Presentation on theme: "A Functional Approach to Social Skills Intervention for Young Students with Autism in Inclusive Settings Maureen A. Conroy Elizabeth L.W. McKenney Brian."— Presentation transcript:
1 A Functional Approach to Social Skills Intervention for Young Students with Autism in Inclusive SettingsMaureen A. ConroyElizabeth L.W. McKenneyBrian A. BoydUniversity of FloridaSupported by U.S. Department of EducationOffice of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (#H324D020023)
2 Objectives of Presentation The participants in the session will learn:A strategy for conducting informal functional assessment of social behaviorsSkills to link assessment information to the development of social skill interventionsResearch-derived practices for addressing the social challenges of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
3 Presentation OutlineProvide overview of the literature on the social deficits of children with ASDProvide a brief overview of our research study and its purpose: Project GATORSSDescribe methods for assessing the social behaviors of children with autism: Social Skills Interview (SSI) & Snapshot Assessment Tool (SAT)Present a case study and video examples to facilitate participant understanding
4 Why Do Children with ASD Experience Social Skills Deficits? Some common theories….Theory of Mind: suggests that children with ASD have difficulty understanding and taking the perspectives of others (Tager-Flusberg, 2002)Social Orienting: suggests that children with ASD have difficulty orienting to social stimuli (Mundy & Stella, 2000)These are just theories!!!Caregivers and practitioners need practical strategies
5 Why Examine the Social Behaviors of Children with ASD? Children with ASD experience difficulty in three areas:Behavioral excesses in display of restricted & repetitive behaviorsBehavioral deficits in display of developmentally and age-appropriate communication and social behaviorsDifficulty with social reciprocity is considered the central and defining feature of ASD (NRC, 2001)
6 Why Examine the Social Behaviors of Children with ASD (cont’d)? Poor social skills and display of problem behaviors often interfere with successful inclusion in early childhood programs (Odom et al., in prep)Placement in inclusive settings alone will not produce positive and lasting changes in the display of appropriate social behavior by children with ASD (McConnell, 2002)We need evidence-based interventions to address and remediate their social skill deficits
7 Objectives of Project GATORSS Overall goal….To develop a process for decreasing the maladaptive social behaviors and increasing the prosocial behaviors of young children with ASD in early childhood settings.Development of functional assessment techniques designed to address social skill deficitsDevelopment of individualized social skill interventions using assessment-based behavioral intervention strategies
8 Method Multiphase Assessment Process 1. Descriptive Assessments Social Skills Interview with primary caregivers and teachersSnapshot Assessment Tool (adapted from Conroy & Brown, 2001)6 observations conducted during opportunities for child with ASD to socially interactSocial Skills Observation form (adapted from Brown, Odom, & Buysee, 2000)10-min observations of child with ASD in different social contexts (manipulative area, art, pretend play area)Need to find out he name of the Project DATA form.I think that is the name, but you can check the UW webpage. Another option is that we leave the DATA Social Skills Assessment off since we really don’t use that information for our descriptive assessment information process - right?
9 Method (cont’d) 2. Experimental Analyses 3. Interventions Functional analyses (Iwata et al., 1982/1994)Conditions: ignore, tangible, attention, escape, free playStructural analyses (Cooper et al., 1990; Peck et al., 1997)Conditions: amount of peer attention, preference for social activity/materials, type of directions3. InterventionsReplacement of inappropriate social behaviors with development of appropriate social behaviors that match the outcomes and function of behaviorsUtilization of contextual factors that reduce the likelihood of inappropriate social behaviors and increase likelihood of appropriate social behaviors.
10 Focus on Descriptive Assessments Social Skills Interview (SSI) (Asmus et al., 2003)Indirect assessmentSnapshot Assessment Tool (SAT) (Conroy et al., 2003)Direct observation measure
11 Case Study: Allen 5 years old Diagnosis PDD-NOSCommunicates with simple sentences: Repeats phrases from movies and TV showsAcademically precocious: Teachers reported superior reading skillsMontessori Preschool: Fully Included24 typically developing peers, including his younger brotherChild-directed philosophyBehaviors of concernSocial withdrawalVery limited interactions with peers across settings
12 Social Skills Interview (SSI) Developed to find out from parents and practitionersCommunication abilities of child (e.g, verbal, nonverbal)Current display of social behavior (e.g., maintain proximity, initiate)Classroom settings/activities that permit social interaction and those settings/activities that promote/demote interactionClassroom times when social behavior is appropriateAntecedents of social behaviorPotential maintaining consequences of social behaviorPast and current intervention strategiesWhat has and what has not worked?
13 SSI Findings for AllenConducted a focus group interview with 6 preschool teachers and directorSSI Findings:Communication abilities: Allen is verbal and speaks in short sentencesSocial behavior: Allen rarely initiated or responded to peersSettings that permit interaction: AllSettings that promote interaction: None, but Allen enjoys puzzles, books, and “Thomas the Train”Settings that demote interaction: Sensory-based activitiesConsequences: Self-reinforcement (enjoys being alone) and/or EscapeIntervention strategies: None
14 What Did We Learn from SSI? Allen’s strengths:Has the ability to verbally communicateHas good play skills, but chooses to play aloneAllen’s needs:Does not initiate or respond to peer’sContextual Factors:Sensory-based activities decrease the likelihood of Allen engaging in social interactionsEnjoys playing puzzles, books, & Thomas the TrainIs this all we found out? Did it give us any more information than this that we could highlight or extrapolate from the interview?
15 Snapshot Assessment Tool (SAT) Developed to allow practitioners to observe and gather information on child’s social strengths and needsPurpose:Identify the types of social behaviors the target child is engaging in with peersExamine variables that surround occurrence of social behaviorsIdentify the outcomes of social behaviors when they do occur
16 SAT Form Type & Form of Behavior Context & Appropriate-ness of BehaviorReciprocity of ExchangePerceived Goal of BehaviorActual Outcome
17 Context & Appropriateness of Behavior SAT DefinitionsType and form of behaviorDescribe behavior observed for child with ASDDescribe what behavior looked likeIf teacher prompted social behavior note this as wellContext & appropriateness of playState what play activity was (blocks, swing)State if target child’s behavior was appropriate (both socially and developmentally)Type & Form of Behavior-Peer initiated-Peer said, “You’re getting a snack.”-Allen did not respondContext & Appropriateness of Behavior-Having a snack outside-Behavior not socially appropriateS & D refer to socially and developmentally appropriate. Do you think not responding is both socially and developmentally appropriate?
18 SAT Definitions (cont’d) Reciprocity of Exchange-No social reciprocity because Allen did not respond-Peer initiation did not lead to a social interactionReciprocity of exchangeState whether target child’s behavior was reciprocatedPerceived goal of behaviorDescribe goal you perceive the target child wanted (to obtain attention or a tangible, or to escape)Actual outcomeState what outcome the child actually receivedPerceived Goal of Behavior-To escape social interactionActual Outcome-Allen was successful in escaping the social interaction
19 SAT ProceduresIdentify 3-5 activities when target child is most social or has the most opportunities for social interactions to occur. During each observation session, observe long enough to complete 1 form.If no target child social behaviors have occurred within 15 minutes, stop the session and begin again on another day or at another time.If no social behavior has been observed within 1 minute, stop and record “No social behavior” in the “type and form of behavior” column.Summarize the data.
20 Important to Define Behaviors Identify behaviors when child with ASD is with his peers:Social initiationTarget child or peer behavior that attempts to elicit a social response, attention, or access objects/activitiesResponse to social initiationsBehavior that the target child or peers engage in to overtly acknowledge an initiation (e.g., a target child asks a peer to play and the peer joins him in play)No responseTarget child or peer ignores the initiator, and/or continues to engage in the same play behaviorInteractionSequence of 3 social behaviors between a target child and peer (initiation-response-interaction). The interaction begins with the third behavior in the sequenceMaureen, this is from the FLCEC presentation and I’m not sure what the first bullet is supposed to say?Do my edits clarify it?
21 Completed SAT for Allen I’m wondering if it makes sense to describe somewhere on this form what the target child is doing when no social behavior occurs? We haven’t really been doing it, but it might be something to think about?
22 SAT Findings for Allen Conducted 9 observations across 4 days Collected data during free play and outdoor play activitiesBaseline IOA:Collected during 57% of sessionsAveraged 100%
23 Summarizing Allen’s Data Brian,I’m wondering if we need a slide up front that talks about functions of social behaviors - I’m not sure the audience will understand these functions?
24 Comparison of SSI to SAT Allen rarely initiatesAllen does NOT interact for self-reinforcement or to escapeAllen likes puzzles and booksAllen rarely respondsSATAllen rarely initiates (26%)Potential tangible function to his social behavior (86%)Allen typically responded (80%)
25 Linking Assessment to Intervention Allen rarely initiates, but has appropriate communication and play behaviors in his repertoirePotential tangible function to his social behaviorHe engages in social behavior to obtain access to toys- especially “Thomas the Train"Social StoryInterventionHave Allen choose a peer so he could read the story to him/herHave Allen and peer “act out” scenario from the story during free play where there was access to tangible items that he likes (e.g., Thomas)
26 Function-based Intervention for Allen Initial InterventionModified Social Story (Gray, 1995)Social stories are written scenarios that provide social cues for children with ASD to facilitate appropriate behavior during social situationsDeveloped 3 social storiesHow to initiate & respond to peersHow to share books with peersHow to share Thomas the Train with peersI think we need a slide that links the intervention to the assesement. For example, we decided to use social story to teach Allen how to initiate. Since the function appeared to be tangible, we developed social sotries around tangible items, etc. What do you think?
27 Modified Intervention for Allen Teacher noticed after 1 week that Allen’s initiations increased, but he was more likely to initiate if she prompted himTeachers and research team decided to discontinue the social stories and use teacher prompting and praisingRevised InterventionSpecific promptsTo choose “what” to play with (e.g., Thomas the Train, puzzles, or books)Tangible FunctionTo select “who” to play withInitiationsTo decide “how” to ask the peer to playInitiationsDid we get this information from our assessment - if so, we need to illustrate that somewhere in the assessment information - right
28 Intervention Findings for Allen Collected data using 2 instruments:Snapshot Assessment Tool (SAT)Social Skills Observation form10-s partial interval recording system to determine the % of time Allen engaged in social initiations, responses, & interactions during a 10-min time periodCollected data during free play activities onlyIntervention IOA:SATCollected during 33% of sessionsAveraged 95% (range: %)Collected during 54% of the sessionsAveraged 97% (range: %)
31 Allen’s Social Skills Observation Intervention Data I know this will be changed, but I just went ahead and included it.
32 Summarize Findings for Allen Using SAT, Allen’s social initiations increased from 26% to 44%Using Social Skills Observation, Allen’s sustained interactions with peers increased from .7% to 23%Linking assessment information to the intervention allowed us to:Narrow the range of possible intervention optionsTailor the intervention to Allen’s unique social skills deficitsInclude in the intervention contextual factors that addressed his play behavior (e.g., puzzles) and potentially maintained his social behavior (i.e., access to tangible items)
33 SnapShot Practice Type & Form of Behavior Context & Appropriate-ness of BehaviorReciprocity of ExchangePerceived Goal of BehaviorActual OutcomeI thought we should show the form again before they were about to practice?Yes and we should include it on our handouts.
34 Jenny 5 years old Diagnosis: Asperger’s syndrome Based on Asperger’s Disorders ScaleKindergarten: Included 79% of the dayIQ 80 with Developmental Profile IIProblem BehaviorsScreamingDifficulty sharing toysCommunication1-4 word sentences and gesturesSocial BehaviorSocially passive
35 Jenny’s Social Behavior StrengthsEngages in parallel playRemains in proximity to peersResponds to peersKnows acceptable ways to join groupPlays cooperatively during simple gamesFollows one-step directionsImproved play activities with socially mature peersNeedsDoes not initiate toward peersPassively responds to peer initiationsImprove sharing and turn-taking behavior
36 Snapshot Findings for Jenny 5 observations to dateSummaryInitiated with peers during 10% of observation periodsResponded to peer initiations 75% of the timeMajority (86%) of social behavior was to maintain or gain access to a tangible item
38 Next Steps for Allen & Jenny Conduct experimental assessmentsFunctional Analyses (FA)To verify function of social behaviorStructural Analyses (SA)To determine additional contextual factors that effect the occurrence of social behaviorLink interventions to experimental assessment informationI like the blocks!
39 Snapshot SummarySnapshot Assessment Tool is a descriptive observation instrument that can be used to identifyVariables when social behaviors occurDid target child initiate?When peer initiates what is target child’s response?What is the context of the social situation?Outcomes of social situationsWhat was the perceived goal of target child’s behavior?What the did the target child actually achieve?Utilize this information when developing experimental analyses or for preliminary interventions
40 What Are Some Potential Social Skills Interventions? Based on work of National Research Council (2001)Environmental ArrangementTarget Child ReinforcementPeer Reinforcement
41 Environmental Arrangement “Social” GroupsInclusion of high status, socially-skilled peers (Sasso et al., 1998)Structured, cooperative activities help to increase the social interactions of children with ASD (McConnell, 2002)Decrease need for teacher involvementFree play is hard for kids with autism
43 Target Child Reinforcement Identify what is reinforcing for the child (e.g., being alone, hand-flapping, a certain toy)“Set-up” social situations with peers to provide opportunities for child to obtain the reinforcerReinforce the various components of social behaviorSocial initiationsSocial responsesSocial interactionsGeneralize behavior to more naturally occurring social situations
44 Peer-mediated Interventions Reinforce peers for engaging in social behavior with target childIndividual contingenciesProvide reinforcement to each peer who engages in a prespecified social behavior directed to target child (e.g., greeting the child when they arrive to school)Have peers self-monitorGroup contingenciesMay include child with autismGroup reward for engaging in social behaviorHave group self-monitorPeer buddies
46 SummarySocial skills literature has focused on specific intervention strategies not on methods to systematically assess the reasons or functions of those skill difficultiesNeed to develop instruments that will provide information for experimental analyses of social skills behaviorsSnapShot Assessment Tool provides a researcher or practitioner a low tech method to obtain information about the child’s social behaviors (or lack of behaviors)This information can be used to link assessment information to the development of interventionsAll of this information will lead to the development of more effective and efficient interventions for young children with ASD to increase opportunities for meaningful inclusion
47 For More Information Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org Check project website:Is there a project website?Yes, it is on the special education page - we can post this on there too if you want.
48 Are you interested in pursing a doctoral degree? Come to the University of Florida!Contact:Thanks!