondary school students said they or someone they knew had been bullied 22% of primary school students said that they or someone they knew had been bullied Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

58 Cyberbullying in Ireland [2]
Over 50% of the total group said that they would not tell anyone about bullying afraid that it would make the bullying worse take away their internet privileges 40% of 9-year-old children reported that they were victims of bullying only 23% reported incidents of bullying to their mothers Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

59 Cyberbullying in Ireland [3]
Source: Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

60 Cyberbullying in Ireland [4]
An Irish government report recommended that cyberbullying be made a criminal offence after several teenage suicides apparently linked to the problem Report will also propose new laws to compel all schools to introduce disciplinary codes to tackle the misuse of social media Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

61 Cyberbullying in Ireland [5]
The report published in July 2013 states that school and employer guidelines be updated to clamp down on cyberbullying Source: Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

62 Anti-Bullying Procedures in Ireland [1]
Department of Education and Skills published the Anti-Bullying Procedures for Primary and Post-Primary Schools Requires that an anti-bullying policy be part of the written code of behaviour in all schools Each school must follow these procedures when developing its anti-bullying policy Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

63 Anti-Bullying Procedures in Ireland [2]
Main elements of the procedures are similar to those contained in Appendix N (pp. 272 to 276) in the RG One principle especially important for psychologists: Policy must contain clear procedures for investigating, recording, and dealing with bullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

64 Anti-Bullying Procedures in Ireland [3]
Important publication: Anti-Bullying Procedures for Primary and Post-Primary Schools, 2013, Department of Education and Skills; also contains valuable checklists and forms, especially Template for Recording Bullying Behaviour in Appendix 3 in the publication Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

65 Anti-Bullying Procedures in Ireland [4]
Source: Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

66 Various Roles in Bullying
Bully who takes the initiative Follower who joins in Reinforcer who encourages the bully or who laughs at the victim Intervener who tries to stop the bullying Bystander who looks on but does not participate Victim who is the object of the bullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

67 Characteristics of Bullies [1]
Attempt to Control Dominate Subjugate others Through the use of power Bullies aim to disempower their victims by undermining their worth and status Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

68 Characteristics of Bullies [2]
Two key components of bullying repeated harmful acts an imbalance of power Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

69 Characteristics of Bullies [3]
Their families Less cohesive (low parent-child involvement, warmth, and affection) More conflictual (angry, hostile parent-child interactions) Less organized More disadvantaged Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

70 Characteristics of A Victim [1]
Displays vulnerability or insecurity Dresses differently and doesn’t conform to the norm Has learning, speech, or other physical or mental disabilities Has low self-esteem Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

71 Characteristics of A Victim [2]
Has physical attributes that differ from the norm Overweight Underweight Very short Very tall Has poor communication skills Has poor social skills Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

72 Characteristics of Victims [3]
Is a member of an ethnic or religious group viewed as different Is bright, talented, or gifted Is clumsy or immature Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

73 Characteristics of Victims [4]
Is or is perceived to be Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgendered Is new to the school Is nonasssertive and refuses to fight Is physically weak Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

74 Characteristics of A Victim [5]
Is annoying, provocative, or aggressive Is richer or poorer than the majority of classmates Is shy, reserved, timid, or submissive Is the smallest or youngest child in school Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

75 Children with Special Needs [1]
May also act as bullies if they: Want to protect themselves from further victimization Feel extremely anxious and have limited frustration tolerance Cannot size up a situation realistically and distinguish good-natured kidding from bullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

76 Children with Special Needs [2]
May also act as bullies if they: (Cont.) Feel they are being pushed too far or feel that their resources are exhausted Fail to realize that their “playful” behavior can hurt others Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

77 Children with Special Needs [3]
Bullying may have harmful effects on children with special needs: Limit motivation to achieve and lower their grades Interfere with their compliance with treatment regimens and use of assistive technology Increase frequency and strength of their symptoms Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

78 Poem By A Victim of Bullying [1]
No, you don’t know what it’s like When nothing feels all right You don’t know what it’s like To be like me To be hurt To feel lost To be left out in the dark To be kicked when you’re down Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

79 Poem By A Victim of Bullying [2]
To feel like you’ve been pushed around To be on the edge of breaking down And no one’s there to save you No, you don’t know what it’s like Welcome to my life ― Simple Plan (pseudonym) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

80 Bullying and Morality [1]
Bullying has been described as an immoral action because it humiliates and oppresses innocent victims (Gini, Pozzoli, & Hauser, 2011) Bullies have adequate moral competence–that is, they have knowledge of right and wrong and an understanding of moral norms Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

81 Bullying and Morality [2]
But paradoxically they do not have moral compassion–that is, emotional awareness and sensitivity about their moral infractions In fact, bullies may disregard the harmful effects of their actions and blame the victim for causing the bullying behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

82 Bullying and Morality [3]
Source: Gini, G., Pozzoli, T., & Hauser, M. (2011). Bullies have enhanced moral competence to judge relative to victims, but lack moral compassion. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(5), 603–608. doi: /j.paid Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

83 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Forms of Bullying Direct Indirect Physical violence Name calling Destruction of property Rumor spreading Isolation Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

84 Factors That May Lead to Bullying
See Table N-2 on p. 265 in RG Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

85 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Cyberbullying Cyberbullying involves using any digital technology with intent to hurt to defame to embarrass another person Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

86 Examples of Cyberbullying [1]
Bullying via mobile phones Abusive calls Text messages Picture/video clips Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

87 Examples of Cyberbullying [2]
Bullying via the Internet Abusive s Instant messages Websites Blog posts Messages on social networking See forms of cyberbullying on pp. 266 and 267 in RG Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

88 Differences Between Bullying and Cyberbulling [1]
Victim can hide from bully when at home Event is discrete and audience limited Bully is present, not anonymous, and can see suffering of victim Bully has opportunities for empathy and remorse Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

89 Differences Between Bullying and Cyberbulling [2]
Bullying (Cont.) Bystanders can intervene Bully may gain status by showing abusive power Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

90 Differences Between Bullying and Cyberbulling [3]
Cyberbullying Victim cannot hide from bully when at home Event can be continuous and audience potentially large Bully is invisible, may be anonymous, and cannot see suffering of victim Bully has few opportunities for empathy and remorse Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

91 Differences Between Bullying and Cyberbulling [4]
Cyberbullying (Cont.) Bystanders have little opportunity to intervene Bully lacks opportunity to show his or her abusive power immediately Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

92 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Cyberbullies But… Cyberbullies are not a new class of bullies—they also may engage in overt aggressive and social bullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

93 Incidence of Bullying [1]
Sound statistics difficult to obtain Victims may be reluctant to report Fearing retaliation Feeling shame at not being able to stand up for themselves Fearing they would not be believed Not wanting to worry their parents Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

94 Incidence of Bullying [2]
Victims may be reluctant to report (Cont.) Having no confidence that anything would change as a result Thinking their parents’ or teacher’s advice would make the problem worse Fearing their teacher would tell the bully who told on him or her Thinking it would be worse to be thought of as a snitch Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

95 Some Statistics About Bullying Incidents (2011) [RG pp. 271-272; 1]
19% reported having been bullied in some way in the last 12 months 12% reported having been bullied in person in the last 12 months 9% reported having been bullied via text message in the last 12 months 8% reported having been bullied online (e.g., through , a social networking site, or instant messaging) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

96 Some Statistics About Bullying Incidents (2011) [RG pp. 271-272; 2]
7% reported having been bullied by calls over the phone Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

97 Other Cyberbullying Surveys
In % of children ages 10 to 17 years harassed online majority (69%) being female 1999–2000 6% of online users were harassed Over a 10-year period, online harassment increased by about 83% Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

98 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Jamey Rodemeyer [1] On Sept. 8, 2011 Jamey Rodemeyer, a 14 year old, wrote on his website: “No one in my school cares about preventing suicide, while you're the ones calling me [gay slur] and tearing me down.” A day later he wrote: “I always say how bullied I am, but no one listens. What do I have to do so people will listen to me?" Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

99 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Jamey Rodemeyer [2] Then he posted the lyrics to a song by the Hollywood Undead: “I just wanna say good bye, disappear with no one knowing I don't wanna live this lie, smiling to the world unknowing I don’t want you to try, you've done enough to keep me going I'll be fine, I'll be fine, I'll be fine for the very last time” Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

100 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Video Link Jamey Rodemeyer Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

101 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Jamey Rodemeyer About 10 days later, on Sept. 18, 2011 Jamey Rodemeyer committed suicide. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

102 Why are Bystanders Reluctant to Report Bullying? [1]
They know that bullying is wrong but . . . Don’t want to raise the bully’s wrath and become the next target Don’t want to be thought of as a snitch and be rejected by their peers May wrongly believe that they are not responsible for stopping the bullying May think that bullying is acceptable Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

103 Why are Bystanders Reluctant to Report Bullying? [2]
May assume that school personnel don’t care enough to stop the bullying May feel guilty for not reporting the bullying May have heightened anxiety, depression, or substance abuse May become bullies themselves because they think that this is a way to become part of a group Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

104 Why do Some Bystanders Intervene?
Are victim’s friends Believe that their parents expect them to support victims Believe that it is the moral and proper thing to do Believe that their peer group supports their actions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

105 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Quotes The bully survives on your silence. —Christine Farrell Crotty Bystanders who are helpless in the presence of another student’s victimization learn passive acceptance of injustice. —Linda R. Jeffrey, DeMond Miller, and Margaret Linn Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

106 Assessment of Bullying
See Tables B-17 to B-20 in the Resource Guide (pp. 71 to 75) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

107 Helping Victims of Bullying [1]
Help them develop: Problem solving skills Conflict resolution skills Emotional regulation skills, including how to handle anxiety, depression, and anger Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

108 Helping Victims of Bullying [2]
Help them develop: (Cont.) Self-adequacy skills, including assertiveness skills and ability to say “no” or “stop that” Ability to know when to go to a safe room when under severe stress Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

109 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Helping Bullies [1] Change habitual patterns of thought and action that support bullying Develop new skills Challenge old beliefs Replace impulsive with reflective decision-making Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

110 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Helping Bullies [2] Helping children who are bullies Develop anger management skills Develop empathy skills and appreciate the harm they cause their victims Recognize that they can engage in responsible and moral behavior Give up self-justifying mechanisms, egocentric reasoning, and distortions in morality Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

111 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

112 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [1]
Designing comprehensive intervention strategies involving students, teachers, administrators, families, and communities Building bullying prevention programs based on principles of science and supported by scientifically valid evidence of effectiveness Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

113 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [2]
Applying school discipline rules, policies, and sanctions fairly and consistently Implementing policies at all levels, including primary, junior, intermediate, and high school Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

114 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [3]
Motivating students, teachers, administrators, and parents to understand that Bullying is a serious and preventable problem Antibullying programs must be given a chance to work They themselves can make a difference Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

115 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [4]
Motivating students, teachers, administrators, and parents to understand that (Cont.) Having a defender means that victims may be less likely to be bullied in the future Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

116 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [5]
Presenting strategies that are clear, relevant, and comprehensible to both teachers and students Encouraging bystanders to report bullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

117 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [6]
Partnering with law enforcement and mental health agencies to identify and address serious cases of bullying Assessing the frequency of bullying, the effectiveness of any intervention program, and making adjustments as needed (see Delaware Attorney General, n.d.; Hamburger et al., 2011; Safe School Survey, 2003) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

118 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [7]
Delaware Attorney General. (n.d.). Bully Worksheet Questionnaire. Retrieved from Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

119 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [8]
Hamburger, M. E., Basile, K. C., Vivolo, A. M. (2011). Measuring bullying victimization, perpetration, and bystander experiences: A compendium of assessment tools. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved from Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

120 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools [9]
Safe School Survey. (2003). Safe School Survey sample menu. Retrieved from https://sdfs.esc18.net/Sample_Surveys/SSM.asp Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

121 Bystander Intervention
Needs to be taught in early school grades Education needs to be continued in later school grades Accompanied by programs that encourage peer support for victims of bullying Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

122 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Video Links StopBullying.gov Webisode 11: Power in Numbers Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

123 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Parents [1] Talk often with your child, listen carefully, and note any changes in your child’s behavior Talk about what bullying and cyberbullying means. See such websites as and Remind your child that real people with real feelings are behind screen names and profiles Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

124 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Parents [2] Tell your child: To tell you when he or she is being bullied and discourage your child from bullying others To tell a member of the school staff if he or she sees a child being bullied To refuse to join in if he or she sees another child being bullied Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

125 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Parents [3] Tell your child: (Cont.) To learn about the school’s rules and sanctions about bullying and cyberbullying To post only information that he or she is comfortable with others seeing, and never to share passwords with anyone except you and another close family member Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

126 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Parents [4] Tell your child: (Cont.) To take Internet harassment seriously because it is harmful and unacceptable That you may review his or her online communications if you think there is reason for concern about his or her safety Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

127 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Teachers [1] Explain to students the difference between playfulness and bullying or cruelty Let students know that bullying is unacceptable and against school rules Tell students, whether they are victims or bystanders, to report bullying or cyberbullying immediately to a member of the school staff Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

128 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Teachers [2] Emphasize the difference between tattling and telling on someone who is bullying another student Identify and intervene upon undesirable attitudes and behaviors that could be “gateway behaviors” to bullying and cyberbullying Watch for signs of bullying and cyberbullying and stop either one immediately Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

129 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Teachers [3] Listen receptively to parents who report bullying or cyberbullying Report all incidents of bullying and cyberbullying to the school administration Always respond to requests of help from victims of bullying and make sure that they know that being bullied is not their fault Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

130 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
10 Tips for Teachers [4] Closely monitor students’ use of computers at school and become familiar with cyberbullying and its dangers Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

131 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Resources Strategies for Preventing and Dealing with Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Other Internet Issues in Resource Guide Handout K-2 for parents (pp. 177 to 184) Handout K-4 for teachers (pp. 210 to 217) Bullying Preventions Programs and Other Resources Exhibit N-2 (pp. 274 to 275) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

132 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Concluding Comment John Palfrey (2010), a professor of law at Harvard Law School, pointed out that “No one federal law will prevent tragedies from happening. Most of the time, we have the laws on the books that we need. It’s a commitment to teaching and mentoring, to being supportive and to being tough where we have to be, that can help.” Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

133 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

134 Executive Functions (EF; Appendix M, pp
Executive Functions (EF; Appendix M, pp. 246 to 262 in Resource Guide [RG]) M

135 Executive Functions [1]
Cognitive abilities responsible for complex goal-directed behavior adaptation to environmental changes and demands development of social and cognitive competence development of self-regulation of behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

136 Executive Functions [2]
EF enable individuals to modulate, control, organize, and direct cognitive activities emotional activities behavioral activities Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

137 Executive Functions [3]
EF help individuals make personal and social decisions distinguish relevant from irrelevant material follow general rules make use of existing knowledge in new situations Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

138 Executive Functions [4]
EF important for daily living academic performance work-related activities social relationships Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

139 Primary Executive Functions (RG, p. 247)[1]
Planning and goal setting: ability to plan and reason conceptually, monitor one’s actions, and set goals Organizing: ability to organize ideas and information Prioritizing: ability to focus on relevant themes and details Working memory: ability to temporarily hold and manipulate information in memory Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

140 Primary Executive Functions (RG, p. 247) [2]
Shifting: ability to alternate between different thoughts and actions, to devise alternative problem-solving strategies, and to be cognitively flexible Inhibition: ability to inhibit thoughts and actions that are inappropriate for a situation Self-regulation: ability to regulate one’s behavior and monitor one’s thoughts and actions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

141 Developmental Aspects of Executive Functions [1]
EF most closely associated with the frontal lobes of the brain Maturational changes in brain structure and function and in social experiences govern the development of EF (see Table M-1 on p. 249 in RG) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

142 Developmental Aspects of Executive Functions [1]
Begin to develop as early as 2 months of age self-exploration emerging understanding of volitional actions At 1 year of age working memory ability to detect another’s attentional and intentional states Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

143 Developmental Aspects of Executive Functions [2]
EF improves throughout development; gains noted in working memory strategic thinking and fluency goal-directed behavior monitoring of behavior flexibility Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

144 Developmental Aspects of Executive Functions [3]
EF improve throughout development gains in (Cont.) understanding of emotions, intentions, beliefs, and desires deciphering of metaphors and understanding of faux pas processing speed problem solving Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

145 Developmental Aspects of Executive Functions [4]
Overall EF has elements of uniformity—common evolution across EF of individuality and variation—unique evolution across EF Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

146 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Intelligence and EF [1] Tests of intelligence correlate moderately— about .40 to .60—with tests of EF working memory more closely related to fluid and crystallized intelligence inhibition and flexibility less closely related to fluid and crystallized intelligence Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

147 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Intelligence and EF [2] Correlations moderate because IQ tests do not require shifting between different tasks shifting between competing demands using self-regulation strategies to maximize long-term objectives inhibiting less favorable responses Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

148 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Achievement and EF [1] Writing Essays planning and defining the first step rephrasing and paraphrasing one’s own work and the work of others (cognitive flexibility) organizing and prioritizing using accurate syntax Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

149 Reading Comprehension
Achievement and EF [2] Reading Comprehension planning what to read first and which sections to focus on most organizing the material mentally by its most important points monitoring one’s comprehension by summarizing material Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

150 Independent Studying, Completing Homework, and Long-Term Projects
Achievement and EF [3] Independent Studying, Completing Homework, and Long-Term Projects planning ahead (time management) acquiring materials and information (information processing) setting long-term goals (completing tasks) self-regulation (balancing needs) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

151 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Achievement and EF [4] Independent Studying, Completing Homework, and Long-Term Projects (Cont.) self-monitoring (remembering to submit completed assignments by a specific time) cognitive flexibility (ability to modify how one goes about doing projects) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

152 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Achievement and EF [4] Test-Taking prioritizing and focusing on relevant themes managing time to study and answer questions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

153 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
How EF Are Compromised? By Mental disorder Brain injury Learning disability Attention difficulties Fatigue Anxiety Stress Depression Motivational deficits Very low birth weight Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

154 Examples of Disabilities Where EF are Compromised [1]
Children with an autism spectrum disorder may have deficits in planning goal setting inhibition self-regulation Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

155 Examples of Disabilities Where EF are Compromised [2]
Children with ADHD may have deficits in inhibition organizing shifting self-regulation Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

156 Examples of Disabilities Where EF are Compromised [3]
Children with traumatic brain injury may have deficits in working memory inhibition planning and goal setting shifting self-regulation Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

157 Examples of Disabilities Where EF are Compromised [4]
Children with learning disabilities may have deficits in planning and goal setting organizing prioritizing shifting self-regulation Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

158 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Assessment of EF [1] Neuropsychological tests (see Table M-2 on pp. 251 to 257 in RG) Psychological tests (see Table M-2 in RG) Interviews with Child (see Table M-3 on pp. 258 to 259 in RG) Parents (see Tables M-3 on pp. 258 to 259 in RG and B-9 on pp. 40 to 43 in RG) Teachers (see Table B-15 on pp. 67 to 70 in RG) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

159 General Assessment Considerations
Assessment of EF [2] General Assessment Considerations Measures of information processing and academic skills are indirect measures of EF Amount and nature of EF involved in each task varies No single measure provides an accurate estimate of all types of EF Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

160 General Assessment Considerations (Cont.)
Assessment of EF [3] General Assessment Considerations (Cont.) A multifaceted, comprehensive assessment is required for the assessment of EF Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

161 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Assessment of EF [4] Observing child at school, home, and during the assessment (see Table M-3 on pp. 258 to 259 in RG) Analyzing samples of the child’s schoolwork and written homework assignments (see Table H-8 on p. 137 in RG) See Table L-18 (p. 242 in RG) for a checklist for rating EF Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

162 Improving Deficits in EF
See pp. 259 and 260 in RG See Handout K-1 (for parents, begins on p. 162) and Handout K-3 (for teachers, begins on p. 185) in RG Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

163 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

164 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; Chapter 22)

165 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Video Link Bringing the Early Signs of Autism Spectrum Disorders Into Focus Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

166 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
DSM-5 Definition A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communications and social interactions and by repetitive or restricted behaviors, interests, and activities Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

167 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts about ASD [1] In 2011–2012, about 1 in 50 children in the United States had a diagnosis of ASD, with a prevalence rate of about 2% for children 6 to 17 years of age. ASD occurs in all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Parents of children ages 6 to 17 years with ASD reported that 58.3% of cases were mild, 34.8% were moderate, and 6.9% were severe. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

168 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts about ASD [2] ASD is almost five times more common among boys (3.23%) than among girls (.70%). Approximately 40% of children with ASD do not speak. Approximately 25% to 30% of children with ASD begin speaking at 12 to 18 months of age but then stop speaking. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

169 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts about ASD [3] Before child’s first birthday, parents may have concerns about child’s social, communication, and fine-motor skills vision and hearing Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

170 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts about ASD [4] Children with higher IQs tend to show fewer symptoms usually are identified as having an ASD at a later age Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

171 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts about ASD [5] Children with other developmental disorders, such as language disorder or an intellectual disability, may also exhibit behaviors that suggest a possible ASD (see Table 22-1 on p. 601). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

172 Increase in Number of Children Diagnosed with ASD
Greater public awareness More clearly defined public policies Availability of more extensive social services and education Availability of better and more sensitive diagnostic tools Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

173 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Etiology of ASD [1] Genetic Causes Identical twins are more likely to have ASD than nonidentical twins Increased rates of ASD among siblings and first-degree relatives ASD tends to occur about 10% of the time in children who have genetic or chromosomal disorders Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

174 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Etiology of ASD [2] Genetic Causes (Cont.) Genetic mechanisms have been found to be involved in producing an excessive number of brain cells in the prefrontal cortex Older fathers may pass on significantly more random genetic mutations to their offspring than younger fathers Older mothers are at a 30% higher risk of having a child with ASD Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

175 Environmental Factors
Etiology of ASD [3] Environmental Factors Some children with ASD have spontaneous DNA mutations Adverse fetal environment may place the fetus at increased risk for developing ASD Antibodies in the mother’s blood during pregnancy may interfere with fetal brain development by attacking healthy tissue Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

176 Environmental Factors (Cont.)
Etiology of ASD [4] Environmental Factors (Cont.) Toxic chemicals in the environment Lead and mercury can interfere with normal brain development in the fetus Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

177 Environmental Factors (Cont.)
Etiology of ASD [5] Environmental Factors (Cont.) Variations in brain structure and function are thought to play a role in ASD Rate of growth of the amygdala (an almond-shaped mass of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain) found to be abnormal and disproportionate to total brain growth in very young children with ASD Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

178 DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for ASD [1]
A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts 1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity 2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction 3. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

179 DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for ASD [2]
B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities 1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech 2. Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

180 DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for ASD [3]
B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (Cont.) 3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus 4. Hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

181 Associated Features of ASD [1]
Regression in development Difficulties in eating or sleeping Aggressive behavior (toward themselves like self-injurious behavior or toward other people) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

182 Associated Features of ASD [2]
Savant skills ability to calculate extremely difficult mathematical equations without a calculator but may not be able to calculate the correct change when purchasing items ability to draw highly accurate and detailed perspective drawings ability to sing with perfect pitch Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

183 Associated Features of ASD [3]
Savant skills (Cont.) ability to state the day of the week for a date far in the past or future ability to play a piano concerto after hearing it once Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

184 Signs of ASD Related to Age [1]
Early Identification (Around 2 years of age) Impairments in Nonverbal communication Pretend play Inflexible routines Repetitive motor behaviors Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

185 Signs of ASD Related to Age [2]
Later Identification (Around 5 to 8 years of age) Impairments in Peer relations Conversational ability Idiosyncratic speech Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

186 Signs of ASD Related to Age [3]
Source: Maenner, M. J., Schieve, L. A., Rice, C. E., Cunniff, C., Giarelli, E., Kirby, R. S., Lee, L.-C., Nicholas, J. S., Wingate, M. S., & Durkin, M. S. (2013). Frequency and pattern of documented diagnostic features and the age of autism identification. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(4), 401–413. doi: /j.jaac Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

187 Disorders Comorbid with ASD [1]
Medical asthma skin allergies food allergies ear infections frequent severe headaches sleep disorders sensory processing problems feeding disorders Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

188 Disorders Comorbid with ASD [2]
Psychiatric Disorder social anxiety disorder ADHD oppositional defiant disorder anxiety disorder language disorder depressive disorder Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

189 Disorders Comorbid with ASD [3]
Neurological disorders Chromosomal Genetic conditions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

190 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Rate of Co-Occurrence 83% for a nonautism developmental disorders 10% for a psychiatric disorders Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

191 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [1]
About 50% to 62% with IQs of 70 or above Low functioning used to describe those with IQs of 69 or below High functioning used to describe those with IQs of 70 or above IQs tend to be stable No specific cognitive profile Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

192 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [2]
No profiles on intelligence tests that can distinguish children with ASD from other children Have relative strengths on the Wechsler Block Design Matrix Reasoning Picture Concept Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

193 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [3]
Have relative weaknesses on the Wechsler Comprehension Vocabulary Symbol Search Coding IQs may improve as a result of intensive early interventions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

194 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [4]
Children with adequate conversational speech or social relationships have higher IQs Examples of relatively poorly developed language and executive function skills imitation sequencing organization Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

195 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [5]
Examples of relatively poorly developed language and executive function skills (Cont.) seeing relations between pieces of information identifying central patterns or themes distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information deriving meaning from the bigger picture Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

196 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [6]
Examples of relatively poorly developed language and executive function skills (Cont.) appreciating subtleties of thought planning inhibitory control self-monitoring of behavior thinking flexibly Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

197 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [7]
Examples of relatively poorly developed language and executive function skills (Cont.) perspective taking (e.g., understanding others’ emotions, preferences, intentions, and desires) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

198 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [8]
Examples of relatively well developed skills in some children perceptual discrimination retrieval of visual knowledge visual reasoning attention to visual detail rote memory Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

199 Intellectual Functioning of Children with ASD [9]
Children with savant abilities tend to obtain low IQs Children usually have selective memory deficits rather than widespread and all-encompassing ones Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

200 Observing Children with ASD [pp. 606-607; 1]
Use of eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, and vocalizations Interactions with others Interaction with you Use of language Play Motor behavior Transitions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

201 Observing Children with ASD [pp. 606-607; 2]
Attention and activity level Awareness of social cues and expectations Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

202 Tips for Testing Children with ASD [1]
Adapt the environment as needed Select a room in a quiet area Have comfortable lighting Wear little or no perfume or cologne Change room if sensory stimuli are distracting (.e.g., child is screaming, avoiding, or covering ears) Use tangible rewards (e.g., food reinforcers or games) as needed Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

203 Tips for Testing Children with ASD [2]
Use frequent breaks as needed Make sure you have the child’s attention when you speak Talk slowly Use short and simple phrases Be concrete Avoid complex grammatical forms Repeat or rephrase sentences as needed Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

204 Tips for Testing Children with ASD [3]
Avoid reliance on purely auditory cues Use visual cues when possible to help children understand language Use simple written to-do lists Use a picture schedule of activities Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

205 Learn about Child’s Communication Skills [1]
Ask parents and teachers for advice on how to best work with the child Observe the child in his or her classroom Does the child make eye contact? Does the child respond to his or her name? Does the child point or gesture to indicate a response? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

206 Learn about Child’s Communication Skills [2]
Observe the child in his or her classroom (Cont.) Does the child use signs, words, phrases, or sentences? Does the child use an augmentative or alternative communication system (e.g., speech-generating device or a picture system to communicate) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

207 Learn about Child’s Communication Skills [3]
Observe the child in his or her classroom (Cont.) Does the child understand gestures or signing? Does the child follow simple verbal directions? Does the child have sufficient attention to do class assignments? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

208 Learn about Child’s Communication Skills [4]
Under no condition should you use facilitated communication to interview a child with ASD Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

209 Assessment Measures for ASD
See page 608 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

210 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Useful ASD Forms [1] Table J-1. Observation Form for Recording Behaviors That May Reflect Autism Spectrum Disorder and Positive Behaviors (p. 155 in RG) Table J-2. Modified Checklist for Autism Disorder in Toddlers (M-CHAT) (p. 157 in RG) Table J-3. Autism Spectrum Disorder Questionnaire for Parents (p. 158 in RG) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

211 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Useful ASD Forms [2] Table J-4. Checklist of Possible Signs of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (p. 160 in RG) Table J-5. DSM-5 Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (p. 161 in RG) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

212 Evaluating Assessment Information
See questions in Table (pages ) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

213 Interventions for Children with ASD [1]
See pages 609 to 614 See Handouts K-1 to K-4 in the Resource Guide for Parents and Teachers Interventions are designed to improve teach new skills communication skills executive functions skills problem-solving skills organizational skills Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

214 Interventions for Children with ASD [2]
Interventions are designed to improve teach new skills (Cont.) interpersonal and social skills learning readiness skills academic skills motor skills Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

215 Interventions for Children with ASD [3]
And to reduce restricted, repetitive, and intense behaviors and interests that interfere with functioning or cause harm to the individual or to others Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

216 Alternative Therapies [1]
These are not supported by research Auditory integration training (listening through headphones to electronically modified music, voices, or sounds) Chelation (heavy metal removal) Gluten- and casein-free diets (gluten is a protein found in wheat and other grains, and casein is a protein found in milk and milk products) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

217 Alternative Therapies [2]
Herbal remedies (e.g., St. John’s wart, ma huang, kava kava) Hyperbaric oxygen chamber treatment (use of a pressure chamber to administer oxygen at higher pressure than in the atmosphere) Intravenous immunoglobulin (injection of pooled antibodies separated from the plasma of multiple donors) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

218 Alternative Therapies [3]
Manipulation or craniosacral massage (physical manipulation of the skull and cervical spine) Melatonin treatment (a nutritional supplement used to promote sleep) Vitamins A, B6, and C, megavitamins, and magnesium treatment (designed to address supposed metabolic abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

219 Prognosis for Children with ASD [1]
Many behaviors associated with ASD may change, diminish, or completely fade over time However, communication and social deficits may continue in some form throughout life Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

220 Prognosis for Children with ASD [2]
More favorable prognosis for children who receive early and intensive intervention who have some communicative speech before 5 years of age whose IQs are above 70 whose mothers are European American and well educated Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

221 Prognosis for Children with ASD [3]
Prospect for employment is not encouraging In 2009 about 53% worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

222 IDEA 2004—Sec. 614. EVALUATIONS PROCEDURES (Chapter 1)[1]
Assessment Considerations Information about functional, developmental, and academic functioning No single measure as the sole criterion for determination of a disability Use of technically sound instruments Selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

223 IDEA 2004—Sec. 614. EVALUATIONS PROCEDURES (Chapter 1)[2]
Assessment Considerations (Cont.) Administered in the language and form most likely to yield accurate information Child is assessed in all areas of suspected disability Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

224 IDEA 2004—Sec. 614. EVALUATIONS PROCEDURES (Chapter 1)[3]
Assessment Considerations (Cont.) Consider information obtained from: Parents Current classroom-based, local, or State assessments Classroom-based observations Present levels of academic achievement Developmental needs of child Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

225 IDEA 2004 and Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD; Chapter 16)[1]
SEC DEFINITIONS (30) SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY— (A) IN GENERAL—The term “specific learning disability” means a disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

226 IDEA 2004 and SLD (Chapter 16)[2]
SEC DEFINITIONS (Cont.) (B) DISORDERS INCLUDED—Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

227 IDEA 2004 and SLD (Chapter 16)[3]
SEC DEFINITIONS (Cont.) (C) DISORDERS NOT INCLUDED—Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

228 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts About SLD [1] In 2010, almost 5 million U.S. children ages 3 to 17 years had a SLD (8%). About 2.4 million students diagnosed with SLD receive special education services each year, representing 41% of all students receiving special education. Approximately 80% of children with a SLD have a reading disorder. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

229 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts About SLD [2] Approximately 7% of children with a SLD have an arithmetic disorder. Approximately 6% to 15% of children with a SLD have a disorder of written expression. The prevalence rate of SLD is higher for boys than for girls by a ratio of about 1.5 to 1 (9% vs. 6%). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

230 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts About SLD [3] African American children (10%) and European American children (8%) are more likely to have a SLD than are Asian American children (4%). In families with incomes of $35,000 or less, the percentage of children with a SLD (12%) is twice that in families with incomes of $100,000 or more (6%). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

231 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts About SLD [4] Close to half of secondary students with SLD perform at more than three grade levels below their enrolled grade in essential academic skills (45% in reading, 44% in math). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

232 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts About SLD [5] Children in single-mother families are about twice as likely to have SLD as children in two-parent families (12% vs. 6%). Children with poor health are almost five times more likely to have SLD than children in excellent or very good health (28% vs. 6%). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

233 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
DSM-5 The affected academic skills are substantially and quantifiably below those expected for the individual’s chronological age. Cause significant interference with academic or occupational performance, or with activities of daily living. Confirmed by individually administered standardized achievement measures and comprehensive clinical assessment. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

234 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Reasons for Poor Performance of Children with Readings Disorders [p ] Problem areas attention and concentration phonological awareness orthographic awareness word awareness semantic or syntactic awareness rapid decoding Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

235 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Possible Reasons for Poor Performance With Children with Readings Disorders [p ] Problem areas (Cont.) rapid naming verbal comprehension pragmatic awareness Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

236 Overall Comment on SLD [1]
Academic underachievement is a key characteristic usually shared by children with SLD. Language-based dysfunctions underlie many children with SLD. Reading disability most frequent disability. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

237 Overall Comment on SLD [2]
Examine patterns of cognitive and linguistic functioning Don’t rely on somewhat arbitrary cutoff scores Don’t depend exclusively on Response To Intervention (RTI) Unique pattern of child’s abilities and other assessment results serve as the foundation for developing interventions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

238 Overall Comment on SLD [3]
Important to evaluate social-behavioral deficits (Table 16-1, p. 481): Acting-out behavior Anxiety Depression Difficulty making and keeping friends Difficulty with conflict management Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

239 Overall Comment on SLD [4]
Important to evaluate social-behavioral deficits: (Cont.) Disorganization Disruptiveness Destructiveness Distractibility Hyperactivity Immaturity Impulsiveness Irritability Low expectations for future achievement Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

240 Overall Comment on SLD [5]
Important to evaluate social-behavioral deficits: (Cont.) Low self-esteem Minimal confidence in ability to influence learning outcomes Mischievousness Poor self-image Apparent inability to learn from experience Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

241 SLD and English Language Learners (ELL) [1]
Assessment Considerations Experiential background. Consider their: Length of residence in the United States Quality of instruction in school School attendance record Health history Family history Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

242 Assessment Considerations (Cont.)
SLD and ELL [2] Assessment Considerations (Cont.) Language ability of peers. Compare their language abilities with peers with similar linguistic/cultural backgrounds and similar exposure to second language instruction. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

243 Assessment Considerations (Cont.)
SLD and ELL [3] Assessment Considerations (Cont.) Language ability of siblings. Compare their language abilities with those of their siblings when they were of the same age. Typical difficulties in learning a second language. Compare their learning difficulties with those of other English language learners. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

244 Assessment Considerations (Cont.)
SLD and ELL [4] Assessment Considerations (Cont.) Linguistic proficiency. Compare their linguistic proficiency in their primary language and in English. Appropriate assessment battery. Standardized tests Checklists Language samples Interviews Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

245 Assessment Considerations (Cont.)
SLD and ELL [5] Assessment Considerations (Cont.) Appropriate assessment battery (Cont.) Questionnaires Observations Portfolios Journals Work samples Curriculum-based measures Language-reduced measures Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

246 Reasons for Poor School Performance of ELL
Experiential differences Family expectations Limited English proficiency Stress associated with acculturation and discrimination Cognitive styles and learning strategies that differ from those of the majority group Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

247 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: Problems with attention and concentration Difficulty in focusing on printed material and retaining the material in short-term memory Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

248 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in phonological awareness Difficulty in segmenting words into their constituent syllables and phonemes, recognizing rhyme, blending phonemic elements, deleting and substituting phonemes, and appreciating puns Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

249 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in orthographic awareness Difficulty in recognizing how words look Difficulty in recognizing letters Difficulty in recognizing letter clusters Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

250 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in word awareness Difficulty in segmenting sentences or phrases into words Difficulty in separating words from their referents Difficulty in appreciating jokes involving lexical ambiguity Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

251 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in word awareness (Cont.) Difficulty in matching words with other words Difficulty in recognizing synonyms and antonyms Difficulty in making substitutions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

252 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: Problems in semantic or syntactic awareness Difficulty in detecting the structural ambiguity in sentences, correcting word order violations, and completing sentences when words are missing Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

253 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in rapid decoding Difficulty in recognizing words quickly and automatically Problems in rapid naming Difficulty in rapidly naming letters, numbers, and pictures Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

254 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in verbal comprehension Difficulty in understanding words and word order Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

255 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in pragmatic awareness Difficulty in detecting inconsistencies between sentences Difficulty in recognizing message inadequacy Difficulty in understanding and repairing communication failures Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

256 Children with Reading Disorder [1]
Children with reading disorder may have one or more of the following difficulties: (Cont.) Problems in pragmatic awareness (Cont.) Difficulty in recognizing the overall message Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

257 Nonverbal Learning Disability [1]
Definition: A subtype of learning disability associated with a dysfunction in the right cerebral hemisphere Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

258 Nonverbal Learning Disability [2]
Strengths Auditory perceptual ability Receptive language Vocabulary Verbal expression Rote verbal memory Attention to small details Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

259 Nonverbal Learning Disability [3]
Weaknesses Reading comprehension Interpreting messages literally Math ability Abstract reasoning ability Coordination and psychomotor skills Ability to interact with others Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

260 Nonverbal Learning Disability [4]
Weaknesses (Cont.) Ability to correctly perceive gestures, facial expressions, and other nonverbal social cues Ability to adapt to changes and new situations Common sense Self-esteem Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

261 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
IDEA 2004 and SLD [1] Assessment Process A local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in various academic areas But it may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-base intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

262 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
IDEA 2004 and SLD [2] But IDEA does not define how a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability should be determined. IDEA does not provide any guidance as to how the response to intervention process should be conducted. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

263 Identifying SLD: RTI [1]
Problem-Solving Approach The teacher uses achievement test scores to identify children who are at risk. The teacher consults with others about needed instructional modifications If the interventions are not successful, the school support team considers possible causes and selects, implements, and evaluates interventions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

264 Identifying SLD: RTI [2]
Problem-Solving Approach (Cont.) If additional interventions not successful a comprehensive assessment will be needed Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

265 Identifying SLD: RTI [3]
Standard Protocol Approach Involves intensive tutoring using a standard method of teaching All children who have similar difficulties are given the same intensive instruction Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

266 Identifying SLD: RTI [4]
RTI and Needed Implementation Decisions Timing of the assessment (e.g., pre- and post-treatment, weekly, daily) Method for measuring responsiveness Norms (national norms, local norms, or norms for children who are at risk) Method for training teachers or tutors Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

267 Identifying SLD: RTI [5]
RTI and Needed Implementation Decisions (Cont.) Intensity of interventions Procedures to use with culturally and linguistically diverse children Should never be used alone for the identification of SLD Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

268 Identifying SLD: RTI [6]
Comment on RTI Identifying underachieving students or those with neurologically based SLD? Is RTI working effectively? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

269 Identifying SLD: Discrepancy Model [1]
Simple difference method Regression method Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

270 Identifying SLD: Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) Models [1]
Discrepancy-Consistency Model Aptitude-Achievement Consistency Model Cognitive Hypothesis Testing Model Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

271 Identifying SLD: Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) Models [2]
PSW models assume that in children with SLD: There are strengths and weakness in academic areas and psychological processing areas There is a relationship between areas of weakness in psychological processing and academic deficits. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

272 Identifying SLD: Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) Models [3]
Determining Weaknesses Below Average Academic Performance (Below 10th or 15th percentile rank) Classroom tests National standardized achievement tests State standardized tests Significant intraindividual differences on cognitive ability subtests that relate to the academic deficits Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

273 Identifying SLD: Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) Models [4]
Determining Weaknesses (Cont.) Below Average Psychological Processing (Below 10th or 15th percentile rank) Measures of phonological processing Measures of working memory Measures of processing speed Measures of rapid automatic naming. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

274 Examples of Standardized Achievement Tests (Table 17-1. p. 500) [1]
Phonological Awareness and Phonological Memory Tests Rapid Naming and Retrieval Fluency Tests Orthographic Processing Tests Print Awareness, Word Recognition, and Decoding Tests Reading Fluency Tests Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

275 Examples of Standardized Achievement Tests (Table 17-1. p. 500) [2]
Reading Comprehension Tests Reading Inventories Written Expression Tests Oral Language Tests Mathematics Tests Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

276 Interviewing for SLD: Written Expression (p. 504)[1]
How did you go about choosing a topic for your writing assignment? Did you do any background reading about the topic? Did you think about what the readers would want to know about the topic? Did you write down your ideas for the writing assignment? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

277 Interviewing for SLD: Written Expression (p. 504)[2]
Did you put similar ideas together? When you needed help, what did you do? After you finished your first draft, did you read it? (If yes) Did you mark the parts that you wanted to change? Did you make the changes? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

278 Interviewing for SLD: Written Expression (p. 504)[3]
Did you check your spelling and grammar? Is there anything else you want to tell me about how you did your writing assignment? (If needed, follow up answers with “Tell me more about that.”) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

279 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Interventions for SLD Table 17-6 (page 508) for young children with reading disorders Table 17-7 (page 508) for children with SLD Table 17-8 (page 509) showing metacognitive strategies for children with reading disorders Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

280 Older Adolescents and Young Adults with SLD [1]
Help with (by using role-playing and supervised job training): Filling out applications for college Finding job training Reading want ads Filling out job applications Interviewing Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

281 Older Adolescents and Young Adults with SLD [2]
Help with (by using role-playing and supervised job training): (Cont.) Following directions on the job Learning job skills Taking criticism Finishing work on time Paying attention on the job Working carefully Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

282 Older Adolescents and Young Adults with SLD [3]
Help with (by using role-playing and supervised job training): (Cont.) Learning about their legal rights on the job Learning how to advocate for necessary job accommodations Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

283 Older Adolescents and Young Adults with SLD [5]
Adjustment and Employment Success Consider: Abilities required in a particular career Ability to set reasonable goals Access to appropriate guidance Attitude toward life challenges Available support systems Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

284 Older Adolescents and Young Adults with SLD [6]
Adjustment and Employment Success (Cont.) Consider: Awareness of limitations and strengths Coping skills Cognitive ability Family’s, peers’, and teachers’ attitudes toward them Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

285 Older Adolescents and Young Adults with SLD [7]
Adjustment and Employment Success (Cont.) Consider: Motivation and perseverance Presence of comorbid disorders Self-concept Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

286 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
286

287 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
287

288 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
288

289 Attention‑Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Chapter 15)
Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

290 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Video Link How to Recognize ADHD Symptoms in Children Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

291 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Definition of ADHD A neurobehavioral syndrome marked by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity (DSM-5) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

292 Some Facts about ADHD [1]
In 2011 about 6.4 million children ages 4 to 17 years had parent-reported ADHD (about 11% of the U.S. population) 69% were taking medications (3.5 million children) A 42% rate of increase from 2003 to 2011 Boys were more than twice as likely as girls to have ADHD (12.1% vs. 5.5%) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

293 Some Facts about ADHD [2]
Ethnic distribution Hispanic American children (5.5%) European American children (9.8%) African American children (9.5%) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

294 Some Facts about ADHD [3]
Incidence in different ages Children younger than 10 years of age (6.8%) Children ages 11 to 14 years (11.4%) Children ages 15 to 17 years (10.2%) 33.2% fail to graduate from high school on time vs. 15.2% of children without any psychological disorder Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

295 DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for ADHD
Two main types of symptoms Inattention Hyperactivity and impulsivity Three types of ADHD Combined presentation Predominately inattentive presentation Predominately hyperactive/impulsive presentation Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

296 Disorders Comorbid With ADHD [1]
Children with ADHD represent a heterogeneous population Often display a diversity of behavior problem and have a comorbid disorder Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

297 Disorders Comorbid With ADHD [2]
Oppositional defiant disorder (about 40% to 50%) Conduct disorder (about 25%) Disruptive mood dysregulation (majority of children) Specific learning disorder (50% or more) Anxiety disorder (about 30%) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

298 Disorders Comorbid With ADHD [3]
Depressive disorder (about 20%) Substance use disorder (minority of children) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (minority of children) Autism spectrum disorder (minority of children) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

299 ADHD and Conduct Disorder [1]
A distinct subtype and may have a genetic basis Increased risk for antisocial behaviors substance abuse peer rejection low self-esteem depression personality disorders Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

300 ADHD and Conduct Disorder [2]
Increased risk for difficulties in processing social information suspension from school Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

301 ADHD and Conduct Disorder [3]
Parents and Familial Factors Parents face increased stress, frustration, and despair Families tend to be nonintact and of low-income Mothers are unhappy Parents are uninterested in their children’s activities Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

302 Children with ADHD at Adulthood
Less education, including fewer college degrees Lower incomes Higher divorce rates More antisocial personality disorders More substance-related disorders Increased risk for criminal behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

303 Other Types of Deficits in ADHD
Cognitive deficits (e.g., deficits in executive functions; see Appendix M in Resource Guide) Social and adaptive functioning deficits (e.g., difficulty assuming responsibility) Motivational and emotional deficits (e.g., limited interest in achievement) Motor, physical, and health deficits (e.g., poor fine and gross-motor coordination) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

304 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Etiology of ADHD [1] No single cause but likely multiple factors Genetic factors Runs in families Neurological factors Different brain structures; imbalance or deficiency in one or more neurotransmitters Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

305 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Etiology of ADHD [2] Prenatal factors Exposure of the fetus to nicotine, alcohol, and other drugs and maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy Postnatal exposure to toxic substances Lead, methylmercury, and pesticides Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

306 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Assessment of ADHD [1] Comprehensive history Review of the child’s cumulative school records Attendance history Reports of behavioral problems School grades Standardized test scores Number of schools attended Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

307 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Assessment of ADHD [2] Review of relevant medical information Review of previous psychological evaluations Interviews with parents, teachers, and child Observations of child in classroom and playground Administration of rating scales to parents, teachers, and child Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

308 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Assessment of ADHD [3] Administration of psychological tests to child See Appendix G in Resource Guide for additional assessment forms Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

309 Evaluation of Assessment Findings [1]
Presence of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity Number, type, severity, and duration of symptoms Situations in which symptoms are displayed Verbal abilities Nonverbal abilities Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

310 Evaluation of Assessment Findings [2]
Short- and long-term memory abilities Other cognitive abilities (e.g., executive functions; see Table L-18 in the Resource Guide) Comorbid disorders Social competence Adaptive behavior Educational and instructional needs Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

311 Comment on Assessment of ADHD [1]
Diagnosis of ADHD is not easy Restlessness, inattention, and overactive behavior are common in children Parents may find it difficult to judge child’s behavior Rating scales usually do not provide for a functional analysis of the variables that interact with children’s behaviors Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

312 Comment on Assessment of ADHD [2]
Teachers tend to assign more symptoms consistent with ADHD to younger children than to older children Symptoms of ADHD can be displayed in different ways across different settings and in different relationships Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

313 Comment on Assessment of ADHD [3]
A comprehensive assessment requires a multi-method approach with Multiple informants Multiple contexts Multiple psychological tests Multiple use of rating scales See Table 25-1 in Chapter 25 for questions related to your assessment Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

314 Interventions for ADHD [1]
Pharmacological Approximately 70% to 80% of children who exhibit hyperactive symptoms respond positively to stimulant medications Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

315 Interventions for ADHD [2]
Behavioral Positive reinforcement (e.g., verbal praise) Withdrawal of reinforcement (e.g., time out or a response-cost program) Point system (i.e., a token economy) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

316 Interventions for ADHD [3]
Behavioral (Cont.) Contracts between parents/teachers and children (e.g., stipulate desired and expected behaviors at home and/or at school and consequences for failure to perform the desired behaviors) Cognitive-behavioral Self-monitoring programs Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

317 Interventions for ADHD [4]
Family Parent training programs Educational Teaching new skills Establishing routines Promoting attention Improving study skills Improving memory Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

318 Interventions for ADHD [5]
Educational (Cont.) Improving listening skills See Table K-3 in Appendix K in the Resource Guide for suggestions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

319 Interventions for ADHD [6]
Alternative interventions Dietary interventions Antimotion sickness medicines Manipulation of bones in the body Exercises to improve eye tracking Enhancing the ability to hear certain frequencies of sound Neurofeedback Little scientific support for above Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

320 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
320

321 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
321

322 INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ID; Chapter 18)
Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

323 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) Definition “Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18” (AAIDD, 2010, p. 5). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

324 AAIDD Definition of Intellectual Functioning
“. . . an IQ score that is approximately two standard deviations below the mean, considering the standard error of measurement for the specific assessment instruments used and the instruments’ strengths and limitations” (AAIDD, 2010, p. 27) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

325 AAIDD Definition of Adaptive Behavior
“. . . approximately two standard deviations below the mean of either (a) one of the following three types of adaptive behavior: conceptual, social, and practical or (b) an overall score on a standardized measure of conceptual, social, and practical skills” (AAIDD, 2010, p. 27) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

326 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Age of Onset Limitations must be manifest prior to the age of 18 years Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

327 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
ID Categories Not Used AAIDD classification system does not use categories (e.g., mild, moderate, severe, profound) to classify intellectual disability. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

328 AAIDD and Other Considerations [1]
Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of an individual’s age, peers, and culture. Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor, and behavioral factors. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

329 AAIDD and Other Considerations [2]
Limitations often coexist with strengths; individuals with intellectual disability have gifts as well as limitations. An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. The life functioning of individuals with intellectual disability generally will improve with appropriate supports over a sustained period (AAIDD, 2010, p. 7, with changes in notation). Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

330 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
DSM-5 [1] Definition similar to AAIDD Adds Two Related Diagnostic Categories Global developmental delay for children under the age of 5 years when evaluation is not possible Unspecified intellectual disability for children over the age of 5 years when assessment is not possible Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

331 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
DSM-5 [2] Diagnosis of ID does not rule out the coexistence of other disorders A diagnosis of intellectual disability is inappropriate when an individual is meeting the demands of his or her environment adequately Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

332 World Health Organization’s Working Group on ICD-11
Severity level of intellectual developmental disorder needs to be considered 85% in mild level 10% in moderate level 3.5% in severe level 1.5% in profound level See Tables 18-1 and 18-2 on page 520 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

333 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts about ID [1] Prevalence about 1% in general population During the 2009–2010 school year, 463,000 children between 3 and 21 years in special education programs Prevalence about 7.1% in special education population Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

334 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Some Facts about ID [2] More males than females receive diagnosis (about 1.6:1 for mild ID; 1.2:1 for severe ID) Mild ID more common in rural areas and in low-income groups Correlation between measured intelligence and adaptive behavior ranges from about .30 to .50 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

335 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Etiology of ID [1] Genetic disorders Chromosomal anomalies Cranial malformations Perinatal disorders Postnatal disorders Unknown causes See Table 18-3 on page 523 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

336 Co-occurring Disorders
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Depressive and bipolar disorders Anxiety disorders Autism spectrum disorder Stereotypic movement disorder Impulse control disorders Major neurocognitive disorder Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

337 Support Areas and Goals for ID
See Table 18-4 on page 532 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

338 Concluding Comment on ID [1]
Measures of intelligence and adaptive behavior used in different ways Determine eligibility for disability benefits by Social Security Administration Determine whether an individual can stand trial and whether a defendant can be sentenced to death Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

339 Concluding Comment on ID [2]
Evaluation of intellectual disability thus has extremely far-reaching consequences Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

340 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI; Chapter 23)
Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

341 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
TBI [1] Approximately 1 million children in the US each year sustain head injuries from falls, physical abuse, recreational accidents, or motor vehicle accidents Approximately 75% of TBIs are mild Still, TBI account for 30.5% of all injury-related deaths among children Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

342 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
TBI [2] TBI in infants under the age of 1 year associated primarily with physical abuse (shaken baby syndrome or thrown infant syndrome) TBI in toddlers and preschoolers associated with falls and physical abuse TBI in children over the age of 5 years associated with bicycle, motor vehicle, and sports-related accidents and injuries Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

343 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
TBI [3] Among those under 20 years treated in emergency departments for brain injuries 30% sustain their injuries from sports and recreation activities 20% from motor vehicle collisions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

344 Observable Effects of TBI in Children [1]
Brain injuries may produce physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms (see Table 23-2) Contact health care provider if any of these symptoms show after a child sustains a head injury Changes in play Changes in school performance Changes in sleep patterns Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

345 Observable Effects of TBI in Children [2]
Convulsions or seizures Persistent headaches Inability to recognize people or places Irritability, crankiness, or crying more than usual Lack of interest in favorite toys or activities Loss of balance or unsteady walking Loss of consciousness Loss of newly acquired skills Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

346 Observable Effects of TBI in Children [3]
Poor attention Refusal to eat or nurse Slurred speech Tiredness or listlessness Vomiting Weakness, numbness, or decreased coordination Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

347 Effects of TBI Related to Several Factors
Location, extent, and type of injury Child’s age Child’s preinjury temperament, personality, and cognitive and psychosocial functioning Promptness and quality of treatment Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

348 Sports-Related Concussions [1]
About 40 to 50 million children in US participate in organized sports Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

349 Sports-Related Concussions [2]
Incidence of mild TBI in children who participate in sports is high—about 1,275,000 annually football (22.6%) bicycling (11.6%) basketball (9.2%) soccer (7.7%) snow skiing (6.4%) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

350 Sports-Related Concussions [3]
Rates of Concussion Highest in full-contact sports (e.g., football, boy’s lacrosse, ice hockey, rugby) Moderate in moderate-contact sports (e.g., basketball, soccer) Lowest in minimal contact sports (e.g., volleyball, baseball, softball) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

351 Sports-Related Concussions [4]
Consider the cumulative effects of sports-related concussions Possibility of long-term permanent damage in the form of chronic traumatic encephalopathy See Table 23-3 (p. 636) for list of symptoms of a possible concussion Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

352 Sports-Related Concussions [5]
If one or more of these symptoms are present, adults on the scene should call 911 contact the child’s parents immediately This is especially critical because concussions can result in an intracranial hemorrhage, which is life-threatening Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

353 Brief Mental Status Examination [1]
Use SCAT3 (see p. 635) Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

354 Brief Mental Status Examination [2]
Or ask these questions (see p. 636) How are you feeling? Are you having any problems? (If yes) Tell me about them. Where are you now? Which half of the game is it now? Who scored last in the game? What team did you play last week? Did your team win or lose the last game? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

355 Brief Mental Status Examination [3]
Follow-Up Examination Have you been tired a lot? Have you had headaches? Have you had trouble remembering things? Has bright light hurt your eyes? Have you felt as if your head was spinning? Have you felt cranky? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

356 Brief Mental Status Examination [4]
Follow-Up Examination (Cont.) Have you felt nervous or scared or as if you had butterflies in your stomach? Have you had trouble paying attention? Have you felt sad, as if you wanted to cry? Has it been hard for you to think? Have you had trouble seeing? Has loud noise hurt your ears? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

357 Brief Mental Status Examination [5]
Follow-Up Examination (Cont.) Have you had trouble sleeping? Have you been less interested in doing things? Have you been acting like a different person? Follow up each “yes” answer with “Tell me more about that Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

358 Brief Mental Status Examination [5]
Refer child to a health-care provider if coaching staff or parents report that the child Answers questions slowly. Appears dazed or stunned. Can’t recall events after the hit or fall. Can’t recall events prior to the hit or fall. Forgets instructions. Is confused about events. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

359 Brief Mental Status Examination [6]
Refer child to a health-care provider if coaching staff or parents report that the child (Cont.) Is unsure of the game he or she is playing, the score, or the name of the opposing team. Loses consciousness (even briefly). Moves clumsily. Repeats questions. Shows behavioral or personality changes. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

360 Rehabilitation Programs in Schools [1]
When child returns to school note the following behaviors: difficulty taking notes catching on to new concepts and information finishing assignments and tests on time beginning and completing projects coping with changes in the daily schedule Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

361 Rehabilitation Programs in Schools [2]
When child returns to school note the following behaviors: (Cont.) performing tasks that have multiple components retrieving previously learned facts giving detailed and meaningful responses to questions taking part in conversations with peers maintaining friendships Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

362 Rehabilitation Programs in Schools [3]
Help teachers carry out appropriate strategies for reducing or eliminating barriers to learning reintegrating the child into the classroom establishing objectives using effective instructional procedures Give teachers handout K-3 (pp 185 to 209) in Appendix K in the RG Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

363 Protecting Children from TBI [1]
Use safety seat, booster seat, or seat belt when in motor vehicle Never leave infants unattended on a table, bed, or other elevated surface Protect swimming and wading pools with high, locked fences Store firearms unloaded with trigger guards installed and in a locked cabinet or safe Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

364 Protecting Children from TBI [2]
Use nonslip mats on shower floors Use grab bars in bathtubs Supervise young children Use safety gates at the top and bottom of stairs in homes with young children Use safety straps in strollers, shopping carts, and infant carriers Remove tripping hazards in the home Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

365 Protecting Children from TBI [3]
Install window guards to keep young children from falling out of open windows Encourage children to participate in physical activities to improve body strength and balance Have children wear helmets when riding bicycles motorcycles snowmobiles Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

366 Protecting Children from TBI [4]
Have children wear helmets when (Cont.) using roller skates or skateboards playing contact sports batting and running bases in baseball or softball riding a horse skiing or snowboarding Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

367 Protecting Children from TBI [5]
Research should continue to focus on ways to reduce the severity and occurrence of sports-related injuries Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

368 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
NIH Toolbox [1] A set of royalty-free neurological and behavioral tests designed to assess in children and adults between the ages of 3 and 85 years Cognitive functions Sensory functions Motor functions Emotional functions Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

369 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
NIH Toolbox [2] See Table 24-7 on pages NIH Toolbox tests are also available in Spanish See reference—National Institutes of Health and Northwestern University (2012)— for link to tests Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

370 Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA; Chapter 13)
Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

371 Functional Behavioral Assessment [1]
A comprehensive, multimethod, and multisource approach designed to help you arrive at an understanding of the relationship between the behavior and specific environmental events develop a behavioral intervention plan Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

372 Functional Behavioral Assessment [2]
Need to consider Type of problem behavior Conditions under which the problem behavior occurs Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

373 Functional Behavioral Assessment [3]
Need to consider (Cont.) Probable reasons for the problem behavior biological social cognitive affective environmental Functions served by problem behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

374 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [1]
Define the problem behavior See Tables F-1, F-2, and F-3 (pp. 113 to 118) in Appendix F in the RG for FBA forms Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

375 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [2]
Perform the assessment. Review: prior psychological or psychoeducational evaluations teachers’ comments on report cards disciplinary records anecdotal home notes medical reports prior interventions and results Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

376 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [3]
Perform the assessment. (Cont.) Conduct systematic behavioral observations (see Chapters 8 and 9 Interview student, teacher, parents, and others as needed (see Chapters 5, 6, and 7) Conduct other formal and informal assessments as needed Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

377 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [4]
Evaluate assessment results Consider the following questions: Does the student realize that he or she has a problem behavior? Does the student understand the school’s rules for appropriate conduct? Does the student’s problem behavior differ significantly from that of his or her classmates? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

378 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [5]
Evaluate assessment results (Cont.) Does the problem behavior lessen the likelihood of successful learning for the student and/or other students? Have past efforts to address the problem behavior been successful or unsuccessful? Does the student’s problem behavior represent a behavioral deficit or behavioral excess? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

379 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [6]
Evaluate assessment results (Cont.) Is the student’s problem behavior serious, persistent, and chronic or mild, occasional, and temporary? Does the student have the skills necessary to learn and perform new behaviors? Is the student’s problem behavior a threat to himself or herself? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

380 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [7]
Evaluate assessment results (Cont.) Is the student’s problem behavior a threat to other students? Is the student likely to receive some disciplinary action for the problem behavior? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

381 Guidelines for Conducting FBA [8]
Develop hypotheses to help explain relationship between problem behavior and situations in which problem behavior occurs Formulate a behavioral intervention plan Start the behavioral intervention as soon as possible Evaluate the effectiveness of the behavioral intervention Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

382 Assessing Behavior Through Observations
See Chapters 8 and 9 See Tables C-1 and C-2 in Resource Guide Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

383 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [1]
See Chapters 5, 6, and 7 See Table B-1 (p. 20) in Appendix B in the RG Example of questions for a student (see pp ) Tell me what happened. (If needed) Where did it happen? (If needed) When did it happen? How often does [name of problem behavior] take place? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

384 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [2]
Example of questions for a student (Cont.) What do you think makes you [description of problem behavior]? What were you thinking just before you [description of problem behavior]? How did you feel just before you [description of problem behavior]? What was happening to you before [name of problem behavior] began? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

385 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [3]
Example of questions for a student (Cont.) When you [description of problem behavior], what usually happens afterward? When do you have the most problems? Why do you think you have the most problems then? When do you have the fewest problems? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

386 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [4]
Example of questions for a student (Cont.) Why do you think you have the fewest problems then? Is there anything happening outside of school lately that is bothering you? What changes could be made so that [name of problem behavior] would not happen again? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

387 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [5]
Example of questions for a student (Cont.) Now let’s talk about your schoolwork. In general, is your schoolwork too hard, too easy, or just right for you? When you ask for help from your teacher, do you get it? (If no) How do you feel when that happens? Do you think the work periods for each subject are too long, too short, or about right? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

388 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [6]
Example of questions for a student (Cont.) When you do seatwork, do you do better when someone works with you? Does your teacher notice when you do a good job? Do your parents notice when you do a good job in school? Do you get the points or rewards you deserve when you do good work? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

389 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [7]
Example of questions for a student (Cont.) What are your favorite rewards? Do you think you would do better in school if you received more rewards? In general, do you find your schoolwork interesting? Are there things in the classroom that distract you? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

390 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [8]
Example of questions for a student (Cont.) Is your work hard enough for you? Is there anything else that you would like to tell me about your schoolwork? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

391 Assessing Behavior Through Interviews [9]
Example of questions for a teacher (See p. 418) See Table B-15 (p. 67) in Appendix B in the RG to interview teacher See questionnaires in Tables A-1, A-2, and A-3 (pp in Appendix A in RG) for parent, child, and teacher to complete See Table B-9 (p. 40) in Appendix B in the RG to interview parent Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

392 Formulating Hypotheses [see pp. 419-420; 1]
Note the type of problem behavior Note where the problem behavior occurs Note when the problem behavior occurs Note characteristics of the antecedent events and setting related to the problem behavior Note situations or personal events that might induce the problem behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

393 Formulating Hypotheses [see pp. 419-420; 2]
Note the consequences associated with the problem behavior Note the relevant student background factors associated with the problem behavior Note the relevant environmental background factors associated with the problem behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

394 Formulating Hypotheses [see pp. 419-420; 3]
Note the functions or purposes—including escape, attention or control, and self-regulation—that are served by the problem behavior Note how student reacts to the problem behavior Note how others react to the problem behavior Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

395 Formulating Hypotheses [see pp. 419-420; 4]
Note teachers’, parents’, and other concerned individuals’ levels of understanding of the problem behavior Note student’s attitudes about the learning environment Note student’s attitudes about his or her parents, siblings, and peer Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

396 Formulating Hypotheses [see pp. 419-420; 5]
Note the cognitive and motivational resources that student has for coping with the problem behavior Note student’s, family’s, school’s, and community’s strengths and resources for change Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

397 Monitoring the Behavioral Intervention Plan (See p. 423) [1]
Is the behavioral intervention plan being implemented as proposed? Which short-term and long-term goals have been reached? What information is helpful in teacher’s anecdotal notes and checklists and in student’s completed self-monitoring forms? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

398 Monitoring the Behavioral Intervention Plan (See p. 423) [2]
Is student using replacement behaviors? Is student acquiring new skills? Is student using the new skills in different situations? Has the problem behavior decreased to an acceptable rate? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

399 Monitoring the Behavioral Intervention Plan (See p. 423) [3]
What barriers hinder the student’s learning? Is the student’s academic performance improving or deteriorating? Does the student understand the consequences of his or her actions? Is the student able to control his or her behavior? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

400 Monitoring the Behavioral Intervention Plan (See p. 423) [4]
Are the student, teachers, and parents satisfied with the plan and its outcomes? Do you or the student, teachers, or parents have any suggestions for improving the plan? What modifications, if any, need to be made in the plan? Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

401 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Spelling Chequer [1] Eye halve a spelling chequer It came with my pea sea It plainly marques four my revue Miss steaks eye kin knot sea. Eye strike a key and type a word And weight four it two say Weather eye am wrong oar write It shows me strait a weigh. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc. 401

402 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Spelling Chequer [2] As soon as a mist ache is maid It nose bee fore two long And eye can put the error rite Its rare lea ever wrong. Eye have run this poem threw it I am shore your pleased two no Its letter perfect awl the weigh My chequer tolled me sew. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc. 402

403 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
403

404 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
404

405 Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
405

406 Children Learn What They Live by Dorothy Law Nolte [1]
If children live with criticism,                They learn to condemn.           If children live with hostility,                They learn to fight.           If children live with ridicule,                They learn to be shy.           If children live with shame,                They learn to feel guilty.           If children live with encouragement,                They learn confidence. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc. 406

407 Children Learn What They Live by Dorothy Law Nolte [2]
If children live with tolerance,                They learn to be patient.           If children live with praise,                They learn to appreciate.           If children live with acceptance,                They learn to love.           If children live with approval,                They learn to like themselves. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc. 407

408 Children Learn What They Live by Dorothy Law Nolte [3]
If children live with honesty,                They learn truthfulness.           If children live with security,                They learn to have faith in themselves and others.           If children live with friendliness,            They learn the world is a nice place in which to live. Copyright 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc. 408


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