2 DefinitionPathophysiologySigns and symptomsCauses by ageManagement – Various optionsCommunicationSummary
3 Inability of the heart to pump as much blood as required for the adequate metabolism of the body. The clinical picture of CHF results from a combination of “relatively low output” and compensatory responses to increase it.
5 Heart failure results either from an excessive volume or pressure overload on normal myocardium (left to right shunts, aortic stenosis)Or from primary myocardial abnormality (myocarditis, cardiomyopathy).
6 Decrease in cardiac output triggers a host of physiological responses aimed at restoring perfusion of the vital organs .Renal retention of fluidRenin-angiotensin mediated vasoconstrictionSympathetic overactivityExcessive fluid retentionIncreases the cardiac output by increasing the endDiastolic volume (preload)
7 Vasoconstriction (increase in afterload) tends to maintain flow to vital organs, but it is disproportionately elevatedSympathetic over-activity results in increase in contractility, which also increases myocardial requirements.
8 An understanding of the interplay of the four principal determinants of cardiac output - preload, afterload, contractility and heart rate is essential in optimising the therapy of CHF
9 CHF in Neonates and Infants Diagnosis Difficult at times (pulmonary causes, sepsis)SymptomsIncessant cryFeeding difficultyExcessive sweatingFrequent chest infectionFailure to thrive
10 SignsTachycardiaS3Respiratory distressWheeze, ralesHepatomegalySigns of shockcardiomegaly
13 A precise description of feeding history, heart rate, respiratory rate and pattern, peripheral perfusion, presence of S3 and the extent of hepatomegaly should perhaps be considered in this evaluation.
14 Heart failure in infants -General points Heart rates above 220/min indicate supraventricular tachycardia as the cause.On chest X-ray a cardiothoracic ratio of > 60% in the newborn and > 55% in older infants with CHF is the rule.Hepatomegaly of > 3 cm below the costal margin is usually present, even in the primarily left sided lesions.
16 The time of onset of CHF holds the key to the aetiological diagnosis in this age group
17 CHF in the fetus Supraventricular tachycardia, Severe bradycardia due to complete heart blockAnaemiaSevere tricuspid regurgitation due to Ebstein’s anomalyMitral regurgitation from atrioventricular canal defectMyocarditis
18 CHF on first day of lifeMyocardial dysfunction secondary to asphyxia, hypoglycemiaHypocalcemiaSepsisEbstein’s anomaly
19 CHF in first week of life Peripheral pulses and oxygen saturation (by a pulse oximeter) should be checked in both the upper and lower extremities.A lower saturation in the lower limbs means right to left ductal shunting and occurs due to pulmonary hypertension, coarctation of aorta or aortic arch interruption.
20 CHF in first week of life An atrial or ventricular septal defect (ASD/VSD) does not lead to CHF in the first two weeks of life.An additional cause must be sought (eg.coarctation of aorta or left hypopoplastic heart syndrome).
21 Premature infants have a poor myocardial reserve and a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may result in CHF in the first week in them .Adrenal insufficiency due to enzyme deficiencies or neonatal thyrotoxicosis could present with CHF in the first few days of life.
22 CHF beyond second week of life The most common cause of CHF in infants is a ventricular septal defect that presents around 6-8 weeks of age.Any left to right shuntLeft coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery
23 CHF beyond InfancyOnset of CHF beyond infancy is unusual in patients with congenital heart disease and suggests a complicating factor like valvular regurgitation, infective endocarditis, myocarditis, anaemiaAcquired diseases are common cause of CHF in children.
24 left-sided obstructive disease (aortic stenosis or coarctation); myocardial dysfunction (myocarditis or cardiomyopathy);hypertension;renal failure;more rarely, arrhythmias or myocardial ischemia
25 Characteristic findings in heart failure in children Cardiac rhythm disordersVolume overloadPressure overloadSystolic dysfunctionDiastolic dysfunction
26 Treatment of CHF Treatment of the cause Treatment of the precipitating eventsRheumatic activity,Infective endocarditis,Intercurrent infections,Anaemia, electrolyte imbalances,Arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism,Drug interactions,Drug toxicity or non-complianceOther system disturbances etc.
27 Treatment of congested state Reducing the pulmonary or systemic congestion (diuretics)Reducing the disproportionately elevated afterload (vasodilators including ACE inhibitors)Increasing contractility (inotropes)Other measures
28 DiureticsDiuretics afford quick relief in pulmonary and systemic congestion. 1 mg/kg of frusemide is the agent of choice.For chronic use 1-4 mg/kg of frusemide or mg/kg of chlorothiazide in divided dosages are used.Monitor electrolytes, urea and weightSpironolactone may be added.
29 VasodilatorsSeveral trials in adults have shown that ACE inhibitors prolong life in patients with CHF and improve quality of life.These drugs should not be used in patients with aortic or mitral stenosis.Enalapril in a dose from 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg/day has been used in children . Captopril is used in a dosage of upto 6 mg/kg/day in divided doses.
34 Digoxin :ControversialStill used in some centres.Highly toxic and low therepeutic margin
35 Other options ECMO LV assist devices A combination of external implantable pulsatile and continuous-flow external mechanical support as a bridge to transplantationBiventricular pacingCardiac transplantation
36 Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 3: 377–386 doi:10.1038/ncpcardio0575 Figure 3 Standard configuration of Berlin Heart Excor® (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin, Germany) biventricular supportHetzer R and Stiller B (2006) Technology Insight: use of ventricular assist devices in childrenNat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 3: 377–386 doi: /ncpcardio0575
39 General Measures Head end elevation, Judicious use of sedation and temporarily denying oral intake
40 NutritionInfants with CHF require Kcal/kg/day of caloric intake and 2-3 mEq/kg/day of sodium.
41 It is not generally appreciated that oxygen may sometimes worsen the CHF in patients with left to right shunts due to its pulmonary vasodilating and systemic vasoconstrictor effectsDetrimental in duct dependent lesions
42 CommunicationIn dealing with parents, it is preferable to use words like “pulmonary congestion”, “liver congestion” rather than ‘heart failure”, since “heart failure”, is likely to be misunderstood by the parents and this may hamper useful interaction.
43 Summary Definition of heart failure Presentation of CHF. Various causesManagement