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Psychoactive substances and new technologies abuse in children and adolescents Lenka Chudomelova Department of Child and Youth Health 3rd Faculty of Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychoactive substances and new technologies abuse in children and adolescents Lenka Chudomelova Department of Child and Youth Health 3rd Faculty of Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychoactive substances and new technologies abuse in children and adolescents Lenka Chudomelova Department of Child and Youth Health 3rd Faculty of Medicine

2 Definition  Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the brain functioning, causing changes in behavior, mood and consciousness.

3 Commonly abused drugs  Cannabinoids: hashish, marijuana  Depressants: barbiturates, BZD  Dissociative anesthetics: ketamine, phencyclidine  Hallucinogens: LSD, mescaline, psilocybin  Opioids: codeine, fentanyl, heroin, morphine, opium  Stimulants: amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, nicotine  Other compounds: anabolic steroids

4 Why do people take drugs?  To feel good drugs produce intense feelings of pleasure euphoria is followed by other effects, which differ with the type of drug used stimulants (cocaine): the “high” is followed by feelings of power, self-confidence, and increased energy opiates (heroin): feelings of relaxation and satisfaction

5 Why do people take drugs?  To feel better social anxiety stress-related disorders depression  To do better improve their athletic or cognitive performance  Curiosity and „because others are doing it“ strong influence of peer pressure

6 Early signs of risk in the family  lack of mutual attachment and nurturing by parents or caregivers  ineffective parenting  a chaotic home environment  lack of a significant relationship with a caring adult  a caregiver who abuses substances, suffers from mental illness, or engages in criminal behavior

7 Risk factors outside the family  inappropriate classroom behavior, such as aggression and impulsivity  academic failure  poor social coping skills  association with peers with problem behaviors, including drug abuse  misperceptions of the extent and acceptability of drug-abusing behaviors in school, peer, and community environments

8 Drug abuse/substance abuse  compulsive, excessive, and self-damaging use of habit forming drugs or substances, leading to: addiction or dependence serious health damage (kidneys, liver, heart) psychological harm (such as dysfunctional behavior patterns, hallucinations, memory loss) death

9 Drug addiction/drug dependence  compulsive craving for a drug which offers short-term intense relief/pleasure rapid induction of emotional state individuals normally are not able to experience

10 Development of addiction  1 st stage = FIRST CONTACT mostly in a group as a unique episode experience of belonging to a particular group or culture  2 nd stage = EXPERIMENTATION a positive experience from the first contact often motivates uncertain and anxious children to continue

11 Development of addiction  3 rd stage = USAGE, restful phase trigger point (conflict, trauma) because of the positive effect the child often regularly returns drug becomes part of their social life - perceived as “the best period of his/her life ever ” evolves into compulsive patterns of substance-seeking and substance-taking behavior that take place at the expense of most other activities somatic complaints begin to appear, breaking promises, increasing need for money, occasional absence following weekend trips, late arrivals home, deterioration of relations in the family and at school, loss of friends

12 Development of addiction  3 rd stage = USAGE, problematic/advanced usage  develops after a few months rather years of usage  cumulating problems loss of control over drug use, desire to confide loss of hobbies, lack of interest in school, work, family conflicts and theft serious health problems  young person perceives problems and tries to prove he's got a control  5 – 10 days sober establish him falsely in his view  within next years the head currently runs two programs – program of a drug and program of abstinence

13 Development of addiction  4 th stage = ADDICTION  unconditional loss of control over life drug brings nothing positive loss of dignity destruction of the closest relations delusion and inability to perceive reality loss of lust for life  difference between problematic usage and addiction? doses of the drug ability to admit the addiction

14 Development of addiction  5 th stage = QUITTING never ending stage life will never be as friendly as with the drug experiencing pain high motivation great social support

15 ESPAD 2011 - Alcohol ESPAD = The Europian School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs  1,6 % strict nondrinkers  60,0 % regular consumers ! Risk alcohol consumption rising !  Example: drunkennes during last month admitted 37% of 16 year old: 1/5 three times during the past month 5% ten times

16 ESPAD 2011 - Illegal drugs  experience with: cannabis.......................... 42% ecstasy............................ 8,3% hallucinogens.................. 5,6%  first experience in younger age  girls prefer to experiment with amphetamines and sedatives

17 Consumption of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in CR  one of the leading positions in Europe  reasons high tolerance to consumption physical and financial accessibility even for children and youth influence of media („celebrities“) commercial interests role models in the family lack of control mechanisms and sanctions

18 Gambling  slot machines  terminals  electro roulette  common cause lack of money (allowance) lack of hobbies peer influence

19 Virtual reality  internet addiction  computer games  completely identical problems as in drug addiction

20 Prevention principles  prevention programes should enhance protective factors and reduce risk factors (Hawkins et al. 2002)  prevention programes should address all forms of drug abuse (legal, illegal drugs, inappropriate use of legally obtained substances (Johnston et al. 2002)  prevention programes should address the type of drug abuse problem in the local community (Hawkins et al. 2002)  prevention programes should be tailored to address risks specific to population characteristics like age, gender, ethnicity (Oetting et al. 1997)

21 Risk factors x protective factors

22 Examples of preventive interventions  Prior to birth preventing/delaying pregnancy in young and vulnerable mothers antenatal health service antenatal educational courses/home visitation

23 Examples of preventive interventions  Early childhood school preparation programes school-based drug education parent education family therapy

24 Examples of preventive interventions  Adolescents school-based drug education peer intervention, peer eduaction youth sport and recreation programs mentorship employment and training

25 Examples of preventive interventions  Community based prevention education campaignes homelessness strategies crime prevention regulation and law enforcement judicial procedures harm-reduction strategies (I.e. low threshold centers)

26 How to say “NO”  assertiveness an important communication skill learn to reject things that are not right for him based on his conviction, ability to say no can save the child from the very first contact with the drug  self-confidence/self-esteem child should perceive that he is a unique human being child with an adequate self-esteem would not use drugs to confirm his confidence in relation to peers

27 Literature  lcohol_report/en/ lcohol_report/en/   2012.html 2012.html   NIDA: Preventing drug use among children and adolescents. (A research-based guide for parents, educators and community leaders. Second edition.)

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