3 Learning Agreement Confidentiality Personal responsibility Right to challenge statements Acknowledge diversity and respect each others contributions Be aware of language or behaviour that may be offensive to others Right to pass Look after yourself Finish on Time
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Learning Outcomes By the end of the course, the participants will be able to: State the legal and procedural framework. Understand their own role within their agency with regard to safeguarding. Recognise roles and responsibilities of other agencies. Understand the Herefordshire Pathway of Intervention Identify the factors that impact on the vulnerability of children Recognise the multi-disciplinary nature of the child protection process.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board To value and listen to contributions To question differences constructively, in a manner that is enabling to the process of the group and the objectives of the course To address and challenge oppressive behaviour or language To support a principle of confidentiality about personal issues and feelings Learning Principles
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Introduction
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board www.barnardos.org.uk/btc Barnardo’s Registered Charity Nos. 216250 and sc037605 77 Definition of Child Abuse Abuse is commonly recognised as any behaviour towards a child that causes harm to that child in some way A child is defined as some one up to the age of 18 under The Children Act 1989 Someone may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm or by knowingly not preventing harm (NSPCC 2000) Children may be abused in the family, community, institutional setting, or more rarely by a stranger Most children know the person abusing them There are four categories of abuse; physical, emotional, sexual & neglect (Working Together to Safeguard Children 2013) Significant harm is how The Children Act views & determines whether there is any harm to a child
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Abuse and Neglect Are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting by those known to them or, more rarely, by others (e.g. via the internet). They may be abused by an adult or adults or another child or children.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Safeguarding & promoting the welfare of children (Working Together 2013) ProtectionSafe care Prevention Best chances
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Can you name these children? Which government policies emerged following their deaths?
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Victoria Climbe Peter Connolly Kyra Ishaq Holly Wells and Jessica Tate Influences for Change
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Legislation Quiz I have a duty to investigate child protection concerns. True/False If I report a concern the child will be taken into care. Always/Sometimes/Never Which of the following Acts are part of the framework for child protection work –Children Act 1989 –Children Act 2004 –Education Act 2002 –Homelessness Act 2002 For a bonus: Can you name any other significant pieces of legislation? If a child is called a ‘Child in Need’ what are they in need of? What is ‘Significant Harm’? Who should attend a Child Protection Conference? Name any policy or set of guidances that you need to follow to safeguard children. I should only share information about a child with another professional if the parent consents. True/False What does ‘whistleblowing’ mean?
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Legal Framework Children Act 1989 defined who is a child, what are their rights, responsibilities of parents and local authorities, what are complex needs and significant harm Education Act 2002 responsibilities under the Education Acts are carried out with a view to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children Children Act 2004 all agencies required to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and to work together better and at an earlier stage
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Child in Need/Child Protection Assess ‘Children in Need’ who have COMPLEX unmet needs requiring support, e.g.: They are unlikely to achieve/maintain reasonable standard of health or development Their health or development will be significantly impaired They are disabled Investigate & assess children at risk of/have suffered significant harm which is defined as: ‘Ill treatment or impairment of health & development including that suffered from seeing or hearing ill-treatment of another’ Children’s Social Care will:
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Framework of Legislation and Guidance UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 Ratified by the UK in 1991 Children Act 1989 Education Act 2002 Children Act 2004 The Laming Report 2003Working Together to Safeguard Children – 2013 Every Child Matters – Change for Children - 2004 The Bichard Report 2005 What to do if you’re worried a child is being abused - 2006 Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education - 2006 The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act - 2006 The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report - 2009
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Working Together 2013 – Key Changes Child Centred Alert Professionals Information Sharing Professionals contribute and review regularly LSCB’s to co-ordinate and challenge Publish SCR’s Local Innovation
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Working Together to Safeguard Children 2013 Children have said that they need: Vigilance: to have adults notice when things are troubling them Understanding and action: to understand what is happening; to be heard and understood; and to have that understanding acted upon Stability: to be able to develop an on-going stable relationship of trust with those helping them Respect: to be treated with the expectation that they are competent rather than not Information and engagement: to be informed about and involved in procedures, decisions, concerns and plans Explanation: to be informed of the outcome of assessments and decisions and reasons when their views have not met with a positive response Support: to be provided with support in their own right as well as a member of their family Advocacy: to be provided with advocacy to assist them in putting forward
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Is it or is it not true? Hitting children is always wrong and is a form of child abuse Disabled children are more at risk of being abused than other children Staff and volunteers working with children are unlikely to abuse them Children often make up stories about being abused Boys are less likely to be sexually abused than girls A faith leader is unlikely to abuse a child Only men abuse children Children are more likely to be abused by people they know well than by strangers Cultural practices must be respected, even when they appear harmful to children It is better to maintain your relationship with a parent than to damage it by reporting concerns
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Safeguarding and Promoting Children Welfare Effective recruitment, selection and contractual procedures including safeguarding checks Procedures for dealing with allegations against staff /volunteers Whistleblowing and culture of sharing concerns Culture of listening to and consulting with children Arrangements of working with other organisations and information sharing Arrangements for staff/volunteer training, supervision and support Safeguarding policies inc. CP policy and complaint procedures in line with LSCB Priorities in strategic policy documents & commission strategies Clear lines of accountability for safeguarding arrangements
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Influences Local Safeguarding Children Board Joint Inter Agency Procedures and Protocols - www.herefordshiresafeguardingchildrenboard.org.uk Ofsted Inspections Both Local Authority and Education Herefordshire Serious Case Reviews & Significant Incident Learning Process
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Learning from Serious Case Reviews
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board The toxic trio Domestic Abuse Substance Misuse Parental Mental Health
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board 23 Biennial Serious Case Review Report: 2003- 2005 Brandon, M et al, DCSF (Jan 2008) 161 serious case review included in the study. Of which: 12% were on the child protection register 55% were known to social services 16% related to head injuries to babies 21% featured neglect (strict definition of neglect used for the study) 30% were living in poor living conditions In relation to age breakdown for the 161: 47% were under 1 20% were age 1- 5 7% were age 6- 10 (significantly under represented, given this is one of the highest groups presented to hospital A&E departments !5% were age 11- 15 9% were 16 plus (mainly suicides) Out of the 161, 47 were looked at in more detail. In these cases: Domestic violence was present in 66% Mental health was present in 55% Substance misuse was present in 57% In addition the report found that in 1 in 3 cases of the 47 detailed cases, all three of these factors were present.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board www.barnardos.org.uk/btc Barnardo’s Registered Charity Nos. 216250 and sc037605 24 Biennial Serious Case Review Report: 2005- 2007 Brandon, M et al,( DCSF, July 2009) The Children How old were the children? Over two thirds of the children were aged under five and almost half were less than a year old. Only a small minority were 6- 10 years old. Almost a quarter were young people aged over 11 and 11% were much older adolescents of 16 and 17. It appeared that the youngest child in the family had a heightened level of vulnerability and risk of harm. What happened to the children? Two thirds of the 189 children died, and a third were seriously injured or harmed. The highest risk of maltreatment related deaths and serious injury are in the first five years of life. Physical assault was the major cause of death for this age group. Most of the older adolescents died through suicide. A third of the children experienced serious harm, often through neglect (including accidents and house fires). Issues of neglect were often present in those children who died. Sexual abuse was the prime concern in 1 in 12 cases.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Key messages from SCR’s What SCR’s have told us: First impressions Rule of optimism Start again syndrome Cultural relativism Natural love Failure to understand potential behaviour in context Focussing on single event Failure to revise assessments Tunnel vision Lack of challenge in supervision Mirroring chaotic families Fixed thinking Comprised compliance
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Themes from serious case reviews Need to ensure clarity regarding making referrals WHEN – recognising and understanding safeguarding issues HOW – understanding the process and roles and responsibilities BARRIERS - perceptions of thresholds Need to ensure an awareness in adult services of the needs of children and the impact of parents behaviour on their health and development Need for greater understanding of the role of information sharing within and between agencies
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Need to be aware of and follow the Inter Agency Procedures for Safeguarding children and to make use of available tools Need for holistic assessment and analysis of information to ensure a focus on the needs of the child Need to ensure effective communication with children takes place Themes from serious case reviews
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Themes from serious case reviews Need to assess all family members and in particular fathers and partners with a focus on their history and possible risks to children Need for all services to be realistic about the impact on children of adult needs and behaviours such as substance misuse Need to be aware of risk factors e.g. domestic violence and the cumulative nature of risk for both adults and children Need to promote evidenced based practice and challenge parents when appropriate
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Working with Resistant, Violent and Aggressive Families (see LSCB guidance) No significant change at reviews despite significant input Parents/carers agreeing with professionals regarding changes but put little effort into making changes work Change does occur but as a result of external agencies/resources not parent/carer efforts Change in one area of functioning is not matched by change in other areas Parents/Carers will engage with certain aspects of the plan only Parents/carers align themselves with certain professionals Child’s report of matters conflicts with parent’s/carer's report
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Possible Impact Inability to obtain accurate information to inform assessments Violent/intimidating behaviour may result in ‘keeping professional at bay’ Usual sources of information/alternative perceptions may be affected Need to work out specifically which areas of assessment are difficult to achieve and why
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Review of Vetting and Barring Scheme Independent Safeguarding Authority ( ISA) has been merged with CRB – Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) Existing duty on a ‘regulated activity provider’ to ascertain whether a person is barred before engaging in regulated activity remains. Definition of ‘regulated activity’ has been amended so the range of posts falling within it has been reduced
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Review of Vetting and Barring Scheme (DBS) Requirement to register has been repealed Duty to refer to ISA remains. Offences remain the same Copies of CRBs (DBS’s) will be issued to the applicant only and not copied to the body countersigning the application at the same time Certificates will be updated on a continuous basis removing they need to make repeat applications
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board DBS additional slides
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board The Safeguarding Pathway
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Safeguarding is much more than Child Protection Stay safe from maltreatment, neglect, violence and sexual exploitation Safe from accidental injury and death Safe from bullying and discrimination Develop appropriately including health and education Have security, stability, and are cared for Wellbeing of the Child
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Safeguarding and Child Protection ‘Safeguarding’ is: Protecting children from maltreatment Preventing impairment of health or development Ensuring children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care Enabling children to have optimum life chances in adulthood ‘Child Protection’ is: A part of safeguarding and promoting welfare Refers to the activity that is undertaken to protect specific children who are suffering, or are likely to suffer, significant harm
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Statistics
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Statistics
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Statistics
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Statistics
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Statistics
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Statistics
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Herefordshire Levels of Need
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Assessment Framework Triangle
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Herefordshire Levels of Need and Service Response Guidance Document aims to summarise the different levels of need that a child or family may experience and shows how typical interventions from a range of services can meet theses needs Consistent application of assessments processes
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Key Points Model based on 4 levels of need Centre of the windscreen is CAF – a holistic assessment and review which stays with the child or young person as they move across the levels of need. Other more specialist assessments will feed into the CAF Introduction of the Eligibility and Priority Framework
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Pathway of Needs CAF (referral to children’s social care where there is not child protection concerns) Multi-agency Groups Child in Need – Section 17 Section 47 Significant Harm
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Policies and Procedures CAF Manual of Guidance Herefordshire Levels of Need and Service Response Guidance Multi-Agency Groups Guidance Standards and Guidance for Multi-Agency Referrals to Children’s Social Care HSCB – Inter agency Procedures and Protocols
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Multi-Agency Groups Meetings of key practitioners from different local agencies and settings Identify vulnerable children and young people in a locality and try to ensure they receive the support they need through Common Assessment process Provide support to practitioners who are completing CAFs Share any additional information that is relevant which may have not been identified in the CAF Identify any resources and interventions from within the group which may meet the needs identified in the CAF Agree a plan of action which will address the needs identified and who will carry out different aspects of the plan
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Unsure? MASH: 01432 260800 CAF Support: Information & Assessment Co- ordinators: Locality Team: 01432 260261
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Case Exercise: What needs do the children have? And how could these be identified via a CAF and MAG?
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Levels of Need CAF/MAGS MASH Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Are you concerned or not concerned? What would be your response in relation to: Herefordshire Levels of Need and Service Response Guidance
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Child In Need Children Act 1989 Sec 17 A child shall be taken to be in need if: They are unlikely to achieve or maintain, or have the opportunity of achieving or maintaining, a reasonable standard of health or development without the provision for them of services by a local authority under this part Their health or development is likely to be significantly impaired, without the provision of such services The child/young person is disabled
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Significant Harm The Children Act 1989 Section 47 Concept of Significant harm – to justify compulsory intervention in family life in the best interests of children Local Authority – duty to makes enquiries where it has reasonable cause to suspect a child is suffering significant harm Defined by the Children Act 1989 Ill treatment (including sexual abuse and physical abuse) Impairment of health (physical or mental) or development (physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural) as compared to a similar child
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board 56 Revised definition of Significant Harm Harm now means the “ill-treatment or the impairment of health or development, including, for example, impairment suffered from seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another.”
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Case Exercises In your groups consider the scenarios and identify signs and indicators of concern Rank them from ‘least to most’ abusive (or concerning) What would be your response in relation to Herefordshire LSCB Levels of Need model
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Referral to Children's Services A referral is “a request to Children Services for assessment or for services to safeguard and promote the welfare of a child in need.” Referral to Multi- Agency Safeguarding Hub – MASH 01432 260800 / www.herefordshire.gov.uk/MASHwww.herefordshire.gov.uk/MASH Decisions about referral made within 24 hrs Decisions can include to: Provide advice and guidance Signpost to appropriate agency Undertake a short piece of work e.g. write a letter, send a leaflet (within 24 hours) Initiate section 47 enquiries
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Key terms Referral to children’s social care (using Multi-Agency Referral Form) Initial assessment Strategy discussion Child protection enquiry Child protection conference Core assessment Child protection plan Core group
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board The safeguarding system Contact ReferralM.A.S.H Strategy Discussion Single Assessment Child in Need Children Looked After CAF/MAG Early intervention Section 47 Enquiry Single Assessment Child subject to a Child Protection Plan Initial Child Protection Conference
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Final key messages Safeguarding is everyone’s responsibility All children have an equal right to protection Some children need additional consideration to keep them safe We are an important partner in inter-agency co-operation We support our staff to keep our pupils safe
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Contacts The M.A.S.H: 01432 260800 (Professionals’ number to seek advice or report a concern) Out of Hours Emergency Duty Team: 01905 768020 CAF: Locality Team 01432 260261 NSPCC:0808 800 5000 www.nspcc.org.uk This is a free 24 hour service which provides counselling, information and advice to anyone concerned about a child at risk of abuse.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board 63 OTHER KINDS OF ABUSE Bullying Internet Professional abuse Forced marriage Fictitious Illness Female Genital Mutilation Child Sexual Exploitation Child Trafficking
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Child Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking: Priority for HSCB ( see CSE Action Plan for HSCB )
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board What is it? Exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people receive something as a result of performing, and/or others performing on them sexual activities Power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Child Trafficking Involves the transport of young people across international or national boundaries for the purpose of exploitation which can be of a sexual nature but also includes financial exploitation and forced labour. It can also involve the trafficking and prostitution of local children and young people by organised gangs.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Introduction Child Sexual exploitation and trafficking are forms of child abuse Characterised by child’s perceived position of the limited availability of choice,experience and understanding compounding their vulnerability Use of fear deception coercion and violence Link between children missing from home/care and being sexually exploited is very strong
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Key Facts about CSE Age – often starts at 12-13 Gender – affects girls and boys Ethnicity – happens in all communities Vulnerability – Any young person can be targeted Especially vulnerable groups –Looked after children, Children leaving care, Children missing from home, Children with learning difficulties Victims may be trafficked (locally, regionally, nationally)
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Key Facts about CSE Girls are targeted from age 10-11 Boys are targeted from age 8 25-30% of referrals are boys Victims from LAC and non-statemented learning difficulties are over represented in referrals. (Safe and Sound’s Experience)
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Key Facts about CSE Over 70% of adults involved in prostitution were sexual exploited as children or teenagers (YWCA 2002, JAGO AND PEARCE 2008) This highlights the importance of prevention, detection and early intervention
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Grooming Models Party models Older Boyfriend model Gang culture Young people as conduits Internet/sexting Social groups in regular locations Mobile phones Domestic Trafficking
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board What are the signs? Going missing for periods of time of regularly returning home late Regularly missing school or not taking part in education Appearing with unexplained gifts or new possessions Associating with other people involved in exploitation Having older boyfriends or girlfriends Suffering from sexually transmitted infections Mood swings or changes in emotional well being Drug and alcohol misuse Displaying inappropriate sexualised behaviour
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Environment and Vulnerability Parenting capacity/history Drug and alcohol abuse Learning difficulties Mental health issues Family breakdown Bereavement especially pre-adolescence Poverty Tolerance of children going missing Previous abuse particularly emotional/sexual ‘Created vulnerability by over-protective parents
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Local Context HSCB annual report – highlights the potential risk factors Large number of residential providers in the county – significant numbers placed from other authorities – increased number of children missing from care Potential hidden numbers from migrant workers.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Actions HSCB Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking Plan 2012-2015 Multi-agency task and finish group Dataset being developed Risk assessment matrix adopted Awareness training incorporated into HSCB Safeguarding courses
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Barnardo’s Hidden DVD
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Key messages from enquiries Seven steps to better protection Community Care: 11 January 2007: INTERAGENCY WORKING UNDERSTANDING OF OTHER AGENCIES’ ROLES COMMUNICATION RECORDING SUPERVISION RISK MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board 78 Six key points on information sharing Explain at the outset, openly and honestly, what and how information will be shared Always consider the safety and welfare of a child or young person when making decisions on whether to share information about them Seek consent to share confidential information. You may still share information if, in your judgement, there is sufficient need to override the lack of consent Seek advice where you are in doubt Ensure the information is accurate and up to date, necessary, shared only with those people who need to see it, and shared securely Always record the reasons for your decision – whether it is to share information or not HM Government (2006) What To Do If You’re Worried A Child Is Being Abused. Department for Education and Skills, London. Appendix 3.
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Importance of recording
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board www.barnardos.org.uk/btc Barnardo’s Registered Charity Nos. 216250 and sc037605 80 How we should keep records Issues to consider: Jargon vs simple accessible language Factual information Opinion based on fact Unfounded opinion based on speculation Unfounded opinion based on hearsay Judgemental language vs need for inclusive recording www.writeenough.org.uk
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board www.barnardos.org.uk/btc Barnardo’s Registered Charity Nos. 216250 and sc037605 81 Recording should evidence: 1.Detail/nature of the contact 2.Observation/overview of the contact 3.Assessment by the worker of contact 4.Analysis of the contact 5.Plan: what next & actions taken 6.Review: evidence of cross referencing to other recording processes It should be a consistent process that is open, accountable & transparent. (and shared with all those involved in the child’s care- including the child)
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board Recording exercise What the DVD If you observed this- what would you include in your recording
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board What do I need to keep children safe from harm?
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board 84 What can increase the risk? Domestic Abuse Substance Misuse Adult Mental Health Adult Learning Difficulties Age & gender Disability Ethnicity
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board 85 SOME KEY MESSAGES K e e p y o u r f o c u s o n t h e c h i l d ; s e e a n d h e a r t h e m C h i l d r e n a t r i s k m a y n o t b e k n o w n t o C h i l d r e n ’ s S e r v i c e s C h i l d r e n u n d e r 1 2 m o n t h s m o s t v u l n e r a b l e ; t e e n a g e r s t h e s e c o n d m o s t v u l n e r a b l e g r o u p. C h i l d a b u s e c a n o c c u r i n a n y s e t t i n g, c u l t u r e, g r o u p, r e l i g i o n, c l a s s, e t c. “ C u l t u r e e x p l a i n s a b u s e, i t d o e s n o t e x c u s e i t ” K e y r i s k f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d o m e s t i c v i o l e n c e, p a r e n t a l m e n t a l health and substance/alcohol misuse health and substance/alcohol misuse E v e r y o n e h a s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e p o r t c o n c e r n s a b o u t a c h i l d – d i s c u s s w i t h y o u r m a n a g e r a n d f o l l o w y o u r p r o c e d u r e s W o r k w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s a n d s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n R e c o r d a c c u r a t e l y G o o d s u p e r v i s i o n i s a r i g h t f o r a l l o f u s a n d i s e s s e n t i a l i n s a f e g u a r d i n g c h i l d r e n
Herefordshire Safeguarding Children Board 86 EXERCISE Can you think of one thing you can do to help keep children safe?