Presentation on theme: "Teaching Midrash to Children"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching Midrash to Children Theory into Practice
2 Why Midrash? Midrash is basic to Judaism- Philosophy (God/Torah/Israel/Humans)Values (din-rahamim/teshuvah/mitzvah)Aggadah vs Halakhah is the “soul” of Judaism—poetry, emotion, legend, creativity (Heschel/Bialik)“If you desire to know Him by whose word the universe came into being, study the aggadah”-Sifre
3 What is Midrash? Oral Torah Creative interpretation of Torah/Bible in every age to make it relevantResponse to a changing worldAddresses eternal questions and issues (Heinemann/Zunz/Bloch)Midrash is both process and product
4 Initiate child into this process & product Has been peripheral and taught via Rashi/Tales of RabbisChild should “create” midrashimChild should experience traditional midrashim-discussion, inquiry, analysisMidrash belongs in curriculum “attached” to Bible study (not only as “Rashi”)
5 Midrashic Techniques and the Child Narrative—filling in gaps in storyParable—comparisons to concrete worldMetaphor, imageryDialoguesCreative/mythical thinking and interpretationSeem appropriate to child’s imaginative thinking
6 Children’s Thinking Cognitive thinking (Piaget) Ages 7-10 Concrete Operational: need concrete data to understand conceptsAges 12+ Formal Operations: can manipulate ideas mentally, reason hypothetically, and think abstractly
7 Metaphoric Thinking (Howard Gardner) Ages Visual-Sensory: focuses on physical characteristics (bald head=“barefoot head” Pharaoh hardens heart-physical)Ages 10+ Psychological: symbolic understanding (spring is a lady in a new coat, make hay while the sun shines)E.g. The prison guard was a hard rock
8 StorytellingAges 7-10 focuses on plot/”facts”-can’t understand character motivationAges 10+ can interpret the story from “the outside”; understands conflict and motivations
9 Religious Thinking 1 (Ronald Goldman) Ages 7-10 (concrete)-splitting of Sea: can’t explain how wind blew the water not the IsraelitesAges 12+ (formal)- Can give figurative explanationsDon’t teach Bible before teen years!
10 Religious Thinking 2 (James Fowler) Ages Mythic Literal-loves mythical stories; grasps meaning “directly”Myth can have powerful meaning (Bettelheim)Ages 13+ conceptualizes meaning of mythic storiesAlthough children cannot abstract and conceptualize philosophical meanings behind Midrash, they can grasp meanings which lead to later understanding
11 Teaching Strategies Appropriate to Midrashic Thinking Mashal (parable)- synecticsDrama/ Dialogue- bibliodrama (Peter Pitzele)Story – creative writingCreative Interpretation- the arts (torn paper midrash-Jo Milgrom)
12 Dual FocusCreating Midrash (Process)—gets “inside” story and prepares child for discussion of classic Midrash (How did Abraham discover God?)Analyzing Midrash (Product)—allows child to encounter traditional Midrash through inquiry and analysis.
13 Example Lesson-the vbx- thorn bush I am a thorn bush.I feel______________When people come near me, I_________When the Israelites were in Egypt how was it like being in a thorn bush?
14 A Midrash (Shemot Rabba 2,5) Just as the thorn bush is the sharpest of all trees, and any bird that enters the thorn bush does not come out in peace, so too the slavery of Egypt was sharp and difficult.What do the thorn bush/ bird symbolize?What does it mean they did not come out “in peace”
15 Rabbi Alvan Kaunfer Providence, R.I. rund khz Go and Learn!Rabbi Alvan KaunferProvidence, R.I.