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Language and Literacy in Bilingual Children: The Miami Experience Rebecca E. Eilers D. Kimbrough Oller Alan Cobo-Lewis Virginia Mueller Gathercole Barbara.

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Presentation on theme: "Language and Literacy in Bilingual Children: The Miami Experience Rebecca E. Eilers D. Kimbrough Oller Alan Cobo-Lewis Virginia Mueller Gathercole Barbara."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language and Literacy in Bilingual Children: The Miami Experience Rebecca E. Eilers D. Kimbrough Oller Alan Cobo-Lewis Virginia Mueller Gathercole Barbara Zurer Pearson

2 Preface Multilingualism is a global phenomenon. Multilingualism is a global phenomenon. English monolingualism in the US is an anomaly. English monolingualism in the US is an anomaly. English has become increasingly a “lingua franca”. English has become increasingly a “lingua franca”. Yet Americans fear “balkanization” from exposure to many native tongues. Yet Americans fear “balkanization” from exposure to many native tongues.

3 The Question! The debate in the US is often framed in terms of educational outcome. The debate in the US is often framed in terms of educational outcome. The claim is that bilingualism contributes to academic/intellectual deficits. The claim is that bilingualism contributes to academic/intellectual deficits. The question is: 1. Does bilingualism, in and of itself, cause intellectual or educational harm and 2. How do we appropriately isolate and assess the effects of bilingualism? The question is: 1. Does bilingualism, in and of itself, cause intellectual or educational harm and 2. How do we appropriately isolate and assess the effects of bilingualism?

4 The Control of Appropriate Variables Socio-economic status Socio-economic status Assessment in home language as well as English Assessment in home language as well as English Educational opportunities in each language Educational opportunities in each language Language entry skills in each language Language entry skills in each language Timing and duration of exposure to each language Timing and duration of exposure to each language Perceived status of each language Perceived status of each language

5 Why Miami? Single unified school district Single unified school district Multiple strategies across schools for language learning Multiple strategies across schools for language learning Large number of established, highly- integrated, Hi SES, Spanish-speaking and bilingual families Large number of established, highly- integrated, Hi SES, Spanish-speaking and bilingual families Significant commerce in both English and Spanish Significant commerce in both English and Spanish

6 The Hypotheses Additive (Lambert) Additive (Lambert) Subtractive (Lambert) Subtractive (Lambert) Interdependence (Cummins) Interdependence (Cummins) The Grand Interaction The Grand Interaction

7 Terminology LEP—Limited English Proficiency LEP—Limited English Proficiency SES—Socio-economic status SES—Socio-economic status LSH—Language spoken in the home LSH—Language spoken in the home OSH—Only Spanish at homeOSH—Only Spanish at home ESH—English and Spanish at homeESH—English and Spanish at home EnglishEnglish IMS—Instructional method at school IMS—Instructional method at school 2-way– Spanish and English Instruction2-way– Spanish and English Instruction EI—English immersionEI—English immersion

8 The Core Design Monolinguals Bilinguals HiLo English Immersion Two-Way ESHOSHESHOSH SES HiLoHiLoHiLoHiLo Replicated at Kindergarten, 2 nd and 5th Grades

9 Probe Studies Narrative competence Narrative competence Complex syntax Complex syntax Phonological awareness Phonological awareness Utilizing subsets of the study population—Total N=952

10 Goals of Deep Description in Miami Schools 1. Verify that language usage of teachers complies with educational design 1. Verify that language usage of teachers complies with educational design 2. Document language usage of children in classrooms and non- instructional environments 2. Document language usage of children in classrooms and non- instructional environments

11 Methods of Deep Description Bilingual observers Bilingual observers In the classrooms and hallways In the classrooms and hallways Between 25 and 50 observation per design category Between 25 and 50 observation per design category Census data for school districts and schools Census data for school districts and schools

12 School Matching % Hispanic %LEP FTE/ child SAT Math score 2-Way Schools EI Mono

13 Immigration Demographics of Parents Mother’s and father’s educational attainment Mother’s and father’s educational attainment Occupation Occupation Languages spoken at home Languages spoken at home Number of bedrooms in home Number of bedrooms in home Home ownership Home ownership Country of origin Country of origin Age at immigration Age at immigration

14 Summary of Classroom Language Data Teachers to students: Teachers overwhelmingly complied with classroom design, i.e., Spanish was spoken in 2-way schools during instruction in Spanish; English was spoken in IE classrooms and the English portion of 2-way education to both classes and individual children. Teachers to students: Teachers overwhelmingly complied with classroom design, i.e., Spanish was spoken in 2-way schools during instruction in Spanish; English was spoken in IE classrooms and the English portion of 2-way education to both classes and individual children.

15 Summary of Classroom Language Data Students spoke to teachers in the appropriate language in the overwhelming majority of cases. Students spoke to teachers in the appropriate language in the overwhelming majority of cases. Students addressed students in the appropriate classroom language except in: Students addressed students in the appropriate classroom language except in: a. 2-way Spanish classes b. 2-way English and EI kindergarten

16 Fathers years of schooling SESLSH Father (x) SD EnglishImmersionBilingualsHiOSH ESH LoOSH ESH wayBilingualsHiOSH ESH LoOSH ESH Monoling- uals HiEng LoEng

17 Age Children Began English Acquisition Educational Method English SESLSHmeanSD EnglishImmersionBilingualsHiOSH ESH LoOSH ESH wayBilingualsHiOSH ESH LoOSH ESH MonolingualsHiEng LoEng.o

18 Mother’s Language Proficiency Educational Method EnglishSpanish SESLSHmeanSDmeanSD EnglishImmersionBilingualsHiOSH ESH LoOSH ESH wayBilingualsHiOSH ESH LoOSH ESH MonolingualsHiEng LoEng

19 What we have achieved All children born in US All children born in US Two distinctly different educational models (EI and 2-way) in otherwise matched schools Two distinctly different educational models (EI and 2-way) in otherwise matched schools A clean separation between socioeconomic status with both OSH and ESH families represented at each level of SES and in each school type A clean separation between socioeconomic status with both OSH and ESH families represented at each level of SES and in each school type A balanced design with respect to languages spoken at home A balanced design with respect to languages spoken at home A matched monolingual group A matched monolingual group

20 Performance on Standardized English- and Spanish-language Tests for Monolingual and Bilingual Students Alan Cobo-Lewis University of Maine

21 9 Standardized English- and Spanish-language Tests (Woodcock Johnson, 1989, 1991; Woodcock-Munoz, 1995 Oral Language Picture Vocabulary, Oral Vocabulary, Verbal Analogies + PPVT/TVIP Literacy Word Attack, Letter-Word, Passage Composition, Proofing, Dictation

22 The Group Mean Results in English

23 High-SES children outperform low-SES children, especially in oral language.

24 Monolinguals outperform bilinguals, especially in oral language.

25 As they get older, bilinguals start to catch up with monolinguals in the tests where they show the biggest deficits (Picture Vocab and Peabody Picture Vocab Test).

26 Bilinguals in Eng Imm schools outperform those in 2-way schools in oral lg Bilinguals in Eng Imm schools outperform those in 2-way schools in oral lg Bilinguals in 2-way schools do at least as well as those in Eng Imm schools (and about as well as monolinguals) in elementary reading tasks (Word Attack and Letter–Word) Bilinguals in 2-way schools do at least as well as those in Eng Imm schools (and about as well as monolinguals) in elementary reading tasks (Word Attack and Letter–Word)

27 As they get older, bilinguals in 2-way education programs tend to catch up with bilinguals in Eng Imm education programs (except for Picture Vocab).

28 Bilinguals who speak English & Spanish at home outperform those who speak only Spanish at home, especially in oral language

29 As they get older, bilinguals who speak only Spanish at home start to catch up with bilinguals who speak English & Spanish at home in the tests where they show the biggest deficits (Picture Vocab and Peabody Picture Vocab Test).

30 Summary of the Group Mean Results in English Outside-of-school influences—SES, “linguality” (monolinguals vs bilinguals), and language spoken at home—have their largest effects in oral lg. Outside-of-school influences—SES, “linguality” (monolinguals vs bilinguals), and language spoken at home—have their largest effects in oral lg. Outside-of-school influences other than SES wane as children grow older. Outside-of-school influences other than SES wane as children grow older. Bilinguals in Eng Imm schools outperform those in 2-way schools in oral lg, but those in 2-way schools outperform those in Eng Imm schools in elementary reading tasks. Learning to read in Spanish may help students’ general reading skills regardless of language being tested (more on this later). Bilinguals in Eng Imm schools outperform those in 2-way schools in oral lg, but those in 2-way schools outperform those in Eng Imm schools in elementary reading tasks. Learning to read in Spanish may help students’ general reading skills regardless of language being tested (more on this later).

31 The Group Mean Results in Spanish

32 Children who speak only Spanish at home outperform those who speak English & Spanish at home, especially in oral lg.

33 High-SES children outperform low-SES children, but not in oral language.

34 Children in 2-way schools outperform those in Eng Imm schools, especially in elementary reading ( Word Attack & Letter–Word ).

35 Children in Eng Imm and 2-way schools perform very similarly in Kindergarten. Dramatic differences emerge later.

36 Summary of the Group Mean Results in Spanish SES effects were more straightforward in English tests than in Spanish tests, where low-SES bilinguals sometimes outperformed high-SES bilinguals. SES effects were more straightforward in English tests than in Spanish tests, where low-SES bilinguals sometimes outperformed high-SES bilinguals. Language spoken at home affects performance in expected directions, with effects being most salient in oral language. Language spoken at home affects performance in expected directions, with effects being most salient in oral language. 2-way children outperform Eng Imm children in Spanish, especially in reading. 2-way children outperform Eng Imm children in Spanish, especially in reading. Recall that this was also true in English tests.Recall that this was also true in English tests. We’ll see this again in the upcoming analysis of individual differences.We’ll see this again in the upcoming analysis of individual differences.

37 Individual Differences

38 Individual Differences: Principal Components Analysis of Bilinguals’ English & Spanish Data Factor 1Factor 2Factor 3 Word Attack –.01 Letter–Word Passage Comp Proofing Dictation Picture Vocab.80–.05– Verbal Analogies Oral Vocabulary PPVT.74.72

39 Individual Differences Comparative Factor Analyses of All Subjects’ Data

40

41

42 Factor Scores to Summarize Major Group Effects

43 Conclusions Implications for Educational Programs Implications for Educational Programs 2-way education leads to better Spanish skills.2-way education leads to better Spanish skills. 2-way education does not detract (much) from English skills (at least by 2nd grade).2-way education does not detract (much) from English skills (at least by 2nd grade). Neither Eng Imm nor 2-way bilinguals spoke English as well as monolinguals.Neither Eng Imm nor 2-way bilinguals spoke English as well as monolinguals.

44 Conclusions Linguistic Conclusions Linguistic Conclusions Reading and Writing skills cross language.Reading and Writing skills cross language. Oral skills are more language- specific.Oral skills are more language- specific.


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